Earticle

Home

영어영문학21 [English21]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
    학술지
  • 발행기관
    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
  • ISSN
    1738-4052
  • 간기
    계간
  • 수록기간
    1967~2018
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제24권 3호 (15건)
No
1

『복수자의 비극』— 조롱과 환멸의 정치학

강석주

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 3호 2011.09 pp.5-30

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The Revenger's Tragedy seems to be a kind of allegory in which the wicked and corrupted villains are punished, and the moral order is recovered at the end of the play. However, underneath the allegorical structure as we see in the morality plays, the skeptical view of God's justice lies and is expressed in the form of cruel revenge and challenge against the ruling authority. The private revenge which was prohibited in the contemporary English society becomes the means to challenge and subvert the established political order. Vindice's revenge seems ironical, as he uses what the ruling class prohibits in order to punish the ruling class. From this ironical context comes Vindice's twofold identity. Whether we should define him as a villain or a hero makes the meaning of the play quite different. If we see his cruel revenge in the perspective of Christianity, Vindice is the same villain as the Duke's family and his destruction is a kind of providence. But if we see his revenge in the perspective of the oppressed class, he is a kind of hero who fulfills their subversive desire. Even though he is destructed in the end, his evil pleasure and madness contributes to establishing a new political order represented by Antonio. In The Revenger's Tragedy, the process of Vindice's revenge is full of cynicism and mockery rather than the noble recognition derived from suffering and inner conflict. If we notice the society of the play where justice is impossible, we should not overlook that his cynicism and cruelty was born out of suffering. Since the moral justice in this play is accomplished by cruel revenge and cynical skepticism, it damages the conservative view of order based on Christian justice.

2

『시련』— 양심과 자유

김성철

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 3호 2011.09 pp.31-50

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The purpose of this thesis is to investigate individual resistance and fighting against social unjustness and hypocrisy. In The Crucible Miller is not simply exposing the hysteria resulting from the witch-hunt as a social phenomenon. He probably beneath it to examine its psychological cause, the guilt in Salem that the hysteria merely unleashed. Miller insist that while McCarthyism, by which HUAC, led by Senator McCarthy, strove to destory a subversive element in the country, may have been the historical occasion of The Crucible, it is not its theme. The Crucible tells the story behind the Salem witch trials of 1692, making an analogous critical commentary on the actions of the House on Un-American Activities Committee in the 1950s. The Crucible depicts unscrupulous people, from the Putnams to the trial judges, declare the presence of evil and the Devil to cripple whoever disagrees with them, not just religiously, but politically and socially. Such people assume a moral high ground, and anyone who disagree with them is deemed immoral and damned. Judge Hathorne is certainly more concerned with his own power than he is with uncovering the truth. Deputy Governor Danforth is actually worse. He is more sophisticated than his fellow judges, which makes him more dangerous. Although he listens to counterarguements, it is not with an open mind, and when he finally hangs the condemned even with full knowledge of their innocence, trying to justify that this is for a higher good, we should recognize in him an evil force. The security he seeks comes at a high price, he does more evil than he intends merely by refusing to go beyond narrow boundaries he has set for himself and others. Under these a lot of restricted pressures he loses conscience and free way of thinking with which he could lead honest and moral lives. In contrast to these types, Miller elevates and celebrates people of individual conscience, such as the Nurses and the Proctors, who refuse to obey social unjustness and violences. The Crucible is designed to reinstate will and responsibility through a self-conscious hero, John Proctor, one unlike Willy Loman, whose suicide reflects his continued belief in empty values, and unlike Joe Keller, who commit suicide in an effort to compensate for his lack of responsibility. John Proctor represents the voice of common sense in society. When Elizabeth effectively absolves him of his guilt in their final meeting, declaring her faith in his judgement, Proctor can reject the temptation to lie and die with honor. He never gives up his conscience and inner liberty in the face of social pressure and atrocity. He freely chooses to hang rather than to live a dishonorable life. He recovers his persoal conscience and liberty which he lost through his adultery with Abigail in the past. It indicates his awareness that he has responsibility to himself and his community. Elizabeth Proctor, like her husband, is a sensible person, who finds it hard to believe in witchcraft. She confesses she has been cold toward Proctor in the past, and takes on partial responsibility for driving him into the arms of Abigail. This helps release Proctor from his own guilt in the affair to allow himself to accept death as an honorable man. Miller wishes to show the heroism of these victims, leading us to recognize personal integrity. We can say that Miller is concerned with democracy and its rules.

3

언어와 현실의 상호작용 — 토마스 핀천의『49번 우표의 경매』

송태정

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 3호 2011.09 pp.51-73

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how narrative language interacts with the real in The Crying of Lot 49. Protagonist Oedipa Maas encounters the word “Trystero” in describing as a center to the interwoven references that yield themselves as signifiers in Oedipa's search for revelation. Randolph Driblette lashes out against the basic assumption that words have meaning, undermining our very notions of what constitutes literature, textuality and signification. The novel seems to undermine its ontological status as literature and its privilege as a text. Pynchon goes beyond the self-referentiality of discourse and of elements of form, the vocabulary of narrative, what it signifies and what it communicates. We could still say that the novel has a plot, setting and characters, and that some of its major thematics are communication, religion, selfhood. We could also assume that the novel belongs to the traditions of quest narratives, and that Pynchon's novel is made up of words and uses narrative techniques like parody, simulacrum, and decentering. Narrative parody is a perfect postmodern form, and so it paradoxically incorporates and challenges that which it parodies reconsideration of the notion of originality that is compatible with other postmodern interrogations. Pynchon's novel deprives us of the orgasmic revelation which it half promises, half denies, not in a flirting manner, engaging us in a courtship game, but site of her failure to communicate with Maxwell's Demon, the novel itself seems to yield up narrative clues which the reader compulsively follows, only to be confronted at the end with the failure of reading. To the methods of reading and criticism which pursue the past modernist literature, the work of postmodernist writers is almost ambiguous and uncertain. The Crying of Lot 49 is beyond traditional criticism, as well as about the inutility of such criticism. Oedipa encounters the word Trystero in a literary work, and she seeks the help of a literature professor to promise that will not be fulfilled her desire in another alluring song of the Sirens. There can be no revelation about the muted post horn, the Trystero, or W.A.S.T.E. except on the unbridgeable outside, beyond the epistemological end of knowledge. The trinity of mystery at the center of the novel is a void, an emptiness, a promise of logos, a substitute center of structure. The novel has exploded itself. What remains exposed at the end is the failure of the positivism that informs reading and interpretation in their effort to make sense of the text. Pynchon suggests these different ways of thinking about how language interacts with the real world.

4

“동일함”의 절망과 “차이”의 희망 — 로리의『수여자』

이수진

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 3호 2011.09 pp.75-97

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This article examines the negative aspects of “Sameness” and Jonas's efforts to resist it in Lois Lowry's The Giver. Sameness means a notion of identification which forces to erase all the differences in the way of life and to keep the unchangeable state in a secret way. To establish a welfare state, strict rules and overwhelming control can be willingly accepted by people who want to have a comfortable and peaceful life. Jonas's community seems to be perfect and well-organized, for everything is under control. One of the problems in this community, however, is that no one raises questions about the rules or control which surveil them as prisoners in Panopticon where all the prisoners could be observed by just one jailor. The only thing people try to do is to avoid the pain that may be transferred through memories and history, so they choose one special person to hold the whole memories. The Giver alone holds the memories of the true pain and also pleasure of life, and as a new Receiver of Memory, Jonas has to receive the truth. The hidden truth here is that they are scapegoats for maintaining Sameness and preventing fatal crisis for that community. Through getting the memories, Jonas realizes that no pain and no unpleasantness couldn't bring real life and happiness. ‘Sled' which was the first memory Jonas had is a symbol to show what things gave away and need to be restored in that community. Instead of “being the same”, Jonas chooses “being different.” Jonas's society is a dystopian one which blocks real personal growth and freedom of choice. By Jonas's choice, The Giver depicts the conflicts between the power of the individual and the power structure of the totalitarian society.

5

한국어-영어 감정 은유의 개념화 과정 및 한영 번역

김도훈, 최은실

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 3호 2011.09 pp.99-120

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This study aims to address the following questions: first, how the emotional metaphors are conceptualized in two distinct cultures (Korean and English); second, what strategies can be employed to translate emotional metaphors in Korean-English translation. In the process of addressing the first question, the paper discusses the process of conceptualization in the positive emotion of ‘happiness’ and the negative emotions of ‘anger’ and ‘sadness.’ In dealing with the second question, this research puts forward four translation strategies: metaphor into same metaphor, metaphor into different metaphor, metaphor into non-metaphor, and 0 into metaphor (addition). There are various emotions in Korean culture; however, this paper limits its scope to three basic emotions: anger, sadness and happiness. Conceptual metaphors conceptualize abstract and new target domains from specific and experiential source domains, and they fall into three categories: structural metaphors, ontological metaphors and orientational metaphors. The above-mentioned emotions are conceptualized through the source domain or the physical reaction to emotions in both cultures. The source domain includes ‘a fluid in a container’, ‘stuff’, ‘thread.’ Nevertheless, Korean emotions are expressed by using various internal organs compared with English emotions. Following the discussion on the similarities and differences of the process, the research presents the translations of emotional metaphors and classifies them into four categories, as mentioned above. The authors hope the research will contribute to triggering deeper discussion on the translation of emotional metaphors and to presenting guidelines for those in the translation profession.

6

한국어 ‘-게 하다’ 사동구문에 관한 연구

박현석

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 3호 2011.09 pp.121-140

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The causative union construction of natural language has been an interesting subject to linguists. It is quite natural, therefore, that many linguists should have been interested in trying to unveil the phenomenon of causative union construction. This study aims to analyze Korean ‘-ke hata’ Causative Construction under two frameworks of Chomsky's Theory and Relational Grammar. For this, I have first examined two analyses of Yang (1972) and Kim (1992) based on the framework of Chomsky(1965)'s Theory. Secondly, with the different view point of Chomsky's analysis, I have mainly looked into ‘-ke hata’ Causative Construction in Korean by Relational Grammar based on the grammatical relations and different syntactic levels, which are posited as linguistic primitives. Then I have dealt with Korean causative union construction and formulated syntactic constraints on causative union construction in Korean. As a result, I can propose the following Causative Clause Union Rule for Korean ‘-ke hata’ Causative Construction. (1) a. The downstairs intransitive final 1 becomes either a 2 or a 3 in the union stratum. b. The downstairs transitive final 1 becomes a 3, and the final 2 becomes a 2 in the union stratum. c.Other nominals inherit in the union stratum their downstairs final grammatical relation.

7

역할 놀이 중심의 초등 영어 수업이 학업 성취도에 미치는 효과

김영현, 박은정

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 3호 2011.09 pp.141-162

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This paper aims at verifying the effects of role-play-based English teaching on the improvement of students' listening, speaking and reading abilities in the elementary EFL classroom. The subjects are sixty two fourth-year students in two classes from G Elementary School. The experimental group was provided with the reconstructed role-play and its related activities across all four periods of a lesson, while the control group was provided with the original role-play only in the fourth period as it is given in the textbook. This experiment was conducted for twelve hours, and the results of two groups' pre-and post-tests for listening, speaking, and reading abilities were analyzed with SPSS program. The findings of this study are as follows: As for the improvement of listening, speaking and reading abilities, the experimental group showed statistically a significant difference, compared with the controlled group. This means that role-play-based English teaching has a positive effect on improving students' academic achievements which can help them develop their communicative competence in daily life. This result would suggest that the role-play-based teaching could provide students with motivation and opportunity to listen more carefully, speak more sufficiently and read more frequently across all four periods of a lesson, compared with the usual textbook-based teaching.

8

Desiring America: Ironic American Dream in Nora Okja Keller’s Fox Girl

Jeongyun Ko

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 3호 2011.09 pp.163-183

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

American Dream, Military Camptown, Underage Sex Workers, US Migration, Upward Mobility, Agency

9

Winterbourne’s Study and Daisy’s Play in Henry James’s Daisy Miller: A Study

Kwangsoon Kim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 3호 2011.09 pp.185-201

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This essay explores how Henry James’s Daisy Miller dramatizes the tension between Winterbourne (studying Daisy to place her in the proper social category) and Daisy (evading Winterbourne’s spying eye to celebrate her sexuality). The narrative starts with Winterbourne’s determination to learn more about “foreign” Daisy to put her into the oppositional category of a good and bad “girl.” However, in the story, Daisy hybridizes her identity by standing in between the oppositional category. The ambiguity of Daisy’s behaviors produces “classificatory confusion” and, for that matter, Winterbourne continue to fail in finding the right formula that can successfully apply to Daisy. Importantly, in the moment Winterbourne thought that he found the right formula that applies to Daisy, Daisy once more escapes from Winterbourne’s definition by disappearing into death. The story ends with Winterbourne’s self-reflective statement that he has been too dependent on conventional values to explain the new womanhood that Daisy expresses. Consequently, it is not Daisy but Winterbourne who is troubled by the “audacious” and resistant gestures Daisy made and learns a lesson in the end of the story. Thus, Daisy Miller starts with a story of Daisy who goes beyond convention and conformity but ends up to be a story of Winterbourne who fails to place Daisy in the social category because he too heavily depended on convention and conformity.

10

Cultural Translations and Decolonization: Language, History, and Culture in Brian Friel’s Translations and Theresa Cha’s Dictee

Yoo-Hyeok Lee

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 3호 2011.09 pp.203-230

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This paper examines the work Dictee by Korean-American writer and artist Theresa Hak Kyung Cha, and the work Translations by Irish playwright Brian Friel, to analyze ways in which these two texts demonstrate how (or whether) a language of colonization may transform into a language of decolonization, or rather, how (or whether) cultural translation in postcolonial period may effect decolonization. The postcolonial period after political independence does not necessarily allow former colonized people to embark on a new beginning/s, following from the fact that colonial expreince has already contaminated the postcolonial period, and furthermore, neo-colonial threat by former empires often burdens the period. The metaphor of cannibalism—the metaphor of the project of cultural translation former colonized people undertake during the postcolonial period—indicates the extent to which former colonized people can appropriate and abrogate colonial legacies as they engage with how to negotiate with the colonial past and legacies in the postcolonial period. Friel's Translations and Cha's Dictee expose such a process of decolonization, yet in different manners. Both interestingly revisit and represent the colonial past in Korea and Ireland, highlighting impositions of colonial policies by colonizers on colonized people, as well as respective and subsequent postcolonial effects. They indicate ways in which to register voices of difference, resistance, and subversion in a language imposed by colonizers and adopted by the colonized, so as to pursue a breaking away from colonial order and move towards decolonization. Translations and Dictee, hence, show ways in which former colonized people come to terms with painful colonial history and its legacies, as they have to engage in a difficult and ongoing postcolonial struggle, and more to establish a decolonized postcolonial culture.

11

“Show, Don’t Tell”: Delivery of Expository Information in Leaving Las Vegas

Yunsu Jeon, Jungsik Park

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 3호 2011.09 pp.231-245

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This paper examines three categories of visual information—action, dialogue, and props—through Leaving Las Vegas, which is directed by Mike Figgis and based on the autobiographical story of John O'Brien. Though the two competing story modes of “showing” and “telling” have long discussed in such literary fields as fiction, literary nonfiction, and journalism, with various terms and emphases by critics such as Percy Lubbock, Gerard Genette, Gerard Prince, Shlomith Rimmon-Kenan, and Wayne Booth, the same subject matter on the “showing” mode may find different terms and emphases in a visual story. In film studies, the delivery of story information based on its formal and cognitive texture is rather taken for granted because a movie is literally a “showing” of a story world, whereas a novel is essentially a “telling.” The delivery of visual information in film studies focuses on the categories of action, character, dialogue, props, and setting, which are roughly tantamount to those of narrative, description, and speech in a verbal story. Leaving Las Vegas is a good example of “showing”-type cinema with carefully regulated expository information. Though often disconnected, incomplete, and fragmentary, the series of props, dialogues, and actions form in the mind of the audience a discernable perspective that approximates the truth of the story world.

12

The Use of Strategies in Interaction of Korean College EFL Learners

Eunkyung Park, Jee Hyun Ma

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 3호 2011.09 pp.247-270

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This study aims to explore whether L2 learners more often struggle to obtain comprehensible input from the interlocutor or to make their own output more comprehensible to make communication successful and draw pedagogical implications by examining Korean EFL learners' employment of interactional strategies—both types of strategies for comprehensible input and comprehensible output—in oral communication tasks. The results show that considerably more attention is paid to the generation and modification of their own output than to the perception of input, reflecting the face-threatening nature of negotiation of meaning (Aston, 1986; Foster & Ohta, 2005). In addition, the learners of this study tried to modify morphosyntactic errors in their output whenever they noticed them while the instances of strategies for comprehensible input were mostly limited to meaning negotiation. Suggestions are made on how L2 teachers can respond more effectively to the needs of learners over their interactional process.

13

Implementation and Perception of Online Peer Feedback by Korean EFL Students

Hyojung Park, Hohsung Choe

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 3호 2011.09 pp.271-293

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This study examines the areas and types of feedback Korean EFL students would focus on in online peer feedback sessions and their implementation and perception of online peer feedback. Fifteen students in a two-month-long TOEFL beginner class participated in the study. They were asked to make comments on their peers' writings on the online blog after class. Most of their comments were found in the local area. In the local area the greatest frequency was observed in alternation while suggestion was the most frequently occurred in the global area. Similarly, more revisions were made in the local area than in the global area. Most of the comments which pointed out grammatical or lexical errors were implemented in their final drafts. Their perceptions of online peer feedback were investigated through interviews. In general, they found online peer feedback beneficial for the improvement of their writing abilities, but simultaneously they hesitated to give and receive peer feedback because of the possibility of incorrectness.

14

Cooperative Learning as an Organized Instruction in English Learning

Do-Hyun Yun, Ick-Hee Ihm

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 3호 2011.09 pp.295-314

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This study utilized cooperative learning based on the premise that allowing English language learners to work together broadens their range of interactive learning opportunities, fosters communication skills, develops social skills, and enhances their self-esteem. This study of 50 freshmen in a university tested two hypotheses related to oral language, social skills and self-esteem. The sample consisted of 25 participants in the treatment group and 25 in the control group. The treatment group received one semester of cooperative learning as an organizational design in the acquisition of English as a foreign language for two hours every week. However, the control group received the teacher-centered instruction without interaction and communication between teacher and students. Oral language was assessed by comparing pretest scores with posttest scores. Test results showed that all student scores in the treatment group were raised a level in posttest over pretest scores. The control group showed no student scores were raised a level in posttest over pretest scores.

15

Vocabulary Acquisition according to Task Types

Eun-Hee Lee

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 3호 2011.09 pp.315-336

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

In order to explore the relationship between vocabulary acquisition and task type as well as language learners’ vocabulary error patterns and characteristics, seventy- eight students participated in this study. They took an English course for one semester, and a vocabulary examination was administered in the middle of the semester. The questions on the vocabulary exam were taken from reading, grammar, and vocabulary lists that students had been exposed to in the course. Data analyses of the vocabulary quiz outcomes indicate that the participants' performance on questions for areas emphasized in the course materials were better than those for unemphasized areas such as reading assignments. However, in terms of emphasized and unemphasized words, mean differences for lower level participants were not statistically significant.

 
페이지 저장