영어영문학21 [English21]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
  • 발행기관
    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
  • ISSN
  • 간기
  • 수록기간
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제31권 4호 (19건)

장애와 남성섹슈얼리티 — 『채털리 부인의 연인』의 클리포드를 중심으로


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 4호 2018.12 pp.5-21

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

Focusing on Clifford in D. H. Lawrence’s Lady Chatterley’s Lover, this paper examines the representation of disabled men’s sexuality and aims to expand the territory of disability studies and English literary study on male sexuality. The discourse of disability in modern Britain argues that disability and male sexuality are incompatible: since disability functions as a symbolic castration, it turns men into asexual beings. Men with disability are also regarded as childlike because of their diminished independence. Lawrence’s representation of Clifford reflects the dominant view on disability and male sexuality. Clifford is desexualized and infantilized by his loss of sexual functionality and his total dependency. He expresses frustration and anger confronted with the reality that no intimate life or privacy is allowed for a disabled man. He eventually internalizes the hegemonic notion of male sexuality which stigmatizes and excludes disabled males. Through the representation of Clifford, Lawrence supports and reinforces the dominant view on normative male sexuality rather than challenges and questions it.


“강렬한 경험의 잔” - 『프린세스 카사마시마』에서 관념과 감각 경험


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 4호 2018.12 pp.23-48

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The Bostonians and The Princess Casamassima, out of the complete novels of Henry James, are assorted as social novels which directly deal with the social issues of the time. In the writing of the latter, James arranges the concrete description of the social environment of London in the late 19th century along with the impressionistic description of the psychological condition of Hyacinth Robinson, the hero of the novel. Thus it effectively shows how some contemporary social ideas have been projected in the consciousness of the protagonist. This paper interprets the characteristics of the experience of Hyacinth in the light of the contrasting epistemological viewpoints of rationalism and empiricism. Hyacinth undergoes a biting inner conflict and confusion while he struggles to achieve his self-definition and self-accomplishment in the fluid social atmosphere of London in 1880’s. James, as writer of psychological realism, tends to focus the narration of most of his novels on how such elements of perception as impressions, ideas, thoughts and feeling, experience and personality are functioning in human consciousness. He explores the epistemological aspect in which the two contradictory tendencies, that is, the rationalistic and the empirical, interplay in our mind. In The Princess Casamassima, the opposing perceptive traits, such as reason and ideas versus thoughts and feeling, cause severe inner contradictions in the hero’s mind, which finally lead to his tragic self-destruction.


인류세 시대의 문학 - 생태 위기와 파국서사의 가능성


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 4호 2018.12 pp.49-67

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This study explores the role of catastrophic narrative in the current age of ecological crises. ‘The Anthropocene,’ a neologism referring to our current geological age, makes us face the exigencies of ecological devastations around the world. News of heatwaves, tsunamis, hurricanes, micro dust and so on has become a global phenomenon. Scientific researche tells us that these disastrous ecological events have resulted mostly from the anthropocentric activities, driven by capitalism since the Industrial Revolution. In the times of the Anthropocene, therefore, everything human could be shifted: from human history to ecological history, from human agency to non-human environment, etc. So, what can this tell us about literature? Literature can be thought of as a narrative that deals with humans, with non-humans and nature only as a background. But in the age of the Anthropocene, this conventional concept of literature should be reinvented according to the changing environment. This study suggests that catastrophic narrative, which imagines and depicts the end of the current order, has features that fit the literature in the Anthropocene. Imagining a deadly situation for the collective human race, catastrophic narrative defamiliarizes familiar settings and themes of modern, humanist, realist fictions: it concretely, as well as metaphorically, imagines the end of human beings; it puts ecological issues above human issues; it accepts the post-human conditions; and it presents conventional humanist values as estranged. By analyzing zombie narrative as a case study for these arguments, this article proposes that now is the right time to read and think seriously about the possibilities of catastrophic narrative.


하우스먼을 위한 변호


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 4호 2018.12 pp.69-100

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The poetry of A. E. Housman has been regarded as being too pessimistic. That alignment is reinforced by the fact that the glorious past or the short period of youth in his poems is almost always accompanied by imminent and gloomy death. When his poetry is approached with the usual perspective of cause and effect, his general notoriety is accurate. But there has been prejudice against Housman’s poetry. In his poems, Housman makes it clear that any obsessions with the bygone past and with the yet-to-come future as well are the direct consequence of neglecting of the present. As for Housman, the present is the warehouse to accumulate the past and also to unravel the future. In this perspective, it is natural that death itself becomes ‘the-already-known future.’ Any immersion in the future death including any obsession with the bygone past means the death of the present itself. In other words, every moment of the present in Housman’s poetry has an existential meaning. “The Loveliest of Trees, The Cherry Now” shows us a speaker who now wants to go to the woodland where things “in bloom” of the past and “hung with snow” of the future conglomerates in the field of the present. This association results from the complete endorsement of the bygone death of the past and also the imminent death of the future and results in the positive activity of the present. This existential meaning allows Housman’s poetry to surpass the limitations of “carpe diem” poetry and his pessimistic notoriety. The time sequence in Housman’s poetry is not ‘linear’ but ‘circular.’ In the circular sequence where the past, the present, and the future coexists, Housman spreads out the whole lives of humankind not because of a fear of death but because of an examination of the precious present. In Housman’s poetry time is always the present.


발생비평이란 무엇인가? - 프루스트ㆍ조이스ㆍ베케트 발생비평의 발전양상을 중심으로


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 4호 2018.12 pp.101-127

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This study briefly charts how genetic criticism, the study of writing process, has developed in the western European context. For the purpose of illustration, it provides a comparative account of the cases of Proust, Joyce and Beckett Studies. Scholars had been consulting modern writers’ manuscript material in a traditional philological approach since the early 20th century, and it was with the development and dissemination of French critique génétique over the latter part of the century that genetic criticism has become an independent and self-contained study of literary scholarship. Proust, Joyce and Beckett Studies feature their own different ways of addressing the conflict between the empirical and critical elements of genetic criticism, as well as the problems that their authors’ distinctive textual characters pose. This comparative historical account testifies to the fact that flexible empirical approach in applying genetic criticism contribute to the progress of both the empirical scholarship and the theoretical criticism.


영국 전후세대 작가의 저택 신화 허물기 - 가즈오 이시구로의 『남아 있는 나날』과 이언 매큐언의 『속죄』


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 4호 2018.12 pp.129-151

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This paper demonstrates that Kazuo Ishiguro and Ian McEwan, two representative English novelists who belong to the postwar generation, engage in the literary tradition of the country-house novel critically through both using it and distancing themselves from it. Ishiguro’s The Remains of the Day and McEwan’s Atonement examine the entity of the English country house, which has been one of the most important subjects of English literature, and disclose their historical context. In The Remains of the Day, Mr. Stevens’ recollections reveal the hierarchical order of Darlington Hall and its involvement in Nazism, which results in the demythification of the ‘Englishness’ the country house represents. In Atonement, Briony’s repeated writings on Robbie and Cecilia can be interpreted as atonement for the historical and literary fallacy which has eliminated the history of common people from center stage. This paper affirms that Ishiguro and McEwan, being conscious of the English country house as a key symbol of Englishness and the most popular icon of the 1980s’ nostalgia industry of English society, participate actively in the ground of cultural politics of English society by appropriating the literary tradition of country-house novel subversively in their works.


생태시의 관점에서 디킨슨 다시 읽기 - 새를 의인화한 시들을 중심으로


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 4호 2018.12 pp.153-174

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This paper attempts to investigate Emily Dickinson’s poetry with regard to its environmental sensibility, from the perspective of recently developed theories of ecopoetry. Some contemporary eco-critics criticize the frequent use of ‘personification’ as a sign of internalizing outer nature into a humanized construct of epistemological imagination; however, Dickinson shows that ‘personification’ can perform a double function of both developing a sense of intimacy with nature and identifying the boundary of human consciousness that cannot entirely subsume nature under its power. This study focuses mainly on Dickinson’s poetry dealing with birds, as they are representative natural beings that have been frequently addressed and personified in the history of Western literature. In her poems, Dickinson, like many other poets and writers before her, often personifies birds and endows them with human qualities. Although such a way of delineating birds appears to simply highlight the similarity between human existence and nature, Dickinson’s use of ‘personification’ often reveals the ultimate otherness of creatures different from human beings and thereby calls upon humility for the natural environment. Dickinson’s close encounter with nature allows her to establish intimate connections with its minute elements and to turn it into a ‘place,’ where she feels safe and comfortable. Simultaneously, Dickinson’s focused observation of the natural environment leads her to acknowledge the epistemological limit in comprehending the outer world and to recognize it as a ‘space,’ where she experiences the ultimate heterogeneity of natural elements.


경동사 구문에 대한 연구 — 술어명사의 역할을 중심으로


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 4호 2018.12 pp.175-203

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The purpose of the present study is to provide a comprehensive account of English and Korean light verb constructions, focusing on the role of predicate nominals. Given that English predicate nominals have the base verb form and Korean predicate nominals are Sino words, it will be argued that they belong to a mixed category of a verb and a noun, thus assigning theta roles to their arguments. Furthermore, it will eventually be concluded that predicate nominals have different degrees of specification of verb-hood and noun-hood, and this difference in specification can account for many well-known problems of the constructions.


영어 교사용 지도서의 개선을 위한 사례 연구


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 4호 2018.12 pp.205-223

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The aim of this study is to illustrate English textbook writers' opinions about difficulties in writing teachers' guides. Five university professors and three secondary school teachers were invited for a semi-structured interview. They were writers of the English textbooks certified by the Ministry of Education in Korea. They mentioned that they had difficulties meeting the needs of experienced and novice teachers, providing extra tasks for different classroom situations, writing test items for summative evaluation, suggesting ideas for performance assessment, presenting rubrics and explanations in English for teachers' TEE (Teaching English in English) classroom management, and handling cross-cultural issues and information between Korean and English speaking countries. Based on the comments, this study proposes that for novice teachers, clear objectives for each unit should be provided, and for experienced teachers, many test items should be included in teachers’ guides. More studies should be carried out with regard to teachers' guide design, and greater emphasis should be placed on workshops for the development of practical and user-friendly teachers' guides.


한국인 영어 학습자들의 듣기와 말하기 전략에 대한 메타 인지 지식과 사용에 대한 연구


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 4호 2018.12 pp.225-242

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This study explores Korean EFL students’ megacognitive knowledge and perceived use of listening and speaking strategies depending on their levels of English proficiency. For this purpose, this study conducted a survey of 161 students at a university in Jeolla province. Based on the TOEIC scores the participants, they were divided into three different proficiency groups: basic, intermediate, and advanced. The findings demonstrated that the higher-level students understood the importance of metacognitive knowledge in English listening and speaking better than those of lower level. Furthermore, the advanced students were highly aware of the importance of metacognitive knowledge related to communicative purposes. With regard to the perceived use of listening and speaking strategies, the advanced students revealed more active use of listening and speaking strategies in real communication as well as in their English learning process compared to the other two groups. Based on these findings, pedagogical implications were made.


1 대 1 영어토론 동료평가 상황에서 동료 피드백의 양상 분석 및 동료 피드백에 대한 인식 조사

신희원, 이호

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 4호 2018.12 pp.243-270

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This research aims to demystify oral peer feedback in the context of EFL pair debate assessment. The current study has three research questions. In which aspect do students focus on in giving the peer feedback? Does the difference of oral proficiency level between pair members lead to the different manner of feedback? How do students perceive peer feedback and peer assessment? After forty-four university students carried out the workshop for the oral debate, they participated in English debate and peer-feedback session and submitted the survey. Researchers analyzed the transcribed oral feedback and conducted t-test in order to confirm whether there is a significant difference between higher and lower level of students in terms of the quantity of six types of feedback (meaning-level, linguistic-focused, para-linguistic, summative, attitude-related, strategy-related feedback). The finding suggests that regardless of proficiency level, students tends to give more meaning-level feedback(content- and organization-focused feedback) than language-related feedback. In addition, higher level of students do not show remarkable difference from the lower level of students in the quantity of every type of feedback. Finally, students viewed peer feedback as a useful means in enhancing the quality of English debate.


초등 영어 교육에서 문법 지도 방법과 교정 피드백 유형에 관한 교사와 학생의 인식 연구

이은혜, 구재명, 조정민

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 4호 2018.12 pp.271-297

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This study explores how elementary school teachers and students perceive English grammar instruction and corrective feedback. Fifty elementary school teachers and 966 students (3rd∼6th graders) were recruited for the present study. Two types of questionnaires were designed and administered: one for teachers and the other for students. Results showed that most teachers preferred implicit grammar instruction to explicit instruction. While most students agreed that English grammar instruction plays a valuable role in learning English, they had no preference for a particular instructional method. Also, there was a clear gap between teachers and students in terms of corrective feedback preferences. The teachers were found to assume that their students did not want to receive corrective feedback, whereas their students favored their teachers’ provision of corrective feedback when needed. Other factors such as gender, grade, age of onset, and school district were also found to influence the participating learners’ perception of grammar instruction and corrective feedback.


다양한 수업자료와 수업방식을 사용한 분할수업이 학습자들의 영어 학습에 대한 태도와 수업집중도에 미치는 영향


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 4호 2018.12 pp.299-326

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The purpose of this study was to investigate whether segmenting lectures with various teaching materials and methods had any effect on learners’ attitudes and attention toward learning English. This study of 33 students was carried out at a two year college in the first semester of 2018. Three questionnaires were administered to measure learner attitudes, attention and attentive factors. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were combined. The results of the study show that there were significant differences in attitude before and after lectures depending on the way lectures were segmented with various teaching materials and methods. Using print materials with white space during lectures made learners attentive and enhanced their memory. However, while the teacher was explaining grammar or new concepts without interaction with them, they found lectures boring and had difficulty concentrating. Moreover, if the learners turned their attention to their classmates because they were less able to get a teacher’s attention, this was distracting. The strategy of segmenting lecture had positive effects in terms of helping students regain motivation. Based on the findings of this study, segmenting lectures with print materials with white space turned out to be a pedagogically appropriate teaching strategy to keep learners’ attention.


수능영어 절대평가 정책에 대한 학습자 인식 연구 — 2018학년도 수능 수험생을 중심으로

최수정, 최종갑

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 4호 2018.12 pp.327-357

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The present study investigated students' perceptions of the new criterion-referenced assessment on the English section of the College Scholastic Ability Test (CSAT). A total of 285 college freshmen, who took the 2018 CSAT, completed a questionnaire comprised of eighteen close-ended questions and four open-ended questions. Both quantitative and qualitative data were analysed to answer the research questions. The results of the study showed that, overall, students tended to think favorably of the new policy since it has alleviated the excessive pressure to achieve high scores in English, which in turn has motivated them to set their own learning goals and made self-directed learning possible. However, students with negative attitudes remarked that the new policy has rendered English worthless on the CSAT, causing them to put little emphasis on studying English. Moreover, the new policy was negatively perceived by students who are good at English because they could no longer leverage their superior English skills to excel compared to others at the CSAT. Students who were neutral expressed their skepticism about the much-expected change this new policy was supposed to bring to the current educational setting, mainly because it was the scoring system that was modified, not the content of evaluation. The results further indicated that high school English classrooms are still dominated by rote learning of grammar rules and reading practice, with a heavy emphasis on CSAT preparation. We argue that the new policy needs careful readjustment in order for it to be successfully implemented, thus achieving the goal of normalizing public education and creating communicative classrooms in secondary schools in Korea.


Martyr to Masculinity : Patriarchal Violence and Female Masculinity in “The Lady of Shalott”

Richard Bonfiglio

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 4호 2018.12 pp.359-380

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Recent criticism has viewed the female protagonist in Alfred Tennyson’s “The Lady of Shalott” as an avatar of the male Romantic artist, who displaces his anxieties about his socially liminal position as an artist onto the tragic feminine figure. Instead of analyzing masculinity exclusively in relation to the male artist, this article situates “The Lady of Shalott” more broadly within the field of Victorian masculinity studies and considers the problematic of masculine self-fashioning in the poem in relation to Thomas Carlyle’s Past and Present, analyzing the relationship between the labor of weaving and the dandiacal body. Laboring under a mysterious “curse,” the Lady’s life at Shalott represents not only a critique of the effects of domestic ideology on the lives of women but, moreover, a reflection on the toxic expectations internalized within Victorian masculine subjects. The Lady’s death at the end of the poem reflects a double sense of martyrdom, suggesting both the ideological violence placed on female subjects by patriarchy and the pathological nature of masculine self-fashioning itself.


Exploring English Learners’ Intentions to Switch to Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) : Push and Pull Framework

Hee-Jung Jung

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 4호 2018.12 pp.381-401

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The main purpose of this study is to explore the push and pull effects for English learners’ intentions to switch to mobile assisted language learning (MALL). This paper empirically evaluates three pull effects (Generalized Content, Delayed Feedback, and Isolated Learning Activities) and three push effects (On-demand Learning, Accessibility, and Ubiquity) that affect English as a foreign language (EFL) learners’ intentions to switch to MALL. The results with data collected from actual MALL users show that all proposed constructs with the exception of isolated learning activities had a significant positive impact on EFL learner’s’ intentions to switch to MALL. The findings of this study may help to understand EFL learners' behaviors in a future where they switch from one learning environment to another. Furthermore, considerations and guidelines for MALL to improve language learning applications are provided.


Analysis of Relative Clauses as Used in the Academic Writing of EFL Learners

Chae-Eun Kim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 4호 2018.12 pp.403-421

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English relative clauses (RCs) are structurally complex because they involve long distance dependencies. The present study examines 14 Korean university students’ production of English RCs in academic writing to see (1) what types of RCs they use; and (2) how often they use each type of RC. The results show that the learners produced only subject and direct object RCs, and far more of the former than the latter. These findings suggest that Korean EFL writers should be instructed in the usage of various types of RCs to build their linguistic repertoires and competence using structures appropriately to the situation of language use.


An Investigation of the Generic Structure and Lexico-Grammatical Features of the Discussion Section of Research Articles

Yoon-Hee Na

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 4호 2018.12 pp.423-452

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The purpose of this study is to investigate the generic structure and lexico-grammatical features of the Discussion section of research articles (RAs). The corpus of the study consisted of 25 Discussion sections of RAs from the field of Applied Linguistics. The sample texts were chosen from quantitative research papers with distinct Discussion sections. The generic structure of the section was analyzed drawing primarily on Yang and Allison’s (2003) framework and dominant lexico-grammatical features embedded in each move of the section were identified. The analysis of the generic structure revealed that there were seven rhetorical moves and that several moves identified in the study involved a set of steps, which in various combinations often formed move/step cycles and sequences. The analysis of prominent lexico-grammatical features indicated that the linguistic features embedded in the moves and steps reflected the communicative purposes of each move and step. Based on the results of the study, pedagogical implications for English for Academic Purposes (EAP) instructors are presented.


Relationships among Individual Differences, Learning Styles, Learning Strategies and EFL Learners’ Speaking Fluency

Jeonghwa Shin

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 4호 2018.12 pp.453-471

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The present study examines the relationships between individual learner differences, learning styles, learning strategies, and learners’ speaking fluency in English as a foreign language (EFL). To investigate the relationships, a questionnaire that asked about five individual learner differences (age of acquisition, the nature of prior learning, frequency of in-class presentations, motivation, and study hours), learning styles, and learning strategies was given to 54 Korean learners of English. The results of correlation analyses revealed a positive correlation between learners’ integrative motivation and English fluency, and between study hours and English fluency. Learning styles did not show any correlations with English fluency. However, language learning strategies, especially memory, cognitive, metacogntive, and compensatory learning strategies, were positively correlated with L2 English fluency, suggesting they play a mediating role between learners' individual differences and their English fluency. Given the findings, instructors are encouraged to help learners become aware of language learning strategies to improve their fluency in English that they can employ in class and on their own.

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