영어영문학21 [English21]

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  • 자료유형
  • 발행기관
    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
  • ISSN
  • 간기
  • 수록기간
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제24권 1호 (13건)

시적 담론의 탈 중심화—셰이머스 히니의 <현장답사>


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 1호 2011.03 pp.5-36

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The Decentralization of the Poetic Discourse: Seamus Heaney’s Field Work Jae-joon Kim (Mokpo National University) Seamus Heaney's Field Work, as the title implies, is excavatory. “Vowels ploughed into other: opened ground”, the first line of the first sonnet of “Glanmore Sonnets”, Which seems to be intentionally placed in the center of this collection, is suggestive of Heaney’s changed poetic consciousness in the many poems of Field Work, which was published after the announcement of his independence as a artist from the troubles of the Northern Ireland. His poetic consciousness removed from the narrow range of the poetic land and ploughed into new, various, other, opened ground. The dominant and important change of heaney’s poetic self in Field Work is from the mythologized and monologic of North to the social and dialogic. The poetic discourse created by the conversational and opened poetic self of Field Work is not stayed by the speaker’s utterance but various voices enter into dialogue with the speaker and become viable participants in the text. Although Haney creates the texts, he attempts to wield no authority in them. Heaney’s speaker is distinguished from ones in other collections before Field Work by his autonomy to evade, or confront, address, explore, and recollect the many other autonomous voices in the text. The discourses fluctuate because the speaker who is always in conversation with himself or others often makes discursive shifts which reveal his artistic consciousness. The on-going drama of diverse voices including silences operating in the poems of Field Work make the end of the poems unbalanced, indeterminate, and opened.


존 파울즈의 텍스트에 나타난 서사적 전략—공간의 형상화


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 1호 2011.03 pp.37-60

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The Narrative Strategy in John Fowles’s Texts: Spatial Configuration Hyun-ju Kim (Mokpo National University) John Fowles (1926-2005) is considered to be one of the most important metafiction writers in the postmodern age. He broadened the horizon of novel genre by re-illuminating the traditional realism of the novel in the context of postmodern experimental techniques and creative minds. Critiques of his works are generally classified into two categories, one on the themes of the novels and the other on the narrative techniques. Some critics indicate that the protagonist's struggle for his existential selfhood is prominent in the thematic aspect and that Fowles has established his own peculiar narrative technique. This study examines three masterpieces of Fowles', The Collector, The Magus, and The French Lieutenant's Woman, and analyzes his unique narrative technique involved in these novels. Assuming that “space” in the novel, in general, is a medium by which a novelist sets his themes, characters and surroundings in the fictional world, we can find that Fowles notably uses “space” in order to draw the protagonist's quest for existential authenticity. For that purpose, Fowles uses the ideas of “the realistic space,” “fictitious space,” and “the boundary” between the two regions, depicting his special interests such as “labyrinth,” “tension and surprise,” “islands,” “mystery,” “nature,” “exile,” and “loss” by means of those three basic terms. Fowles, who has been greatly influenced by a French novelist, Alain-Fournier, represents his idea of mystery in the light of realism. He grants reality and symbolic significance to his fictional texts by fixing actual places and accurate time in his novels. London, Phraxos, and Lyme Regis, the actual names of geographical locations, reveal the theme as well as provide the framework of the narrative structure. They play an important role in the accomplishments of the thematic struggles in the novels, cutting across the limitation of their physical significance. Fowles arranges what he wants to say in the space of fiction. Protagonists in his texts acquire the chance to recognize their existential selfhood, by facing the diverse dimensions of “space” in the novels. The protagonists or the “reader-characters” are driven on a journey to self-realization and experience an ordeal manipulated by the “author-characters” and some mysterious women, their peculiar agents. They, “the many” in Heraclitus's term, finally select the way to “the few.” The protagonists of the novels, who carried out lonesome quests for existential selfhood, show themselves different modes at the end of the journey, crossing over the realistic space, the fictitious space and the boundaries of the two extremely opposite domains. The Collector creates a tragic ending, as the two opposing domains are unable to communicate with each other and the two main characters ultimately remain “the other” to their own antagonists. When returning home, Nicholas in The Magus, though he finally realizes that the fictitious world he experienced in Greece is melted into the realistic world of London, tastes “the loss” because he is now able to understand that the fictitious world, when once lost, is at once irrevocable. Charles, in The French Lieutenant's Woman, starts a new life at the end of his journey arming himself with the realization that the ultimate answer to his existential quest will never be given and that he himself is the true and the only authentic hero of his own life. Mystery, bearing no reasonable explanation, is the reality itself. Fowles aims to suggest to the readers, by means of his own unique fiction writing, such an authenticity of human life and to present in his fictional world, the protagonists who should go on gripping a tiny knowledge of the existential coordinates in this real world.


인간의 군집 본성과 도시 욕망—드라이저의 <시스터 캐리>


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 1호 2011.03 pp.61-84

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The Collective Nature and Urban Desire of Human Beings: A Reading of Theodore Dreiser’s Sister Carrie Heekyung Nah (Chonnam National University) In Sister Carrie, Dreiser dramatizes the contrasting changes of urban desire respectively practised by Carrie Meeber and George Hustwood. Carrie's desire is continuously expended and intensified in the urban environments of Chicago and New York, while Hurstwood's desire gradually declines and finally fades away. The change of desire determines the rise and fall of the fates of the two characters in the urban society. This paper explores the process of limitless expansion and transformation of Carrie's urban desire on the assumption that it is an economic and social aspiration stimulated by the so-called “conspicuous consumption” and “pecuniary emulation” which characterize the consumer capitalist culture of the late 19th-century America. Dreiser asserts that man has come to secure existential dignity by pursuing his urban desire, that is, by constructing the city. In Sister Carrie, the fates of both Carrie and Hurstwood are formed by the dynamic interaction of the collective nature and urban desire of human beings, both of which are densely enacted in the city. Carrie's physical need grows and turns into psychological and social desire. By contrast, Hurstwood's social desire gradually diminishes and finally turns into physical need. Whether they satisfy their desire or not, both Carrie and Hurstwood remain mentally frustrated in the end. Dreiser suggests that an individual's urban desire in its nature does not conduce to his or her inner fulfillment. Hence the ultimate spiritual emptiness of Carrie at the end of the novel despite her material and social success. Ironically, the more satisfied she becomes in her execution of desire, the more confused she becomes about the meaning of life, because her urban desire permanently multiplies itself devoid of its ultimate moral ideal.


바로크시인 존 단과 G. W. 라이프니츠—모나드, 주름의 펼침


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 1호 2011.03 pp.85-111

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John Donne and Monad, The Fold Hyunjoo Yoo (Yonsei University) The baroque refers to the era situated somewhere between the 17th and 18th centuries. Since the baroque experienced radical social, cultural, political and economical transformations, it can be defined as ‘periods of crisis' or ‘moments of transition,' and ‘the space for inaugurating new beginnings.' Both John Donne (1572-1631) and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) lived in this transhistorical, transcultural era called the baroque. Although it is not sure whether they both knew each other's existence then, John Donne's poems can be said to be closely related to Leibniz's ‘Monad' philosophy. That is because they share the baroque mentality and sensibility, such as ‘monad individuals', ‘a perfect correspondence between the microcosm and the macrocosm', ‘reconciliation between body and soul', ‘preference for variety, diversity, change' and ‘emphasis on solidarity and harmony.' In fact, the contemporary society consists of monad individuals, which reminds us of the baroque individuals. Considering this aspect, this paper aims to associate John Donne's poems with the baroque philosopher Leibniz's Monadology and also the neo-baroque philosopher Gilles Deleuze's ‘Monad’ and ‘The Fold’ in order to enhance our understanding of the (neo-) baroque era. That is, the baroque should be considered not only as a phenomenon of the 17th but also, more broadly, as a transhistorical that has had wider historical repercussions. That might be why we need to still read John Donne's poems and look into our lives through his poems. As Deleuze writes of the “new baroque,” appreciating John Donne's poems, we can discover new way of our own folding, akin to new environment.


영어 문장부호 일립시스(Ellipsis)와 한국어 문장부호 줄임표의 비교 및 일립시스의 번역 전략


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 1호 2011.03 pp.113-134

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Ellipsis (. . .) and Julimpyo (……): Comparison and Strategies to Translate Ellipsis in English-Korean Translation Do-Hun Kim (Pusan University of Foreign Studies) It is of notable interest that punctuation has been neglected both in comparative linguistics and translation studies and that the translation of punctuation marks in English-Korean translation often invites `headaches' due to punctuation system differences (as well as similarities in disguise). Although there are a number of punctuation marks, this paper limits its scope to ellipsis and julimpyo, form-equivalent punctuation mark in Korean language. Specifically, this paper seeks to answer two research questions. First, what are the functions of ellipsis and julimpyo (Korean ellipsis periods) and how do they differ? Second, what strategies can be used to translate ellipsis in English-Korean translation? As for the first question, this paper illustrates how the punctuation marks take on the functional role as unique linguistic entities. Following the analysis, this research compares the two punctuation marks, which will eventually reveal implications for translation. As for the second question, this paper selects and classifies effective translation strategies and discusses how such strategies can be deployed and what attentions should be paid in the process of translation. The author hopes the research will contribute to triggering further discussion on the comparative study of punctuation and will offer practical help for those in the translation profession.


영어 교수・학습법 개발을 위한 전래동화와 패러디의 연계 활용에 대한 연구


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 1호 2011.03 pp.135-157

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Developing English Teaching-Learning Method through the Integrated Use of Folktales and Parodies Hae-Ri Kim (Seoul National University of Education) The aim of this paper is to develop English teaching-learning method through the integrated use of folktales and parodies which are familiar to both language learners and teachers. Two tasks—texts selection and analysis for the integrated use of folktales and parodies, and developing teaching-learning method for the use of the selected texts—were set up to accomplish the purpose of this study. The results of the study emerged in two steps. First, The Three Little Pigs and its parodies—The Three Little Wolves and the Big Bad Pig, The True Story of the Three Little Pigs and The Three Pigs were selected and analyzed for the next step. Then teaching-learning methods for English learners were developed. For example, the study suggested how to develop oral language skills through the storytelling technique, how to integrate four language skills through the use of the selected folktale, The Three Little Pigs, and its parodies, how to use stories to integrate content and language for real communication, and how to develop critical thinking and extend imagination using literary elements of folktales and parodies. Based on the results, the study suggests teachers to apply methods and techniques to other stories and context in the teaching of English in EFL settings.


정보차 활동을 통한 영어 학습 전략 사용에 관한 연구


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 1호 2011.03 pp.159-180

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A Study of Using English Learning Strategies through Information-gap Activity Seung-eun Lee (Kwang-ju Women’s University) The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of information-gap activity on learning strategy use and the different learning styles based on learners' strategy use. For this experimental design, 30 students divided into two groups of active and reflective style. The results were as follows. First, more frequent strategies use were found in almost all students after information-gap activity. There were significant differences on memory, compensation, meta-cognitive and affective strategies. Second, both affective and social strategies showed significant differences between active style and reflective style students. Active style students used strategies more frequently. Finally, active style students showed significant differences in both affective and compensation strategies after the information-gap activity. Meta-cognitive and memory strategies showed significant differences in reflective style students after the information-gap activity. This study concluded that information-gap activity was effective on strategies use regardless of learning styles. The effective use of information-gap activity should be applied to English study.


영어 관계대명사 지도 방안—한국인 고등학생 EFL 학습자를 중심으로

이유정, 이고희, 김경자

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 1호 2011.03 pp.181-201

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Teaching English Relative Pronouns for Korean EFL High School Students Yu-jeong Lee․Gohee Lee․Kyung Ja Kim (Chosun University) The aim of this study was to examine Korean high school students' difficulties in the use of English relative pronouns through the error analysis. 160 first-grade students at a high school in Gwangju were participated in the study and they were tested using 37 items, which contained English relative pronouns. Student errors were divided into 3 parts: 1) a grammatically judgement task, 2) a gap-filling task, and 3) a task comparing restrictive with nonrestrictive function. The analysis of grammatically judgement task showed that the students had the most difficulty with the use of an appropriate relative pronoun omission. Whose was ranked as the highest error rate and who as the lowest. The degree of students' understanding about the restrictive relative pronoun was examined by analyzing the number of correct answers. It showed that the hierarchy of difficulties from the easiest to the most difficult was as follows: OS > SS > OO > SO. The study also suggested some ways to help the students acquire English relative pronouns effectively. The most important thing in teaching relative pronouns was to provide meaningful contexts in which students have enough opportunities to practice them.


The Revolt of Bare Lives and the Return to Normality in Heroes Season One: Genesis (2006-07)

Younghoon Kim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 1호 2011.03 pp.203-218

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The Revolt of Bare Lives and the Return to Normality in Heroes Season One: Genesis (2006-07) Younghoon Kim (University of Alberta) Heroes exemplifies a revolt of homo sacer, a topological counterpart of the sovereign in Giorgio Agamben’s works on the state of exception and sovereignty. Through its rendering of the main characters’ struggles against the Company's conspiracy, this show portrays a political subject that attempts to constitute itself outside biopolitical sovereign power. Considering this political subject as an example of Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri's multitude, this paper argues that the main characters become a heroic collective: a group of people who can be heroic only as a group without an authoritarian leader. This paper's reading of the show also reveals that the heroic collective is compromised by the critical challenges that Hardt and Negri’s multitude often faces, as the struggles of the heroic collective degenerate into a conventional heroic myth: the community’s redemption through heroic sacrifice. While explicating the collective struggles of the heroic collective, this paper concludes that the heroic collective’s limitation in envisioning a new world underscores Hardt and Negri's fail to see past sovereign politics when they imagine another world.


“A Latent Satire” for Romantic Utopianism: Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Blithedale Romance

Ho Rim Song

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 1호 2011.03 pp.219-240

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“A Latent Satire” for Romantic Utopianism: Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Blithedale Romance Ho Rim Song (Texas A&M University) Emphasizing humanitarianism and philanthropy, the reform movements in nineteenth-century America flourished with the intellectual support of Transcendentalism, which sought spiritual uplift through self-reliance. Both the reform movements and Transcendentalism are grounded on America's national ideology, utopianism. However, Nathaniel Hawthorne had a sceptical view on such idealistic utopianism and urged reformers' self-examination of their own conscience and morality rather than social reforms. The Blithedale Romance is Hawthorne's satire on utopian reforms and reformers. Although it is an undeniable fact that the text is based on his short experience at Brook Farm, a utopian community built on Transcendental beliefs, Hawthorne asks the reader not to regard the work as a realistic report of his experience at the institution, arguing The Blithedale Romance is not a realism novel but a Romance midway between the real and the fictitious. Nevertheless, by exploring the reformer characters' moral conscience and dark psychology in his Romance, Hawthorne latently satirizes his contemporary reformers and their romantic utopianism. In order to avoid showing his direct criticism on reformers and their activities, in addition to his emphasis on the genre of his work as Romance, he also diverts the reader's concern to romantic relationships between the characters through his unreliable narrator. With his problematic narrative and ambiguous conscience, the narrator, indeed, serves as a literary device that makes The Blithedale Romance a Romance text and Hawthorne's satire latent.


Acquisition of the Proximity Principle by Korean Speakers

Gui-Seok Kim, Gil-Soon Ahn

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 1호 2011.03 pp.241-263

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Acquisition of Proximity Principle by Korean Speakers Gui-Seok Kim・Gil-Soon Ahn (Chosun University・Suncheon First College) It seems plausible that learners of English with a topic-prominent first language would find it more difficult to master subject-verb agreement than learners whose native language is subject-prominent like English. Obviously, not all cases of subject-verb agreement can be described as exclusively form-based or meaning based. Some seem to be more a matter of usage and convention. This study aims to determine whether subject-verb agreement on the proximity principle. The instrument consisted of 25 sentences, containing a singular verb and a plural verb to be selected by subject-verb agreement. The participants (50 low-, 50 intermediate-, and 50 advanced-level ESL students from Korea and 15 natives) were asked to fill out a background questionnaire, which was composed of questions regarding personal information. This study has yielded two key findings as follows: First, the Korean speakers of English perceived the proximity principle significantly worse than American speakers, which suggests that Korean speakers of English have perception problems in the proximity principle; Second, the three groups' means in the proximity principle were significantly different from one another, which suggests Korean students are likely to follow the traditional rule well. Pedagogical implications and suggestions for further study are also discussed.


Investigating Performance and Difficulty of Korean University Students’ L2 Writing on IELTS Test

Yanghee Kim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 1호 2011.03 pp.265-290

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Investigating Performance and Difficulty of Korean University Students’ L2 Writing on IELTS Tests Yanghee Kim (Daegu University) This study examined the Korean university students' difficulties while preparing for the writing section on International English Language Testing System (IELTS) tests. It also investigated the suggestions for these students to improve their writing skills. Data was collected by reviewing the participants’ writing samples, and conducting open-ended surveys, and interviews. This study found five main categories: (1) Background knowledge building; (2) Idea development; (3) Vocabulary; (4) Grammar; and (5) Writing experiences. These categories explain that when the participants complete the academic writing Task 2 on the IELTS test, background knowledge about the topic played an important role in generating content. They faced many difficulties with using appropriate vocabulary and grammar. In addition, these students’ writing practices and experiences were important for them to complete the task successfully. This study also provided the suggestions for improving students’ writing skills and pedagogical implications for writing teachers.


Explicit Observation of EFL Writing Process


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 1호 2011.03 pp.291-310

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Explicit Observation of EFL Writing Process Youngju Choi (Chosun University) It has been discussed that process writing approach is more effective than product approach in teaching L1 and L2 writings. Discussion on writing processes in an L1 setting and an ESL setting dates back to late 1970s and early 1980s, respectively. However, it is not easy to find out researches on writing process in an EFL setting. To fill the gap, this paper examines what are the writing processes of EFL students in Korean classroom setting. Korean EFL students uses the product model instead of the process model for their composition. They think writing process should be linear rather than being recursive and hierarchical. Only after finishing the first draft, they try to revise it, mainly focusing on spelling and grammatical errors. Students do not seem to spend enough time in a prewriting stage. No subjects report that they discuss on their topics with others before they start to write. Based on the observation, it also discusses the pedagogical implication of the findings. Teachers need to intervene all the writing stages to help students discover meanings they want to create. Students' awareness of their writing processes is also an important part for better writing. Thus, teacher has to help them to understand what skilled writers do while composing.

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