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영어영문학21 [English21]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
    학술지
  • 발행기관
    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
  • ISSN
    1738-4052
  • 간기
    계간
  • 수록기간
    1967~2018
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제26권 2호 (18건)
No
1

폴 디의 담배갑 속에 감추어진 미국 노예제도의 역사 — 토니 모리슨의 『빌러비드』다시 읽기

김경숙

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 2호 2013.06 pp.5-25

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

A good number of criticisms focus on similarities between Sethe of Morrison’s Beloved and Margaret Garner of the real story who had to kill her own daughter in order to protect her from the cruelty of slavery. Based on the mother-daughter relationship of female slaves, many of them analyze Beloved’s return and what the return of the repressed memory means to ex-slaves. However, this essay instead focuses on Paul D and what his life as a male slave represents. In particular, this essay tries to interpret the meanings of the rusted tobacco tin he secretly hides in the place of his heart. Paul D’s rusted tobacco tin reveals the repressed chapter of early American history in which America earned independence from Britain with France’s help, which America bought by exporting tobacco. Of course, tobacco was cultivated in plantation based on slavery. In this way, Paul D’s individual memories contained in the tobacco tin are inevitably connected to the black people’s collective memories as slaves. The fact that this rusted tin opens by the sexual intercourse between Paul D and Beloved insinuates the possibility that Paul D’s painful memories as a male slave also have much to do with Middle Passage, the character Beloved insists she returns from. Paul D later saves Sethe from the prison-like 124, the house of dead memories, and helps her join the black community. When we read Beloved from Paul D’s perspective, we can trace the process in which individual memories are united with collective ones and claim to revise official history written from the perspective of whites.

2

랭스턴 휴즈 시에서 흑인의 이중 정체성과 디아스포라

김광순

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 2호 2013.06 pp.27-45

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This essay explores how Langston Hughes, the major poet of the Harlem Renaissance, handles the issue of “double-consciousness” that W. E. B. Du Bois pointed out as the psychological condition of black people in America. In his poems, Hughes pays great attention to the fragmented reality of American black people who are considered neither an American nor an African. His poem “Afro-American Fragment” epitomizes the sense of homelessness and disunity that troubles African Americans. Hughes presents a black diasporan unity as the practical way to resolve the sense of self-alienation and homelessness that African Americans had to go through in racist America. In Hughes’ poems, black diaspora is neither a purely mythical and utopian space created by his poetic imagination nor a nativistic movement which some African American groups embrace as the way to achieve a sense of belonging. Hughes describes black diaspora as the material space with historical time and geography. In his poems, Hughes diligently digs for the roots that connect black Americans to the Africans. As a result, Hughes brings all different kinds of black people—light skinned black, darker skinned black, African black, and American black—into the unified black diaspora that he imagines.

3

일그러진 기억 속의 가족 사진첩 - 엔라이트의『개더링』

김은영

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 2호 2013.06 pp.47-65

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This paper tries to examine a narrative of a witness to traumatic events that reveals hidden truth surrounding the events through reconstruction of memories. In Anne Enright’s The Gathering, Veronica Hegarty is the only witness to Liam’s sexual molestation as a child. Through her narrative, she discloses that Irish Catholic community unconsciously and indirectly prevents her from voicing her outrage. In addition, this paper tries to argue that Liam’s sexual molestation was not a casual accident but an inevitable consequence in Ireland, whose history and society have neglected the rights of children. Finally this paper tries to show that Veronica, as a witness to the traumatic events, exhumes the truth and becomes its messenger through reconciliation with her family history.

4

조 크리스마스의 담론 연구 — 자크 라캉의 네가지 담론을 중심으로

문경

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 2호 2013.06 pp.67-91

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The purpose of this paper is to reilluminate the major characters of Light in August with the concept of Jacques Lacan's four discourses. Language, on the one hand, primarily is intended to play as a key medium that attests to the identity of human and make relationships with others. On the other hand, however, it plays a role of oppressor against humane identity. As language shows such twofold characteristics, so we humans use language to establish relationships and our own identity but at the same time suffer from extreme conflicts and confusions caused by loss of identity attributable to the outright power of a huge ideologic language (discourse). William Faulkner presented, in Light in August (1932), endless chains of conflicts in relationships between a subject and others, caused by the duplexity, ambilaterality and ambiguity of a language and ontological issues of humans that suffer from these. In particular, in the novel, Faulkner showed clearly how a language binds and oppresses humans and how they are victimized by a cruel, oppressive, aery and contradictory language that affects the unconscious mind and makes them lose their identity. A language that causes humans a tragedy is a collapsed language that has oppressive bindingness. Thus the purpose of this paper is to examine the symptoms of the characters related to the mighty power of the ideological discourses with which the characters agonize within the boundary of home and society. And this study introduces Lacan's four discourses and at the same time examines the psychological symptoms and causes of the character and the basic relationship between human subject and language in the work. Especially this study deals with the sadomasochistic hysteric discourse of Joe Christmas which are the victim's discourses of the oppressive master's and university's discourse. As a whole, this work examines what message the work render to us in these days.

5

『플로리젤과 퍼디타』— 모건과 개릭의 『겨울 이야기』각색

서경희

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 2호 2013.06 pp.93-117

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This paper tries to examine the similarities and the differences of the two Florizel and Perdita's, the two rival alterations of Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale by Macnamara Morgann and David Garrick, within the socio-cultural contexts of “the Garrick's age” (1741-1776), when the imminent divorce of ‘stage' and ‘page' did not yet happen, and making adaptations of old plays rather than writing new ones became more suitable to the rival Theatres Royal in London mainly due to “the Stage Licensing Act” of 1737. Morgann's alteration was a ‘pastoral comedy' reduced into two acts, celebrating the love and marriage of Florizel and Perdita. The most important obstacle to their marriage was the barrier of class. The conflict was resolved by unfolding the mystery of Perdita's birth, and the heir to the throne was lawfully and safely confirmed. Garrick's alteration was a ‘dramatic pastoral' transformed into three acts and could be arguably regarded as an adaptation closer to Shakespeare's original compared with Morgann's. However, Garrick's alteration was mainly focused on Leontes' repentance and his family reunion and reconciliation. While his patriarchal wishes were fulfilled, the complex female characters were either silenced or marginalized, and their sentimental domesticity was emphasized. The two alterations by Morgann and Garrick remind us of the ‘multi-vocal' potential of Shakespeare's original and also of the fundamentally fluid and dynamic nature of drama and theater.

6

세상을 구하는 노래 — 모던 발라디어 피트 시거

양승갑

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 2호 2013.06 pp.119-139

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The purpose of this paper is to find the possibility of songs as an ecological text for the enhancement of ecocentric consciousness. Ballads, sung by bards and minstrels in ancient times and folk singers now, have provided folks with means of communications and open places in which everything including nature merges harmoniously into one without any hierarchies in community or positions on earth. Pete Seeger, praised as ‘the tuning fork of American folk song,’ has faithfully followed the ways of ancient bards and minstrels. Aware of the power of song, he knows his songs can be an catalyst for people to feel keenly about environmental crisis and persuade them into acting against it. In many of his songs, he dreams of symbiotic relationships between every creature on earth and wants to keep earth clean for the future generations, “tomorrow’s children.” Pete Seeger’s worldwide hits such as “Where Have All the Flowers Gone” and “Turn, Turn, Turn” have been translated in more than twenty countries and sung by many famous singers and ordinary people all over the world. Considering the qualification for the ecological text which makes people perceive the imminent environmental crisis and result in their active actions, the far-reaching influences along with his life itself devoted into environmental movement proves Pete Seeger’s songs to be an excellent ecological text.

7

울스턴크래프트와 버크 — 프랑스대혁명과 계몽 논쟁

유경훈

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 2호 2013.06 pp.141-181

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This paper explores the debates between Mary Wollstonecraft and Edmund Burke on the French Revolution and the Enlightenment. Shocked by Richard Price's sermon that applauded the French Revolution, Burke, in Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790), criticized the horrible effects of the Revolution. Wollstonecraft, in A Vindication of the Rights of Men (1790) took her cue against Burke in that she considered the Revolution as a timely opportunity to establish human rights, equality between men and women, liberty, and philanthropy on English soil. The disagreements of Wollstonecraft and Burke hinge on the different interpretations of the Enlightenment philosophy. Burke, the forerunner of conservatism, founds his aesthetics and politics on “common sense” and “natural feelings”: that is, on nature. This maneuver of Burke secures an unchangeable origin that is designed to rationalize the questionable hierarchy among people. Burke proposes “prescription” as an antidote against the Revolution whose base is the enlightenment philosophy. Wollstonecraft, on the contrary, foregrounds Burke's ideologies of anti-feminism, power-politics, and violence. Wollstonecraft as a radical Enlightenment thinker constructs a progressive relation of reason and feeling, moral virtue, educational system, and a new relation between men and women based on friendship. In this way, Wollstonecraft cultivates the grounds for feminism and democracy, which are anathemas to Burke.

8

포스트아파르트헤이트 시대의 ‘탈정체화’ — 나딘 고디머의 『줄라이의 사람들』

이혜란

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 2호 2013.06 pp.183-200

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

In July's People, Nadine Gordimer considers post-apartheid as a revolutionary ‘interregnum’ in the history of South Africa, and pays attention to a great diversity of ‘morbid symptoms’ in the post-apartheid era. The novel traces to the inner changes of Maureen and Bam, a liberal white couple who are shipwrecked in ‘homeland,’ which is one of black people's reservations and their servant July's hometown. In July's People, Gordimer examines the possibility of whites' coexistence with blacks in the post-apartheid era when the black power establishes a new social, political order. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the moments of rupture of Maureen's and Bam's identities in the perspective of ‘de-identification,’ which is one of main notions of Jacques Rancière. In Rancière's definition, an identity is something given by ‘police community,’ and ‘political subjectivation’ can be achieved by the process of dismantling the identity distributed by this ‘police community.’ From this perspective, this paper interprets Maureen's choice in the end of the novel as a step of becoming a ‘political subjectivation’ which the new political order demands South African whites in the post-apartheid era. Maureen's action can be interpreted as a kind of initiation in which she tries to throw herself into ‘July's people’ in ‘the age of July.’

9

존 스타인벡의 「국화」와 「뱀」에 나타난 성 이미저리

최한용

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 2호 2013.06 pp.201-217

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This paper is a study of the sexual imagery in John Steinbeck's “The Chrysanthemums” and “The Snake.” These two works are entirely different from the previous works of Steinbeck. Just as the titles of “The Chrysanthemums” and “The Snake” strongly imply, the two stories are rich in sexual imagery. Therefore, to those readers who are familiar only with his previous social novels, these two stories show a surprisingly new horizon in his literary world. Sexual imagery in “The Chrysanthemums” is not outspoken, but suggested. The chrysanthemum stalks resemble phalluses and Elisa's inserting the “little crisp shoots” into the furrows of earth suggests coitus. Elisa's voice grew husky and her breasts swelled passionately, and she crouched low like a fawning dog. Sexual imagery in “The Snake” develops from when the woman searches for a male snake, which was identified as male because Dr. Phillips found him copulating with a smaller one. Watching the snake approach the rat, her body was crouched and stiff like when she was excited. Before the male snake eats the rat, he touches the body all over with his chin, which seemed to measure the body and kiss it. The message the author wishes to deliver through “The Chrysanthemums” and “The Snake” may be to show a variety and exquisiteness of imagery. But the true message that the author infers through Elisa and the snake-like woman is that female characters no longer serve only as the object of sexual desire but equally as the subject of the desire.

10

핵어문법의 준동사구문 분석

정재창

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 2호 2013.06 pp.219-239

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The purpose of this paper is to explain verbid constructions which represent the characteristics of mixed categories in HPSG. This paper will deal with gerund constructions and participial constructions. Mixed category constructions involve lexical items which seem to belong to more than one category and so pose a problem for the standard view of syntactic categories. Both gerunds and participles carry hybrid characteristics in the sense of part of speech. For example, the verbal participle in Drinking coffee, she read Harry Potter has some internal property of a VP but the external distribution of an adverbial phrase. Participle drinking combines with direct object and forms an adjunct. Gerunds can function as a noun in a sentence and function as a verb in another sentence. Participles can function as an adjective or a verb in a given sentence. And when participle constructions which form subordinate phrases modify the main clauses, they become adverbial phrases. In those cases, participles function as verbs while forming adverbial modifiers. An HPSG analysis of English verbid constructions based on a more fine-grained theory of syntactic category presented another possibility. HPSG decomposes the linguistic elements that form a sentence into some features, and composes them from multi-dimensions. Therefore it was suitable to capture the hybrid characteristics which worked in the sentence constructions. Robert Malouf (1997) showed an analysis of the gerund constructions. Bouma, Malouf, and Sag (1998) suggested a constraint of adjuncts which is essential to analyze participle constructions. And this paper also presented an analysis of participle constructions, not breaking HPSG mechanism.

11

초등 영어 문법 교육에 관한 실태 조사와 효과적 방안

김영현

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 2호 2013.06 pp.241-268

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This paper aims to survey the current situation in which the English grammar has been taught in elementary schools and propose effective strategies for grammar teaching in the elementary EFL classroom. The results of the survey are as follows: The necessity of grammar teaching was recognized by most teachers, and grammar should be taught to fifth graders and over deductively, if necessary, as well as inductively. Grammar teaching was required to develop productive skills, especially, writing one, rather than receptive ones, since grammar would be needed to generate sentences. Most teachers have usually taught grammar to fifth and sixth graders inductively and deductively. As a result, productive skills were insignificantly improved, but receptive skills and communicative competence were not developed at all. Most teachers acknowledged the necessity of deductive grammar teaching, since there would not be enough time to conduct inductive grammar teaching within the limited EFL classes. And it should be applied to fifth graders and over when they learn to write sentences. Only half of all teachers were satisfied with their own knowledge of grammar teaching methods and techniques. Nearly all teachers hoped to participate in teacher training programs of English grammar teaching to develop their grammar teaching techniques and skills. For effective grammar teaching in the elementary EFL classroom, it would be suggested that while third and fourth graders should be taught grammar in the implicit-inductive approach through communicative tasks where the focus is mainly on meaning and fluency not on forms, fifth and sixth graders should be taught in the explicit-inductive approach through task-based activities where the focus is on forms and accuracy as well as meaning and fluency.

12

영어영문 전공영어 독해강좌의 필요성에 대한 요구 분석

김현옥, 김미현

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 2호 2013.06 pp.269-288

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This paper reports on the development of an academic reading course specifically designed for the students majoring in English Language and Literature. In order to investigate the particular needs and challenges in academic reading among English majors, the study developed a survey questionnaire, which was completed by a total of 117 students who were taking five different courses offered at the department of English Language and Literature at a university at the time of inquiry. The study was also paralleled with an instructional seminar among the faculty members, contributing to the what and how about the new academic reading course in the question. The findings are as follows: More than half of the students were aware that the academic English texts in core courses for English majors differ from other English texts for general purposes in terms of vocabulary, contents and background information, which might cause the processing difficulties in the reading comprehension task of English textbooks and references for English majors. Many students expressed positive opinions about the offering of a reading course in academic English to surmount the linguistic and cognitive difficulties specifically targeted towards English majors. The students' responses varied depending upon the individual factors: The lower the students' perceived levels of language proficiency, the higher the perceived difficulty of the academic English text for English majors, the stronger their needs in the training of an academic reading course in order for deeper understanding of English texts for English majors. To develop and successfully implement an EAP reading course for English majors, preliminary analyses on the linguistic and cognitive features across different courses and sub-areas of major studies should be conducted. What is more, the stepwise procedures of materials development, evaluation and subsequent modifications of the course calls for the on-going feedback through reanalysis of target students' needs as well as the collaboration among the faculty members and researchers.

13

초등영어 교실에서의 뮤지컬 극화의 활용에 관한 연구

정영화, 이화자

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 2호 2013.06 pp.289-308

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The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of musicalization on affective development and English proficiency of primary school students. Musicalization was implemented by using key expressions from the textbook and thus English curriculum of the 5th grade was reorganized. For this study, both quantitative and qualitative research data were drawn up. The results of the experiment were analyzed by an independent sample T-test. The findings of this study are as follows: 1) the musicalization activities significantly increased students' interest, self-confidence, and participation towards English learning, 2) English skills were improved through the musicalization lessons, particularly in speaking, 3) the students self-reported positive growth in English proficiency and motivation. The results of this study suggest that the incorporation of musicalization into elementary students' English instruction offer a great benefit to developing their English skills and affective domains.

14

Racial Stereotypes, Stand-up Comedy, and Self as an Art in Rob Shin’s The Art of Waiting

Kyoung-Jung Joo

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 2호 2013.06 pp.309-331

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The article examines Rob Shin’s The Art of Waiting (1991) in terms of how the play utilizes the form of stand-up comedy in generating sharp criticism and resentment toward racism and Asian American racial and cultural stereotypes. The generic convention of stand-up comedy enables Shin to resist and deconstruct oriental stereotypes and internalized racism in witticisms and comic renditions. The play succeeds in representing the destructive force of mutual stereotyping and racial discrimination among different races, especially between Asian American waiters, and African American and white customers in a Chinese restaurant. Shin overcomes the limitations of the often-vilified format of stand-up comedy beyond entertainment and laughter in the play. The form of stand-up comedy turns the comedy into an art work of self-reflection on racism and racist reality. The stand-up comedian and waiter, Rob, exposes the questionable aspects of reciprocity in racism and racial stereotypes. In addition to its pungent commentaries on racial reality, Shin’s play makes his alter ego, the protagonist, into an object of satire, parody and racially-charged humor. So the sense of “art” in the play's title points to the aesthetics of self that is being constantly laughed at, satirized, and negotiated. The play shows the possibility of the force of racism not simply from the structure of the society and its system, but from the sense of responsibility of individuals. Michel Foucault's aesthetics of the self is relevant to our discussion of individual responsibility featured in the play. The keen effort of one to free one’s self from racism can open up the potential for one to become an art work in the Foucaudian sense. When an individual is able to have control over his own self—which means he knows himself very well and thus is able to take care of himself—he or she turns one’s self into an art of self or an aesthetic self. Shin’s character recognizes his own share of responsibility in relation to persistent and pervasive racism. Waiting becomes an art not only of the waiter but also of the waited in the play. Waiting in restaurants as constant negotiation and cooperation becomes a kind of metonymy for what Shin’s play suggests as a way of overcoming racism in a multi-racial American society.

15

“We’ve all lost our children” : Accidental Death, Vengeful Justice, and American Father in Russell Banks’s The Sweet Hereafter

Heejung Cha

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 2호 2013.06 pp.333-350

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Russell Banks (1940~), a prolific and bestselling American writer, is widely acclaimed for his realistic and bruising characters who are locked in class and race conflict and attempt to escape the brutal existence and a pervasive anxiety about money. Indeed, his novels have achieved significant critical acclaim and widespread commercial success. In his sixth novel, The Sweet Hereafter, revolving around a school bus accident, likewise, Banks reveals the various ways ordinary American individuals and their community as a whole react to the tragic event. This paper examines Banks's portrayal of individual healing and communal redemption in terms of guilt, blame, justice, and recovery. In The Sweet Hereafter which raises the uncomfortable question ‘who is to blame for a tragic accident causing the loss of innocent children?’ Banks's unique, realistic, and limited narrative structure with the perspectives of four individual narrators such as a school bus driver, an eyewitness, a New York City lawyer, and a fourteen-year-old survivor successfully makes it possible for the reader to fully understand how differently individuals cope with grief and loss from the tragedy and their lives can be changed.

16

A Study of Translation Errors in Korean-English Subtitles in the Korean Movie “Harmony” and the Drama “A Thousand Day’s Promise”

Sungran Koh, Bonggyu Kim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 2호 2013.06 pp.351-367

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Due to globalization and the development of multimedia technology, the use of Korean-English subtitled movies and dramas has dramatically increased around the world, and especially through the Internet. However, the importance of Korean- English subtitling has been under appreciated in the field of translation. It is not difficult to find grammatically misused forms in Korean-English subtitled materials. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of Korean-English subtitling and the necessity of an academic use to subtitling and translating tasks. The subtitling errors in a selected Korean movie and drama currently available on Internet websites in the U.S. were collected and analyzed. Errors in he data were then divided into two groups: Grammatical Errors and Lexical Errors. This paper focuses on the grammatical errors, which were subcategorized into six grammatical groups: Articles, Pluralization, Capitalization, Prepositions, Verbs, and Pronouns. This study hopes to help reduce occurrence of the most common errors made by Korean translators in Korean-English subtitling.

17

Exploring Causality in Computer-Mediated Communication: A Comparative Study of NS, ESL, and EFL Corpora

Hyung-Sun Kim, Yoon-Hee Na

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 2호 2013.06 pp.369-396

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This study investigated the uses of causative devices in a comparable set of corpora comprised of the NS, ESL, and EFL CMC texts. An inventory of 144 devices was prepared and classified by eight syntactic categories; the occurrences of each device were examined and coded accordingly. While the overall frequency of the causative devices did not appear significantly different, substantial differences were noticed in the variety of the devices employed by the three groups. 72, 53, and 29 types out of 144 potential devices covered 100% of the causative expressions in the NS, ESL and EFL corpus respectively, indicating EFL learners' restricted repertoire of causality. The analysis of the function-content word ratio revealed the EFL group’s preference for explicitly marking the relations of the events with function words. A limited set of markers such as because, by + ~ing, because of, and so were predominantly used at the expense of other potential candidates in the EFL corpus. Complex forms of causality and global coherence of discourse were not frequently found in the EFL corpus.

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L2 Learner’s Identities and Gender in ESL and EFL Classroom Interaction

Jina Lee

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 2호 2013.06 pp.397-417

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

Many studies have claimed that L2 learning is achieved by face-to-face interaction that provides comprehensible input and comprehensible output. Then, for learners to gain effective interaction in classroom and in the TL society, the learner's identity should be properly reflected. This paper is a review and an overall discussion of the SLA studies on the issues of identity and gender in SL and FL context. Therefore, in this paper, I focus on issues of language learner's identity(ies) and gender engaged in classroom interaction that drives learner's motivation and attitude that shifts in moment-to- moment. The discussion is based on the Norton's ‘multiple identities', Tajfel's ‘social identities', and Boxer and Cortes-Conde's ‘relational identities,' as well as the issues of learner's identities engaging gender in classroom interaction with pedagogical implication in classroom.

 
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