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영어영문학21 [English21]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
    학술지
  • 발행기관
    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
  • ISSN
    1738-4052
  • 간기
    계간
  • 수록기간
    1967~2018
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제29권 2호 (20건)
No
1

시적 발화의 토대로서 방언과 지명 — 셰이머스 히니의 『겨울나기』

김재준

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 2호 2016.06 pp.5-24

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This paper analyzes how the dialect of Heaney’s hometown Derry and its landscape establish the roots of his poetic utterance. Although Heaney continued to expand the range of his poetic utterance and take new models for it, many of Heaney's early poems are enlivened by a language as it is really used by people in his local region. Heaney himself has an active interest in the phonetic and linguistic study of Ulster dialects and the sound of the place-names. He has the consistent belief that the local words and speech rhythms of the place-names are closely related to the features of the landscape. The dialects and place-names in his early poems are not yet the subject of the poems. They are important because they give him a moment of sinking into the most primitive and forgotten of the common community, so they are fundamental to his attempts to find images and symbols adequate to his predicament. The vision which they have given Heaney while he grows up into a poet includes not only the natural features but the signs of human history within it.

2

카릴 처칠의 『펜』 — 여성 노동자의 역사와 유령의 극 공간

박보영

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 2호 2016.06 pp.25-48

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Fen is the most documentary play among Caryl Churchill’s feminist plays. The title of this play is historically and geographically related to “the Fens” in England, a place where the women labourers have been imprisoned under poor labour conditions and gender roles. Fen illuminates a capitalist and patriarchal social system that is oppressively closed by showing how labour and female gender role have exploited women. Without men's economic support and care, women labourers get involved in doubled labour conditions. One is the manual labour required for financially supporting a family, and the other is household labour that includes rearing children. Low wages, unpaid house chores, and gender roles which the women labourers have faced historically kept their lives confined. Psychological bonds to the absent husband and imposed motherhood derived from the gender roles of women prevent women labourers from escaping the community in Fen. The relationship between the residents in Fen is violently revealed due to anger and frustration derived from their powerless conditions from which they can not escape. The women labourers in particular are positioned at the lowest level in terms of class and gender, which makes them most oppressed; so much so that one of them chooses death as the only way to escape. Confined in the lowest class and oppressive gender roles, the female labourers’ painful experience can not be expressed without violence. In Fen Churchill tries to rewrite the history of women labourers—through the strategic theatrical technique of relating the ghost to capitalist and patriarchal oppression of women. A 19th century ghost functions as a representative explosion of the women labourers’ anger and frustration that has accumulated and oppressed them through time because it has not been expressed. Furthermore, the process of transformation from a woman labourer to a ghost creates a space of possibility by breaking the binary boundaries such as those that separate reality and surrealism, life and death, and materialistic limitation and transcendence. In this theatrical space it is possible to imagine that the women labourers can transcend the oppressive limitations of both class and gender roles. Therefore, the theatrical space of the ghost in Fen can show a new way to see the patriarchal and capitalist social system as a closed frame that has exploited the powerless like women labourers and should be overcome.

3

『교외의 부처』에서의 근대교외와 백인여성 이상화 — 영국의 포스트식민 상황

박은숙

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 2호 2016.06 pp.49-71

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This article seeks to analyze the postcolonial conditions of England in Hanif Kureishi’s The Buddha of Suburbia in two aspects: first, the philistinism both in suburban and national contexts, and second, the black men’s interracial desire in Europe. The second part of this paper will investigate the definitions of “suburbia,” aiming to understand its typical image as a “bourgeois utopia.” Suburbia, that is, the modern suburb was newly formed as a consequence of the explosive growth of the city. The middle class was the predominant population of this new residential area, and thus, suburbia became synonymous with the bourgeois utopia. The bourgeois, who was called a “philistine” by Arnold, is an anathema to the protagonist. His tendency to persistently yet tacitly resist their culture deepens their postcolonial predicament. The Victorian middle class indulged in their unprecedented omnipotence during the Industrial Revolution and imperial culmination, while the modern middle class was left with the debris of that glory with the end of Empire. The postcolonial melancholia summarizes those symptoms of the latter period. To make things worse, a small immigrant‘s son belittles them as philistines. The third part of this paper will focus on the coloured men’s fascination with the European women. An episode about a man of colour in Frantz Fanon’s Black Skin, White Masks will offer a paragon for this case. The white woman represents the white civilization for the non-white man. Therefore, his craving for the white women implies his ambition to be assimilated to the white world. On the other hand, these miscegenous attempts by him symbolize the implicit subversion of racial hierarchy. As a result, it’s not the strangers that are threatened by the metropolitans, but the metropolitans themselves who are threatened by the strangers. The Buddha of Suburbia observes these postcolonial transitions through a small resistant suburban teenager’s keen eyes.

4

근친상간의 망령 — 정신분석으로 보는 <셰임>

박재영

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 2호 2016.06 pp.73-90

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This paper interprets Shame, a film directed by Steve McQueen and starring Michael Fassbender and Carey Mulligan, through a lens of psychoanalysis. The film has been quite controversial in terms of the incest motif even though the director and the main actors do not explicitly admit it. Some viewers who are familiar with liberal western family culture agree with them. However, this paper, focusing on the implicit contents of the film and scrutinizing them within Sigmund Freud’s and his followers’ psychoanalytic theories, argues that Brandon and Sissy are victims of (covert) incest and that this traumatic experience actually engenders Brandon’s sex addiction and Sissy’s psychological instability and depression. To specify this argument, the analysis begins with a common question of whether or not Shame is just an obscene film, as a majority of viewers have asserted, and moves on to discussing the significance of sex to Brandon, the origins of the “self-reproach” of the siblings. and the possibility of their reconciliation with the traumatic past.

5

마이클 온다체의 『잉글리시 페이션트』에 나타난 탈영토화와 노마드적 상상력

박종성

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 2호 2016.06 pp.91-112

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This paper aims to look afresh at Michael Ondaatje’s The English Patient (1992) and reassess the novel from a Deleuzian perspective. I argue that the book is a kind of counter discourse against nationalism, Eurocentrism, racism, and war. Particularly, such Deleuzian terms as deterritorialization and nomadism are quite relevant and valid to my discussion. The English Patient, a Hungarian count whose real name is Ladislau de Almásy, is a nationless nomad who wants to “erase [his] name and the place [he] had come from.” This is a clear indication that he metaphorically wages a war against the State apparatus. Namely, to borrow a Deleuzian term, the war machine is working effectively. To substantiate my points, I borrow such key terms from Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari as nomadism, deterritorialization, the State apparatus, the war machine, capture, the line of flight, and affect and apply them to analyzing the text under consideration. My main argument is that The English Patient falls into what Deleuze calls a ‘minor’ literature which questions and challenges the supremacy of Western powers. Another strand of argument is that the various acts of betrayal are ethical in that the private will exercised by such individuals as Kip, Hana, Madox, and the English patient actually confronts the public will, which not only legitimizes nationalism but also contains or captures the private will. Also, the so-called war machine, or machine désirante, is appropriated or captured by the State apparatus. Ondaatje emerges as a formidable writer who strongly denounces any form of ownership and creates a ‘minor’ literature which is bound to be deterritorialized and political.

6

「교회 방문」에 나타난 필립 라킨의 영국다움

안명덕

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 2호 2016.06 pp.113-132

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Philip Larkin says “I write poems to preserve things I have seen/thought/felt both for myself and for others [. . .].” He wants to provide British people who are losing their sense of self with an opportunity to experience Britishness through his poetry. To Larkin, Britishness is not related to laws and institutions, but to the life, identity, history and culture of the British. Thus, for Larkin, an experience is a journey to find out the meaning of Britishness. His poetry, expressed through everyday language, makes readers naturally experience and sympathize with Britishness. “Church Going”, one of his poems, shows one speaker’s journey in search of answers from a church that still gets people to visit, even though it has lost its religious meaning. The speaker leads readers into the poem, visits a church with them and thinks of the meaning and value of the church. Although the church has lost its meaning as a space of religion, the place still has value as a root for Britishness by preserving British people’s lives and history. On this account, British people will go to church as a place to confirm their identities, and consequently, churches will also maintain their value to exist.

7

과거의 재구성—가즈오 이시구로의 『희미한 언덕풍경』에 나타난 역사, 기억, 기록

이정화

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 2호 2016.06 pp.133-150

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This essay examines the reconstruction of the past in Kazuo Ishiguro’s debut novel, A Pale View of Hills. The novel shares a postmodern understanding of the past with ‘historiographic metafiction’ that blurs the boundary between truth and fiction, or history and story. Etsuko, the unreliable first-person narrator of the novel who now resides in the English countryside after her daughter’s suicide, offers an unauthoritative account of her past in Nagasaki that centers on her brief friendship with Sachiko. Her recollections are full of self-justification, gaps, omissions, inconsistencies, and ambiguities that partly stem from the mysterious relationship between Etsuko and Sachiko. Although many critics have explained Sachiko as one side of Etsuko’s split personality, I suggest that the parallels between the two women are constructs of Etsuko’s memory. Instead of faithfully re-collecting post-war Japan, the narrator reconstructs her past by reinterpreting the significance of the choices she made and by using Sachiko’s story as a detour to her painful past that she does not want to recall. The past reconstructed through Etsuko’s memory defies the distinction between what is fictional and what is real. On the other hand, A Pale View of Hills diverges from ‘historiographic metafiction’ by privileging private memory over public history. In A Pale View of Hills, Ishiguro raises doubts about any attempt to monopolize, finalize, or idealize meanings of the past.

8

서간체 형식을 통해 표현된 다성적 담론의 함의 — 샬롯 스미스의 『데스몬드』

조희정

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 2호 2016.06 pp.151-172

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This paper attempts to explore the ways in which Charlotte Smith employs the epistolary form in order to convey her views on the contemporary political climate as well as domestic problems taking place in the private sphere. In Desmond, Smith expresses her radical ideas through the voice of Desmond, the novel’s protagonist who attests to the positive aspect of the revolution through his first-hand experience in France in the period between June 1790 and February 1792. The novel’s epistolary form activates polyphonic exchanges between different characters, enabling discussions about political issues and ultimately substantiating Desmond’s opinion through other people’s observations similar to those of the protagonist. In Desmond, there exists an explicit parallel between the public sphere and the private sphere, and Geraldine’s position in the tyrannical domestic space closely resembles the condition of the oppressed class under the ancien régime. Some critics express dissatisfaction with Smith’s portrayal of Geraldine as an ideal wife/mother sacrificing herself for the maintenance of the patriarchal order. Yet, the absurdity of her extreme submission and her inner conflicts represented in Geraldine’s letters paradoxically reveal the problems inherent in women’s position in the contemporary period. Also, the absent voice of Josephine, who is a “close double” of Geraldine and crosses the boundary of the patriarchal control, indicates the limits of the novel’s polyphonic discourse.

9

경상 방언 화자의 운율경계에 위치한 한국어와 영어의 어두폐쇄음 비교 — VOT, F0와 [H1-H2]의 음향적 상관성을 중심으로

임신영

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 2호 2016.06 pp.173-196

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This study investigated domain-initial strengthening in the prosodic hierarchy for Korean male and female speakers and examined whether there is any phonological transfer in the phonetic realization of English and Korean stops produced by Korean speakers. Prosodic structure proved to play a significant role in phonetically- strengthened realization of articulatory properties such as VOT, F0, and [H1-H2]. Correlation patterns among these parameters indicate that Korean speakers rely on VOT and F0 for both Korean and English stops. [H1-H2] turned out to be proportionate to VOT in English and Korean stops produced by Korean speakers. The [H1-H2] values overlapped between lenis and aspirated stops. The VOT values of voiced stops were similar to those of lenis stops, but the [H1-H2] values of the former were lower than those of the latter. The voicing and phonetic type of the stop category were phonetically-implemented across the three prosodic domains with the interaction of VOT, F0 and [H1-H2] for Korean speakers.

10

L2 읽기능력의 요인들과 L2 읽기능력과의 구조적 관계

백승현, 지문건

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 2호 2016.06 pp.197-223

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The empirical research was examined for a sample of 129 4th graders in an EFL environment in order to explore the fundamental elements impacting on second language (L2) reading comprehension and their structural relationship to L2 reading comprehension. The materials used for the current study were (1) a questionnaire on L2 reading comprehension, (2) L2 productive/receptive vocabulary test and (3) L2 reading comprehension test, adopted from Woodcock-Johnson Ⅲ Diagnostic Reading Battery (Woodcock, Mather, and Schrank 2004). First, four factors on L2 reading comprehension were unveiled: L2 reading comprehension learning strategy, first language (L1) proficiency, parents’ interest on their children's English learning, and extra-curricular activities. Those factors are strongly associated with L2 vocabulary and L2 reading comprehension. Second, L2 productive/receptive vocabulary were significant indicators of successful L2 reading comprehension. Finally, L2 vocabulary knowledge contributed a significant amount of unique variance to L2 reading comprehension based on the structural equation modeling (SEM). These findings are steadily aligned with the Lexical Quality Hypothesis in which L2 vocabulary knowledge is assumed to be a critical determinant of L2 reading comprehension (LQH: Perfetti & Hart, 2001).

11

장르글쓰기가 중등 영어학습자의 쓰기에 미치는 영향

윤희정, 이화자

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 2호 2016.06 pp.225-247

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The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of genre-based writing, using story reading, on EFL learners' writing skills. For this study, three middle-school students and three high-school students were chosen as subjects and received writing instruction in six genres. Data collection included pre-and post-writings and genre-based writing portfolios. Physical structure analysis and topical structure analysis were employed. The data analyses revealed that the genre-based writing practice had the biggest impact on middle-school students when it came to fluency and topic coherence. Another finding is that the students performed poorly on the letter- and dialogue-writing tasks. Several suggestions are made based on the results: 1) English teachers should provide writing opportunities to students regardless of their proficiency levels; 2) students need to be exposed to practical genres, such as letters and dialogues, more often, and 3) reading materials, including storybooks and literary works, should be used as resources for rich linguistic input.

12

사전 과업 계획 방식의 차이가 영어 말하기 수행능력에 미치는 영향 탐색 — 임용 목적의 면접 평가 연습 상황에서 협력적 방식을 중심으로

이지영, 이호

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 2호 2016.06 pp.249-281

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This study examined whether pre-service teachers' achievements in analytic areas differed across two types of pre-task planning activities (individual and collaborative) on English interview tests for secondary teacher selection. Further, the researchers explored the contents discussed during the collaborative pre-task planning and the students' perceptions of the pre-task planning. Fifteen pre-service teachers participated in the study and did two mock English interviews, each of which measured their oral responses to educational issues with reference to a 30-point analytic scale. Using descriptive statistics, a survey, and interview analyses, the researchers found the following results. First, the average score on organization, that is, cohesion and coherence, was slightly higher on the individual pre-task planning than on the collaborative planning. Second, the teachers tended to focus on task comprehension and idea development, talking relatively less about language use during the collaborative pre-planning process. Further, students reported in the survey that, while collaborative planning helped them share a wide variety of ideas about content, individual planning was more effective when working on organization, discourse structure, and language use.

13

포스트모던 그림책 활용 초등 영어 창의적 글쓰기 지도

조정현, 김혜리

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 2호 2016.06 pp.283-307

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This study aimed to investigate the effects of teaching creative English writing to Korean primary school children using postmodern picture books. In order to expand participants’ creativity, the study integrated activities for developing thinking skills. Results of data analysis led to two major findings. First, children in the study could build a foundation of creative writing by interpreting the non-linear structure of postmodern picture books. For example, students tried to write voluntarily when they realized the deficiency of the non-linear structure. They also showed interest in the four parallel stories of a book that became the source of their creative writing. Second, children could develop writing skills by solving problems creatively through activities for developing thinking skills. In other words, when appropriate activities for developing thinking skills were introduced, they could expand their imagination utilizing the contents and language from postmodern picture books. Based on the results, implications and suggestions for future studies were provided.

14

영문법 발표활동에 대한 학습자 태도 및 학습 성취도 연구

주미란

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 2호 2016.06 pp.309-333

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The purpose of this study was to investigate college students’ affective attitudes towards a group presentation activity on English grammar, and their English achievements after the activities. A TOEIC test before and after the activity, and a questionnaire about the group presentation activities on grammar in class were administered to 172 college students. The level of confidence in grammar was improved especially among 550-645 score students, and 450-545 and 550-645 score students rated the activity as most effective. Students answered that they could understand their peers' presentation ‘normally,’ ‘well,’ or ‘very well,’ and listening to their presentation was also helpful to learn grammar. Students answered they wanted teacher's additional explanations on grammar after the presentations. The level of satisfaction with this activity was highest among 550-645 and 650-745 score students. Lastly, the results showed a statistically significant increase in English ability among 550-645, 450-545, 350-445, and below 350 score students. According to these results, pedagogical and research implications are suggested.

15

The Tragic Clash of Cultures in Vincent O’Sullivan’s Shuriken

Derek McGovern

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 2호 2016.06 pp.335-356

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Shuriken (1983), the first stage play of New Zealand playwright Vincent O’Sullivan (1937- ), is based on the real-life mass shooting of Japanese prisoners that occurred during World War Two at New Zealand’s only prisoner-of-war camp. 48 Japanese and one New Zealander died in the shooting, and it remains the only incident of its kind to have occurred on New Zealand soil. O’Sullivan’s play, although mostly fictionalized in terms of its characters and the events that precede the shooting, constitutes an attempt to understand why this tragedy (or massacre, as some have deemed it) occurred. This paper, taking its lead from O’Sullivan’s stated conviction that there was nothing that could have alleviated the Japanese prisoners’ distress at being incarcerated by an enemy, nor anything that could have helped their New Zealand captors to appreciate fully the true nature of their despair, examines how the play ominously foreshadows the fatal shooting through a series of cultural misunderstandings on both sides. In doing so, it demonstrates how O’Sullivan’s play refrains from overtly blaming either the Japanese prisoners or the New Zealanders for the tragedy. In addition to arguing that the cultural clashes depicted in Shuriken have universal relevance, this paper also examines how the play employs elements of non-naturalism to illustrate the cultural gulf between the two sides.

16

A Lexical Approach to Quantifiers

Keun Young Shin

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 2호 2016.06 pp.357-378

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It has been assumed that a null noun is present when a quantifier occurs by itself or precedes a partitive of-phrase. The claim is that the null noun corresponds to the pronoun one or a phonetically-deleted noun under identity (Hoeksema, 1984; Ionin et al., 2006). I argue that postulating a covert one or a deleted noun faces empirical problems, thereby further supporting the claim that a quantifier has two distinct functions in the lexicon—a nominal function and an adjectival/determiner function (Shin, 2007, 2016). The two functions of a quantifier can be captured in a systematic manner by means of morphological zero-derivation. By adopting a semantic composition approach to affixal morphology, I propose that nominal quantifiers can be derived from adjectival/determiner quantifiers by combining them with a null affix denoting a part-of relation in the quantity dimension.

17

Corpus Based Collocation Analysis of the Phrasal Verb Stand Up

Youngju Choi

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 2호 2016.06 pp.379-399

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When analyzed appropriately, studies of corpus data aid in our understanding of the current usage of words and phrases. For lexical phenomena, lexical partnership or collocation has been the focus of many corpus studies as it is reliably and comprehensively identified in corpora. Nonetheless, studies on collocational patterns of phrasal verbs are rare. This paper showcases the collocational partners of the phrasal verb stand up as observed in the COCA corpus. The paper shows the following results: first, new meanings are harvested through the collocational analysis, when the meanings observed in COCA are compared with those defined in the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English; second, among various collocates, the prepositions to, for, and against and the adverb well/better are strongly associated with metaphorical meanings; third, the base form, stand up, is more closely connected to metaphorical meanings of STAND UP than other forms such as stood up, standing up, and stands up; fourth, among various other metaphorical meanings, ‘to face boldly' is the most frequent.

18

An Analysis of College Scholastic Ability Test Items Based on the Rasch Model

Nayu Kim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 2호 2016.06 pp.401-423

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The purpose of this study is to analyze College Scholastic Ability Test items based on the Rasch Model, identify items that do not fit, and describe difficulty levels compared to student levels. Winsteps software, which allows users to analyze dichotomous data for investigating problems that are inherent in test items, is used for statistical analysis. The findings of this study reveal that 7 out of 28 items do not follow the assumptions of the Rasch Model. The analysis of item difficulty and item map shows that most of the 387 subjects are unable to answer some item types appropriately due to ambiguous distractors that affect item validity. Given the presence of misfit items and items of extreme levels of difficulty, suggestions for eliminating ambiguity, improving readability, and maintaining the degree of difficulty in designing reading test items are made.

19

Introspection into English Listening Training

Jae-Ik Moon

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 2호 2016.06 pp.425-446

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

Effective communication is the most vital of all life skills. To communicate information accurately, clearly, and as intended is not to be overlooked, especially in international business. Listening is especially critical in interpersonal communication, as we spend 45% of communication time listening.. While English is quite different from Korean, it is now a global language required for survival in international relations. English listening involves taking words and sounds heard and converting them into something that makes sense to the hearer. This paper enumerates several English listening skills (dictation, phrase translation, shadow task, associative memory storage, focused listening, IPA training, etc.) and recommends three efficient ones proven to help achieve goals in English listening programs. Students are also expected to have a working knowledge of new communication technologies in English listening, above all the Internet. Movies entertain and engage while students listen to or mimic native speakers. The various rhyming verses in pop songs comprise another fun option, also proven to raise verbal IQ scores. My survey shows that, among other listening skills, dictation, focused listening, and IPA training offer good opportunities to improve English listening. When students acquire these listening skills, they also progress in reading, speaking, and writing since all four skills are closely interrelated. People perceive only as much as they experience or know, and the listening skills discussed here will expand learners’ experience or knowledge. Practice makes perfect. No matter how well learners study, they must be well-guided in order to become valuable international human resources.

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Variation in the Choice of Relativizers in Interlanguage of Korean EFL Learners

Eun Young Shin

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 2호 2016.06 pp.447-469

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This study investigated variation in the choice of relativizers by Korean middle school and college learners in an English as a Foreign Language setting. In addition to the textbook analysis, two versions of an acceptability task were conducted with 57 Korean middle school students and with 42 college students to investigate the variation pattern in the choice of the relativizers in learners’ interlanguage at two different developmental stages. The target materials included the who/whom alternation and the which/that/null alternation in restrictive object relative clauses. The results revealed that the middle school students lacked pragmatic competence in judging an inappropriate form in informal contexts. Although the college learners showed sensitivity to formality in the pattern of the relativizer judgements, they also exhibited a minor divergence from the target language pragmatics. Based on the findings, a pedagogical implication was suggested to enhance learners’ multi-faceted competence.

 
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