영어영문학21 [English21]

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    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
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    KCI 등재
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    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제30권 4호 (21건)

셰이머스 히니의 시에서 침묵의 역할 —『스테이션 아일랜드』를 중심으로


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 4호 2017.12 pp.5-27

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This paper focuses on “silence” as one of the aesthetic devices in Seamus Heaney’s Station Island. There are two kinds of silences. One is the silence heard throughout the poem. This silence is like the one when an orchestra plays, a silence that becomes part of the music by emphasizing the sounds of the instruments. The other is the silence of the character who prompts the persona to develop a poetic discourse. The persona’s monologue is only one part of the poetic discourse. Readers, who take the role of the silent auditor in this monologue, should try to participate actively in developing the monologue into a dialogue. In the first part of Station Island, Heaney arranges a setting where the persona develops the discourse. This discourse is framed to recall his immature past self. Since another important person is silent while the poetic discourse is being framed, the reader should consider the view of the silent listener and the persona’s intention. In the second part, Heaney attempts to bring out the oppressed, silenced voices from his consciousness.


월터 벤야민—자서전과 도시경험에 대한 고찰


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 4호 2017.12 pp.29-45

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In Benjamin's portrait, Baudelaire is seen for the first time as a big-city poet attempting to explore the nature of modern metropolitan experience. Benjamin's description of Baudelaire discloses that Baudelaire, standing on the cusp between traditional and modern societies, witnesses the extermination by modern industrial capitalism of the last traces of traditional life. For Benjamin, experience in a capitalist society is no longer a matter of corresponding interaction of the individual with his own environment, but is reduced instead to a fragmentary series of impressions and sensations only partially registered. The writing of modernity, Benjamin suggests, can not hinge on linear description or narration since it resists our attempt to present an integrated, coherent view of the phenomena of modernity as a whole. City experiences tend to remain isolated as accidental occurrences instead of being assimilated into an integrated stock of experience. For Benjamin the atrophy of experience is contemporaneous with the disappearance of the storyteller, and the problem of experience is central to his study of modernity.


스티븐 블랙풀의 비극 — 산업사회 갈등에 대한 칼라일 해법의 한계


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 4호 2017.12 pp.47-65

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Dickens depicts an industrial city called Coketown in Hard Times. People living there suffer from conflicts between laborers representing Union and management representing Bounderby. Dickens suggests his alternative through Stephen Blackpool to solve the conflicts, but the author’s suggestion is not satisfactory. Blackpool seems to be qualified for the alternative, a mediator, but he does not behave as an able arbitrator on account of his insufficient abilities. The character of Blackpool resembles of Carlyle both in reality and in his writings. In Signs of the Times, Carlyle emphasizes on the importance of spiritual values and the importance of the editor in Sartor Resartus. It is the mediative abilities that Dickens wants to show through Blackpool to solve the problem. In spite of his qualification as a mediator, however, he fails to adjust the conflicts in the industrial city and that is because this article argues that Dickens suggests an unsatisfying suggestion to labor management conflict society.


문학연구방법론에 대한 단상 — 저자, 텍스트, 사회


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 4호 2017.12 pp.67-87

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Russian Formalism and Marxism look, at first glance, like opposites of each other: the former is about “form,” concerned with the aesthetic value of artistic work, while the latter is about “content,” concentrating on the ideology of literature. The former tends to find the values of a work within the work itself, and the latter emphasizes a moralistic and utilitarian view of art. The difference can be summarized as intrinsic versus extrinsic. Despite these seemingly opposite standpoints in their basic attitudes, Russian Formalism and Marxism, as dueling theories under the same historical circumstance, influenced each other greatly. Throughout the history of literary criticism, members of Russian Formalism and Marxism have attempted to reconcile the former's emphasis on the artistic device with the latter’s dialectics. In this regard, Mikhail Bakhtin’s achievements in “translinguistics” or “historical poetics” were crucial to this reconciling movement.


기억의 서사를 통한 치유 — 『항복한 사람들』에 나타난 전쟁 트라우마


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 4호 2017.12 pp.89-112

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This study examines war trauma and the process of its recovery in Chang-rae Lee’s The Surrendered. The protagonists, June, Hector and Sylvie have traumatic memories from war. Their daily life is no better than those of the dead because of cruel memories, which result in their ‘psychic numbing’. Traumatic experience produces a indelible effect on the human psyche that can change the individual’s memory, self-recognition, and relational life. The protagonists strive to end the eternal cycles of trauma by working through what they had experienced. This recovery can be only possible when they confront their painful past and transform it to consistent narratives. A pilgrimage to Solferino is the core essence of working through their trauma. June and Hector have a new understanding of trauma through fragmented memory, where the symbolic figure Sylvie is restored to a narrative wholeness. Chang-rae Lee proposes in The Surrendered that trauma can be appropriated as an active and creative way through the narrative of memory.


옥타비아 버틀러의 『킨드레드』 — 억압된 역사의 귀환과 그 현재성


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 4호 2017.12 pp.113-138

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This paper attempts to read Octavia Butler’s Kindred in terms of how the slavery history that was oppressed by the American public discourse finally returns and insists on its ongoing presence. In the novel, Dana Franklin, an African American woman living in the 1970’s is driven into the antebellum South through time travel. Even though she seems to be transferred to the past by Rufus in trouble, her white male ancestor, it is revealed that the repressed history of slavery calls Dana so that she can directly face the realities of slavery. The encounter with slavery leads Dana to get a profound understanding of the unspeakably grim reality of slavery in which slave women are constantly exposed to white male’s sexual violence. Butler shows how the problematic relationship of Dana and Kevin, her white husband, reflects the legacy of the oppressive relationship of Rufus and Alice. Butler attempts to cope with the racial conflicts of the American society through their changing relationship. Kindred is significant in the neo-slave narrative tradition in that it persuasively presents how slavery produces ongoing effects on the present racial contradictions of American society, and in that it suggests a solution to the conflicts through an in-depth investigation of miscegenation.


매너, 실천적 지혜, 반응적 태도 — 오스틴을 중심으로


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 4호 2017.12 pp.139-164

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Many people tend to see manners as trivial things that are outdated. This paper, challenging a possible view of manners as a bygone standard of conduct or mere hypocritical capacities to act well, argues that good manners play an essential moral role. In Part 2 of this paper, I invoke Aristotelian concept of ‘practical wisdom’ in order to make my point. Austen shows that without the capacity both to notice moral situations and to behave in a well-mannered way accordingly, we fall short of full virtue. Austen also emphasizes the fact that even those who have perceptual capacity could lack manners, especially in the important moralized sense. In Part 3, this paper, using Peter Strawson’s notion of ‘reactive attitude’, examines how people often form relationships by expressing their attitudes and emotions, as well as investigates in the name of manners that reactive attitudes inevitably involve a form of social signaling.


give 경동사 구문의 사용

정민수, 조영순

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 4호 2017.12 pp.165-187

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This study examines the use of the give light-verb-construction which consists of the light verb give and a verbal noun derived from an intransitive verb. There are two types of those constructions: ditransitive GIVE1 (e.g., give him a look.) and monotranistive GIVE2 (e.g., give a laugh). Based on one of the central tenets of Construction Grammar (Goldberg 1995), and employing Gries and Stefanowitsch’s collexeme analysis and distinctive collexeme analysis, this study examines the preferential associations between the constructions and the verbal nouns. Three things were found: GIVE1 attracts the verbal nouns of visual actions and of favorable facial/bodily motions more than GIVE2 does; GIVE2 attracts the verbal nouns of bodily actions accompanied by sound and of short voluntary or involuntary gestures more than GIVE1 does; both of the constructions are used to communicate between the subject and the (specified or sometimes unspecified) object, conveying the subject’s condition or attitude to the object.


한국인 영어 학습자의 자기평가와 영어 공인점수와의 관계분석

김채은, 임현선

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 4호 2017.12 pp.189-206

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In EFL education, self-evaluation-that is, learners’ judgments regarding their own learning-is considered an important evaluation tool, but previous studies have focused on the degree of discrepancy between teachers’ evaluations of students and the students’ self-evaluations. In contrast, this study investigates how EFL learners’ self-evaluations are related to their proficiency levels. Questionnaires inquiring into five areas (speaking, reading, listening, writing, and grammar) were administered to 155 Korean college students divided into three proficiency groups (high, mid, and low). The results provide three main findings: (1) of the three groups, the high-proficiency group’s self-evaluation scores were the highest in all areas except for writing; (2) all the groups evaluated their speaking and writing abilities lower than their listening and reading abilities; (3) the high-proficiency group tended to underestimate their own English capability more than the mid-proficiency group did. Overall, the findings suggest that high-proficiency Korean EFL learners tend to evaluate themselves more negatively than do mid-and low-proficiency Korean EFL learners.


사전 온라인 학습이 영어 학업성취도와 동기변화에 미치는 영향

박근태, 김해동

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 4호 2017.12 pp.207-230

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The main purpose of this study is to verify the effects of online pre-learning on high school students' English language achievement and motivation. A total of 60 high school English learners were selected and divided into experimental and control groups. This experiment was conducted over 10 weeks with 7 sessions. The results of the experiment revealed that there was a statistically significant difference in the change between the post-achievement score and the pre-achievement score of the control group and that of the experimental group, in favor of the experimental group. There was also a significant difference in the motivation of ‘globality' between the two groups. The results indicated that online pre-learning improves students' English language achievement and develops the motivation of ‘globality.' The results imply that it is necessary to conduct online pre-learning activities for the improvement of English and development of motivation of Korean high school students. This study has limitations such as the limited number of subjects and period of the experiment. Therefore, various further studies related to this area are proposed.


EFL 학습자들의 E-learning과 M-learning 학습효과에 대한 메타분석


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 4호 2017.12 pp.231-260

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There have been many experimental studies on using multimedia technology in a Korean EFL context. These studies have reported effects, but the reported results are not generalized and are different from the research setting. This meta-analysis aims to present practical common effects of E/M-learning. The purpose of this study also is to examine and extract the effects of E/M-learning. The results of the meta-analysis showed a moderate effect of E/M-learning on English learning (ES=.553). Specifically, reading (.543) and writing (.505) proficiency showed a moderate effect size. However, speaking (.382) and listening (.381) proficiency presented a small effect size. As for learning types, the effects of E-learning (.592) showed a medium effect size, but those of M-learning (.369) provided a small effect size, which means that E-learning had a stronger efffect on EFL learners. M-learning, however, could possibly influence potential learners in learning the target language through mobile learning devices due to the development of related technology. Pedagogical and research implications are discussed.


A Theoretical Excursion into the Postmodern Drama of the Sublime

Hoon-sung Hwang

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 4호 2017.12 pp.261-284

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In this essay, I have endeavored to elucidate the theoretical bedrock of postmodern sublimity with a view to establishing a new aesthetics of postmodern drama in our contemporary age. The first step is to conceptually clarify the distinction between the postmodernity and the modernity. The second is to illuminate the conception of postmodern sublimity through exploring those philosophical contentions made by contemporary thinkers including Zygmunt Bauman, Theodore W. Adorno and Jean Baudrillard. To name a few relevant ideas, focused is Bauman’s notion of “liquidity” arousing in the contemporary minds ignorance, impotence and humiliation in the wake of experiencing the phenomena of globalization and postmodernism. Included is Adorno’s analysis of the sublime power of capital on culture industry in the wake of the degradation of the Enlightenment project. Further, I have attempted to reveal that Baudrillard’s sublimity rests on the concept of hyperreality created in the structure of simulation devoid of referentiality. Lastly, John Birringer’s performance project of staging the tales of two cities, Dallas and Genova, is discussed in terms of Baudrillard’s hallucinatory nature of hyperreality substantiated in them.


The Birth of Political Shakespeare : Ki Kukseo’s Hamlet Productions in the 1980s

Kang Kim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 4호 2017.12 pp.285-305

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This paper attempts to survey a series of experimental Hamlet productions under military dictatorship, when assassination, coup d’etat, usurpation, corruption, and state violence were daily realities in the 1980s Korea. When freedom of speech was curbed, Shakespeare’s old, foreign story was endowed with contemporary and local meanings, and became an apt vehicle of political reflection and social communication. This is localization in a more profound sense, not just dressing the Bard in drag or setting his plays to folk music and dance. The understanding Korean audience did not come to the theatre appreciate a Western masterpiece or to enjoy a polished performance, but to participate in an intellectually stimulating and emotionally disturbing experience. While Shakespeare’s concern in Hamlet is primarily about the royalty and nobility, the common people take center stage in these Korean adaptations—as bystanders, innocent victims, and maybe even involuntary accomplices, who see that the time is out of joint but feel incapable of setting it right. Thus recontextualized, Hamlet is a tragedy not of an individual or a family, but of the entire society afflicted by madness and terror. In a sense, the performance on stage is no more than a rehearsal, in preparation for real action outside the theatre.


Performance in Smart Language Learning Environments : Based on Social Cognitive Theory Framework

Hee-Jung Jung

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 4호 2017.12 pp.307-324

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This study empirically verified the factors affecting the learning outcomes of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners in a smart learning (s-learning) environment. Based on social cognitive theory (SCT), six independent constructs (facilitating conditions, social influence, positive attitude toward s-learning, self-efficacy, social interaction, and knowledge) were proposed in the research model. The data collected from 455 s-learning EFL learners were analyzed in order to test the causal relationships between these six constructs and s-learning performance. For the analysis, the structural equation model (SEM) with AMOS 22.0 was used, and all six constructs were found to have a significant effect on s-learning performance. Important implications are discussed based on the study results.


An Analysis of Videoconferencing Learning in Primary Schools

Bonggyu Kim, Jeemin Cho, Kwangsoon Lee

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 4호 2017.12 pp.325-346

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This study investigated how teaching English through an interactive videoconferencing tool develops learners’ language performance and also supports their psychological efficacy in primary English language settings. Videoconferencing in the English class involved 201 primary school students for eight weeks in Jeonnam Province. The results indicated that students showed positive learning behavior and productive achievement in language learning using the videoconferencing tool. In addition, the study found that interacting online with distant native-speaking teachers enhanced students’ motivation and interest in learning. This seems to indicate that multimedia assisted language learning (MALL) can facilitate learners’ self-directed language learning and other learning strategies. Furthermore, implementing videoconferencing teaching methodology can be a way of providing significant pedagogical benefits to the geographically disadvantaged areas including the large number of islands located in Korea.


A Study of the Factors Influencing College English Learners’ Actual Participation in Blended Learning

SoJeong Kim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 4호 2017.12 pp.347-365

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Despite more advanced technologies, there is a lack of practical research examining learner behaviors toward technologies particularly in ELT. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that influence EFL learners’ actual participation in blended learning, using its environmental attributes (accessibility, perceived usefulness, interactivity, and variety) and a learner attribute (behavioral intention). This study proposed a research model with hypotheses based on Davis’ (1989) Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Data were collected from 126 Korean college students at a beginning level and analyzed using the Structural Equation Model (SEM). Results indicate that all of the variables except accessibility influence learners’ intention to use blended learning. Also, the intention has a positive effect on their participation in learning. This implies that these key factors should be considered to encourage EFL learners to participate in blended learning.


The Effect of Task Type on Improving EFL Learners’ Awareness of Academic Register in L2 Vocabulary

Sun-Jung Lee

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 4호 2017.12 pp.367-393

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The literature on second language (L2) writing has reported that learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) lack register awareness, often incorrectly employing lexical items that are common in spoken English (i.e., informal words) in their academic writing, which requires formal register. EFL learners’ essays are informal and colloquial in style and tone as a result, which negatively influences the overall quality of their L2 writing. To address this issue, this study investigated the effect of task type on improving EFL learners’ awareness of academic register in L2 vocabulary. Participants included 139 Korean university students in 16-week academic English courses. Based on the finding that the depth of processing and the amount of repetition determine the effectiveness of vocabulary tasks (Laufer & Rozovski-Roitblat, 2011), various combinations of three types of tasks with different levels of depth of processing (i.e., matching, editing, and sentence-writing) and varying amounts of repetition (i.e., once vs. three times) were employed. Participants studied informal (spoken) and formal (written) vocabulary under five conditions (doing one matching task, doing three matching tasks, doing one editing task, doing three editing tasks, or doing one sentence-writing task) and completed a posttest. Analyses revealed the following results in relation to improving learners’ ability to distinguish between formal and informal words and to their use of formal words in academic writing: (1) the three matching and three editing tasks were significantly more effective than the one sentence-writing task, suggesting that repetition is more important than depth of processing; (2) the matching tasks were as effective as the editing tasks; and (3) students preferred the repetition of editing tasks. These results shed light on the issue of developing register awareness in L2 vocabulary use—a topic that has been underexplored in L2 lexical research. Ultimately, the findings point to a more effective instructional approach to increase L2 learners’ depth of vocabulary knowledge and improve their lexical use in academic writing.


Impact of Textual Code-Switching on Reading Comprehension in Paired-Text Instruction

Young-Joo Lim, Do-Seon Eur

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 4호 2017.12 pp.395-418

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This study examined the effects of textual code-switching on reading comprehension based on paired-text instruction. The subjects of this study are 12 Korean elementary EFL learners aged 11 to 13. This study examined whether textual code-switching in paired-text instruction was deemed effective in terms of enhancing the reading comprehension of both low- and high-proficiency EFL learners. Study results showed that for high-proficiency EFL learners, paired-text instruction was more effective in terms of heightening their overall reading comprehension, skill in making inference as well as paired-text reading comprehension. For low-proficiency learners, code-switched paired-text instruction was found to significantly develop their overall reading comprehension, especially literal reading comprehension and inference skills as well as paired-text reading comprehension.


Teaching Culture and Its Effect on the Classroom Motivation of Korean EFL Students in a Reading Class

Bokyung Murray

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 4호 2017.12 pp.419-440

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The purpose of this paper is to examine and compare the use of a standard textbook with the use of target language culture materials on student classroom motivation. Seven participants out of a class of 35 Korean university EFL students volunteered to participate in this study. This was a class in the skill of reading in English and met once a week for two hours, with one hour devoted to use of the textbook and another hour to studying cultural materials. These students engaged in interviews, diary entries, and were subjects of observation during one semester. Observation sheets were used to record students' on-task behavior, and also their overall class motivation as they used the textbook and the cultural materials, which consisted of three Hemingway short stories. Findings indicated five of the students were positively motivated to learn by the stories, and two students indicated a preference for the textbook. This study concludes with a discussion of classroom implications and study limitations.


Teacher Agency : A Two-level Ecological Model

Changyou Zhang, Jocelyn Wright

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 4호 2017.12 pp.441-459

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Despite the rich literature on agency in sociological studies, systematic conceptualizations of teacher agency (TA) are relatively new. Moreover, ecologically-inspired approaches to this construct have emerged only recently. In response to this situation, in this paper, we briefly review the theoretical background of agency and develop a more ecologically-oriented and holistic model of TA. To arrive at this, we first introduce the ecological perspective, followed by descriptions of four key concepts relevant to our study. We then offer an analysis of one recent framework of TA, devised by Priestley, Biesta, and Robinson (2015), which appears to be the first one that approaches TA from an ecological perspective. In acknowledging the values and contributions of this framework, we also locate a number of areas that justify our proposal of a new model. By integrating van Lier's (2004a) ecological diagram of affordance in context into the existing framework, our revised model elaborates and extends the previous one making it more explicitly ecological. In so doing, we recognize TA as an emergent phenomenon, as a result of the complex interactions at two levels. This ecologically-extended conceptualization of TA is expected to open up space for more context-sensitive and ecologically-valid research on agency in general, and TA in particular.


『초국가 시대의 역사, 인종, 젠더』(전남대학교 영미문화연구소 편저, 동인, 2017)


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 4호 2017.12 pp.461-466

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