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영어영문학21 [English21]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
    학술지
  • 발행기관
    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
  • ISSN
    1738-4052
  • 간기
    계간
  • 수록기간
    1967~2018
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제20권 2호 (13건)
No
1

혼합장르와 이중담론의 리얼리즘 : 멜빌 소설을 중심으로

고창석

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제20권 2호 2007.12 pp.5-26

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

Concentrating on Melville's major sea novels—Redburn(1849), White Jacket (1850), Moby-Dick(1851), and Billy Budd, Sailor(1886-91)—this paper aims to explore a literary realism focusing on mixed genre and double discourse. With this writing method Melville attempts to portray various kinds of ideological matters such as genuine christianity, political domination, and commercialism. This narrative style has contributed to the making of 'American romance' which eventually developed into 'American renaissance.' Thus, it seems significant and worthwhile to examine these two elements of Melville's writing. There are notable implications regarding individual improvement and social revolution in Melville's narrative. Melville's contention is that, despite all kinds of injustices in the world, the pursuit of individual rights, in accordance with the ideals of democracy and equality, is still possible. This underlying representation of reality however is not easy to grasp. That's why he metaphysically traces out the mysterious phantom of life as well as evil. In order to see the descriptive strategy Melville used to make his writing persuasive, it is necessary to review how his writing methods such as irony, paradox, and oxymoron embody a metaphoric integration and harmony accepting many different genres. As a basis for reviewing Melville's characteristic technique and discourse, it is useful to examine the elements of intertextuality and dialogicality in his works. For concrete approaches to Melville's literary world, Bakhtin's dialogical theory is appropriate because Melville's discourse often has ambivalent and indeterminate connotations which seem to implicitly reveal his belief in absolute human values and the possibility of a new realism.

2

아이리스 머독의『그물을 헤치고』와『잘려진 머리』에 나타난 타자성의 인식

오인택

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제20권 2호 2007.12 pp.27-43

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Iris Murdoch's fictional world in Under the Net and A Severed Head is about the unique experiences of modern men living in the uncertain world of the middle and late twentieth century. In the two novels she weaves a dense net of human relationships in which people as social beings are inescapably related to one another. In so doing she explores mainly how we can get out of our own preoccupations that prevent us from seeing others as they really are and how we can still cherish others for their otherness. To be more specific, Murdoch portrays in two novels the protagonists constantly trying to construct their own theory or hypothesis regarding their messy universe in an attempt to give an order to it. Yet while in Under the Net Jake does not achieve any moral understanding of either himself or his relationships but remains a drifting character, in A Severed Head Martin finally admits the painful reality and comes to fully accept the otherness of other people. By comparing two novels, this essay ultimately tries to highlight how Murdoch develops from a philosopher-writer to a professional writer who finally succeeds in melting her initial philosophical insights and themes on human nature and human relationships organically into an artistic form of novel.

3

콘라드의 모호성 :『어둠의 한가운데』에 구현된 사회-정치적 이데올로기

함정인

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제20권 2호 2007.12 pp.45-64

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This is to study the social commitment and ideology realized through Conrad's ambiguity, analysing discourse of colonialism and imperialist ideology reflected in Heart of Darkness. Conrad showed clearly that in both colonialism and imperialism, the goal is only a splendid enrichment of the conquering power at the expense of the subjugated nation or race, but the only practical effect of the rhetoric of civilization is to delude people or race in the nation. Therefore Conrad's ambivalence said to be only a muffled protest in his fiction made a great contribution to reveal imperial pretenses. To Marlow, Kurtz's cry is a moral victory since it demonstrated a recognition of the betrayal of his imperialists' ideals. Marlow feels that Kurtz is vindicated by an emotional realization of the horror of his experience just before he dies. Consequently, despite his severe of criticism of imperialism, Conrad could not conclude that imperialism had to end so that the natives could lead lives free from European domination. The tales Marlow can't tell, the truths he cannot utter, that is, the 'unspeakable' life story of Kurtz, lurk in the interstices of narrative ensuring that Marlow's colonialist apologetics can be read at once and the same time as postcolonial critique.

4

로알 달의 동화 비틀어 읽기

김일환

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제20권 2호 2007.12 pp.65-79

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This thesis aims to explore the strategy of Roald Dahl to appropriate the already established fairy tales. With his intellectual approaches, he disintegrates the traditional concept such as filial love, frugality, and sincerity even though he eventually arrives at the same conclusion as common fairly tales. Dahl was chosen as a favorite writer in Britain. But his works have raised controversy about their validity of theme as a literature for children. One of the distinguishing features in his works is the naked expression of violence. Violence is the means of awakening readers to recognize the hidden or potential evil in everyday life. His view of soceity, his contempt for corrupt authority figures, and his distrust of the established system have made his works popular with various kinds of readers.

5

존 밀링턴 싱의 극『성자의 샘』에 나타난 개인과 집단의 문화적 대립

김상미

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제20권 2호 2007.12 pp.81-97

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Most of John Millington Synge's plays center on conflicts resulting from differences in cultural values, attitudes and way of living. The Well of the Saints, along with his earlier plays Riders to the Sea and The Shadow of the Glen, contradicts the popular notion that Synge's peasants are primitives untouched by civilization or modernization, suggesting the rural Ireland is subject to the cultural transition. It presents more extended commentary on the conflict between individuals and villagers. Martin, a man of traditional values, is opposed by the villagers and the Saint, who long to make him conform to their standard. Both sides do not succeed, but Mary, Martin's wife, provides a clear example of the confusion which cultural transition incurs. She is also viewed as an embodiment of Synge's pursuit searching for reconciliation between the two sides in conflict.

6

『12야』에 나타난 양성성 연구 - 바이올라를 중심으로

김순애

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제20권 2호 2007.12 pp.99-116

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This study on Twelfth Night analyzes a woman disguised as a man who suggests an ideal human type in Shakespearean terms. Shakespeare presents Viola, an androgynous vision of the potential, to achieve unity, wholeness, and harmony within the confines of a human being. Viola, in disguise as a man and under androgynous conditions, tries to solve her problems as a man and a woman that are associated with her social relationship. This process reveals that gender differentiation between female and male is social, psychological, and cultural. In Twelfth Night, Viola acts more like a man than an ordinary man and her masculine potential does not fall behind her twin brother Sebastian's. Viola becomes a perfect man, inwardly and outwardly, combining harmonious feminine merits—wit, care, sympathy for others—with masculine ones including courage and self-confidence. And she finally succeeds in winning Olivia's love. Moreover, in the last act, she solves all the problems by uncovering her disguises and recovers her original gender. Disguise, in this respect, is the means both to develop masculine merits and to reveal ideal feminine personalities not just by imitating man's behaviors. This disguise serves as a sure means to her end to be a better human than she was. With both sexes within herself she can be Viola and Sebastian, or a woman and a man at the same time. In the process, Shakespeare makes it clear that a woman with bisexuality can overcome women's traditional role and have balanced personalities, and that her androgyny is not meant for the physical but for inner qualities.

7

사무엘 베케트 작품에 나타난 음악성

박은희

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제20권 2호 2007.12 pp.117-137

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This thesis aims to make clear how elaborately Samuel Beckett utilizes the qualities of music in his plays. His interest in music at an early age results from the feeling that the expressiveness of language is quite restrictive and limited. Such an interest is well established in the transformational structure of his works. Especially, as a solution to this linguistic crisis, his plays tend to employ musical qualities in the pursuit of structural accuracy. This quest is illustrated in his serial music works using these features and indicates a new direction of our musical understanding. His early novels, poems, and plays serve as the evidence of my point. Beckett's later plays, highlighted by silence, pause, and linguistic compression, show his greater interest in visual images as well as auditive qualities. Ghost Trio, in particular, a successful embodiment of Beethoven's musical piece, explores how music can function in a dramatic work to bring about desirable effect.

8

OT-CC에 의한 과다적용과 과소적용의 불투명한 분석

나은영

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제20권 2호 2007.12 pp.139-159

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The aim of this paper is to investigate the opacity resulting from underapplication and overapplication. Opacity, which refers to the phenomenon that output forms are shaped by generalizations that are not surface-true, or not surface-apparent, has been a challenge to standard Optimality Theory (Prince & Smolensky 1993) since it does not allow intermediate level of derivation. Local Conjunction (Smolensky, 1993; Kirchner, 1996) and Sympathy Theory (McCarthy, 1999; 2002b) have been proposed to deal with the opacity but there are also problems in them. In this paper to resolve the problem in standard Optimality Theory, Local Conjunction, and Sympathy Theory, I'll attempt to solve the opacity problem by employing the new account of McCarthy (2006a-d)'s Optimality Theory with Candidate Chains, which incorporates inter-candidate derivational information with PREC(edence) constraints(A, B). Based on Optimality Theory with Candidate Chains with PREC(edence) constraints(A, B), this paper examines and analyses the opacity resulting from underapplication and overapplication. And I support the superiority of Optimality Theory with Candidate Chains.

9

영어의 ECM 구문 분석

박현석

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제20권 2호 2007.12 pp.161-177

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The purpose of this study is to discuss ECM (exceptional case marking) constructions in English and to draw a better analysis method of ECM by discussing various approaching methods about it. Chomsky (1981) explained ECM by using S'-deletion in the framework of GB Theory, but there was one problem because, in the structure with this verb (i.e.. believe), the case is assigned peculiarly. To solve this problem, some methods have been provided by such linguists as Kayne (1981), Riemsdijk & Williams (1986) and Chomsky (1986, 1992). I have found that the analysis in Chomsky (1992) is the most satisfactory of all in explaining ECM because Chomsky can eliminate the barrier(=S') by assigning the objective case based on Spec-Head Agreement.

10

O. Jespersen의 어휘범주 연구

이현신, 이일호

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제20권 2호 2007.12 pp.179-197

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In the course of grammar history, the initial endeavor to classify words only according to meaning, like early philosophers', was replaced by other trials to sort them on the basis of function and form. Thrax classified words into eight categories and his classification is based not only on meaning but also on function and form. Since Thrax, there have been much progress and many changes in English grammar. Otto Jespersen classified words into five categories and he tried to classify words only by their form. However, in some cases, there was a need to consider their meaning, so he worked out both three-rank theory of primary, secondary and tertiary, and junction and nexus theory. In this study, I claimed that Jespersen's word classes and theories are ideal way to search and find out a more perfect linguistic theory. He assumed just five lexical categories: substantives, adjectives, pronouns, verbs, and particles. We can find out this economy of classifying word classes in studies of generative grammarians such as Radford and Aarts. Better understanding Otto Jespersen's theories contributes to our effort for a better linguistic theory.

11

형태초점 과제학습과 의미중심 과제학습에 대한 학습자의 태도

박부남

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제20권 2호 2007.12 pp.199-224

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This paper examines learner attitude toward task-based language learning and teaching in two different classes for middle school students. To compare the effectiveness of a form-focused task and a meaning-focused task in a task-based instruction context, this study measured a preliminary and a post English achievement tests, administrated a survey on the attitude towards their learning, and interviewed students, teaching assistants, and teachers. The results showed their different achievements and attitude levels between the form-focused task class and the meaning-focused task class over a period of three weeks. The form-focused task class increased students' language achievement score, but the students were less motivated than those in the meaning-focused task class. In contrast, the students in the meaning-focused task class were highly motivated by their task making a film and the skillful teacher who led them. Based on the results of the two different task-based classes, this paper discusses the factors that lead to a successful class with task-based learning and teaching. By exploring these elements, this paper suggests the educational implications for those who want to develop and implement a task-based language learning and teaching approach for middle school students.

12

Is She a Fiend? : Lady Macbeth's Part in Macbeth

Kang Kim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제20권 2호 2007.12 pp.225-246

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This paper aims to reconsider Lady Macbeth's part in Macbeth as the woman who solely devotes herself in the quest for power for her husband, not for manliness. The traditional Shakespearean scholarships of criticism toward Lady Macbeth have seen her as a fiend-like figure, a devil, or a scapegoat in the male-dominated society, or a symbol of the feminine subjectivity against all conventional prejudice surrounding the women. However, we can grasp in the play that Lady Macbeth's sense of selfhood depends on a traditional pattern of femininity-both wife and helpmate. Wishing to yield her womanhood, she wants to be close to Macbeth. She offers the best she has to her husband. Even she takes on his unethical will to power. So, her tragic flaws can be interpreted in terms of conventional virtues women had to possess. Although her greatest mistake is that she is too much obsessed with her duty to husband without any discrimination of conscience and morality, her consistent affection and sacrificial or oftentimes irrational support for her man, even if the results are proved wrong, should be understood and acknowledged in the name of love. We are virtually living in the world where men and women depend on each other. Shakespeare seems to describe the patterns of our lives more broadly and accurately through his two protagonists, Lady Macbeth and Macbeth in the play.

13

Probability Approaches to Conditionals

Youngsoon Cho

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제20권 2호 2007.12 pp.247-264

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This paper seeks to show what the concept of conditional probability can do and how it is best incorporated in explaining conditionals with main reference to Jackson (1987) and Edington (1995, 2003). Probability approaches to conditionals are able to distinguish probable conditionals from improbable conditionals. In addition to this, Jackson's approach, which employs the truth functional calculus of material conditional approach, also predicts the truth value of conditionals having false antecedents, while the ones which don't incorporate the material conditional of propositional logic cannot. Both of them have problems with conditionals containing false antecedents: the former cannot say anything about their assertibility; the latter doesn't provide them with interpretations. The former, utilizing conditional probability as the criterion to determine assertibility of conditionals, has a serious problem with clarifying the concept of assertibility due to the fact that asserting is eventually a behaviour and that assertion of a conditional cannot be rightly identified with its conditional probability.

 
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