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영어영문학21 [English21]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
    학술지
  • 발행기관
    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
  • ISSN
    1738-4052
  • 간기
    계간
  • 수록기간
    1967~2019
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제27권 2호 (19건)
No
1

오스트레일리아와 러시아를 통해서 본 J. M. 쿳시의 공간서사 — 『슬로우 맨』과 『페테르부르크의 대가』를 중심으로

김현아

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 2호 2014.06 pp.5-32

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This paper is concerned with Coetzee's intention of experimenting with new subjects through the movement of his spatial background, centering on the novels The Master of Petersburg and Slow Man. These novels are based in Russia and Australia, in contrast to South Africa where Coetzee placed his past novels. The Master of Petersburg treats the subtle tension between a revolutionist devoting his attentions to history, and a writer criticizing “blind revolution”. Following this course, Coetzee raises the question whether Dostoyevsky's reproach of a revolutionist can be indeed justified in a complex way. Coetzee, that is, confuses the reader by not giving Dostoyevsky moral legitimacy. The Dostoyevsky Coetzee creates is obsessed with a desire for writing and eventually comes to betray everyone around him, including his dead son, using them as materials for his writing. But Coetzee does not blame Dostoyevsky, as most writers inevitably use people around them for inspiration. Slow Man characterizes the individual's self-conscious life, regardless of political or historical aspects, as in The Master of Petersburg. The main character, Paul Rayment, is an immigrant from France who has been disabled in a bicycle accident in his old age. This circumstance stresses his strangeness and Otherness as a “slow man”, the title of the novel. His situation of being disabled, however, incites him to come to accept the Other. Based on these novels’ characters, this present work analyses how the main subjects of these texts have changed as the backgrounds of these texts have shifted from South Africa to Russia and Australia. This is because it is important that the changes reflected on the new spaces have shown the author’s recreated view with his own immigration. In this context, this paper emphasizes that The Master of Petersburg and Slow Man are creative narratives which need to be extended to readings related to movement of background, to Russia and Australia, far from Coetzee’s homeland of South Africa.

2

사라 케인의 『폭파』에 나타난 폭력과 윤리적 가능성

박세원

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 2호 2014.06 pp.33-55

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This essay analyses Sarah Kane's Blasted in the theories of Antonin Artaud, Marquis De Sade, and of Gilles Deleuze. As one of the Thatcher's children, Kane very well recognized what was placed beneath the social order of Britain in her age which was violence. Therefore in Blasted and in all of her career, trying to find new theatrical forms which called later the experimental theatre, she sought to break from the old British theatrical style which was a journalistic realism functioning as a ‘talking head’. Artaud's theory of the theatre of cruelty tells us how Blasted worked as a play that affect audience's emotion directly by the cruelties of the play. According to Artaud, ‘first comes the emotion, the thinking afterword' is the way of the theatre working. Extrapolating on the basis of the theory of Sade, we are able to understand what was a hidden principle of Britain, at least her generation. Kane made an attempt to reveal it and wanted theatre-goers to notice that principle. The theory of Deleuze, expecially on Spinoza's ethics, explains what kind of ethics possible in Blasted. It is ethics of ‘good’ and ‘bad’ rather than ‘good’ and ‘evil’. Characters in the play show how to follow good mode of being and how to deny bad mode of being by their relations to each others. Blasted is certain one of the most shocking plays in the contemporary theatre, but distinctly is the play that opens up a new ethical possibility.

3

섀런 올즈의 에로스의 목소리

양균원

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 2호 2014.06 pp.57-85

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This article is an effort to characterize the poetical subject of Sharon Olds by examining her erotic voice. She strategically uses the most provocative language, such as cock and cunt, to shock readers, while shamelessly exposing not only sexual activities of her own but also those of her parents, sister, and children. Her popularity among general readers, apparently coming from her wide openness to sex, sometimes arouses critical response that she is sensational, repetitive, and shallow. However, Olds’s scandalous language is often successful in charming readers to listen to her inner voice, erotic as it may be, to what goes beyond sensationalism. First, Olds’s sensational verbal usage can be acknowledged as a legitimate approach to literature if only supported by her candidness, and contributable to conjuring up thematic potentialities as in “The Pope’s Penis” and “Ode to the Clitoris.” Second, her seeming repetitiveness harbors varieties and even developments as the motif of sex and love changes from about parents’ puritanical pressure to about her father on his deathbed, and to about divorced husband. Additionally, her poetry sometimes deals with other subject-matters than sexual eroticism as in “Still Life in Landscape.” Third, in her most successful poems, such as “Sex without Love” and “Stag’s Leap,” she is so versed at using multi-layered metaphors, and so complicated in responding to sex and body, as to show her sense of balance and thematic depth.

4

『주홍글자』에 나타난 등장인물들의 내적갈등

이길구

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 2호 2014.06 pp.87-103

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

Hawthorne's Characters' Inner Conflicts in The Scarlet Letter are characterized by his memorable themes about fate and the human free will. His fate consists of Calvinistic Providence, and Predestination. His perspectives on the human free will appear to stem form different sources: partly from Calvinism, and partly from Transcendentalism and Arminianism. When his characters' inner conflicts are intertwined with fatalistic forces by free will and sins, he is troubled by the good. In The Scarlet Letter Hester has strong irresistible free will and resists fate, but the one is devastated by the other. Her husband Chillingworth has also the proud free will which includes evil intention to sin against Holy Spirit. That is, he lacks love and reverence for the human soul, whose evil is called “unpardonable”. He accentuates intellectual arrogance more than soul and finally he collapses, being unable to recover the Providence. In addition, he takes a posture with an inner conflicts on human relations, too.

5

윈드러쉬 세대와 ‘집’의 정치학 — 샘 셀본의 『모세 출세하다』와 『모세 이주하다』

이정화

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 2호 2014.06 pp.105-126

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

Responding to Kureishi's call for “a fresh way of seeing Britain,” this essay analyzes the reconceptualization of home(land) by the Windrush generation in Sam Selvon's Moses Ascending (1975) and Moses Migrating (1983). Moses, narrator and protagonist in both novels, is a whitewashed black immigrant from Trinidad, who has come to London in the 1950s like many other West Indian immigrants known as the Windrush generation. Moses Ascending begins as a success story of a black immigrant who becomes a landlord of a dilapidated London house, ensconces himself in the highest flat, and hires a white man Friday as a servant. As the story unfolds, however, Moses's house becomes a site where hierarchical binaries of white vs. black, master vs. servant, landlord vs. tenant, and native vs. immigrant are collapsed through a series of “comic reversals.” The ongoing reorganization of Moses's house questions the racist logic behind post-1962 immigration policies and racial attacks on black immigrants. Furthermore, in Moses Migrating set in Trinidad during the Carnival season, Selvon satirizes Moses's misled identification with the ‘mother country' and mocks the idea of keeping Britain white. Read together, Moses Ascending and Moses Migrating challenge the narrow and inaccurate definition of Britain as white people's home(land).

6

‘아버지들’에 대해 이야기하기 — 샐리 모건의 『나의 자리』가 내파하는 호주 국민서사

이혜란

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 2호 2014.06 pp.127-146

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

Sally Morgan's My Place, a landmark of Aboriginal literature, has a great meaning in terms of its recovery of the history of Aborigine and engraving its own rightful existence in Australian society, which has been rejected intentionally by whites. In some aspects, however, the narrative of My Place has been treated as just a piece of the past which should be integrated into the formation of Australian national narrative, while the history of violence and abuse to Aboriginal people by whites is being buried into the past. The purpose of this paper is to re-read and to analyze My Place to demonstrate that it is loaded with the discomfiture which could rupture white Australian national narrative. To achieve this aim, this paper critically analyzes Bill Milory and Drake-Brockman, the two white male characters who are deeply involved in the lives of three Aboriginal women characters. Through this analysis, this paper demonstrates Bill's pain was caused by his reminding of racial abuse to Aboriginal people in Australia from the memories of the Holocaust he witnessed at the Nazi's concentration camp during World War II. Also, this paper shows that the silence of Daisy as a victim of white male pioneers ironically makes the existence of Drake-Brockman and his violence and exploitation to her come to the surface of the narrative. In conclusion, this paper demonstrates that My Place, by exposing discomfitures of Australian history concerning white males, ruptures and implodes the white Australian national narrative from the basis which has been fostered through passing the shameful history of violence and exploitation into oblivion.

7

유도라 웰티의 『낙관주의자의 딸』— 기억과 회상을 통한 치유의 내러티브

장경순

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 2호 2014.06 pp.147-172

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

Welty admits that she leads a sheltered and protected life mostly in Mississippi, growing up and that a sheltered life can be a daring life. The autobiographical elements of the writer who is an artist and a survivor are embedded in Welty's The Optimist's Daughter, in particular. The protagonist of this text has something in common with the writer herself. She is an artist who loses her family and is left alone in Mississippi like Welty. This study explores how the protagonist of The Optimist's Daughter, heals her mind wounds through recollecting her mother's death and her husband's after her father's funeral, and establishes her own identity as an artist who is isolated and independent in the Southern community where she grows up. The protagonist reexamines the layered relationship between her mother and father that is different from what she wants to remember. Also she tries to understand the past including her father's remarriage with a much younger woman. She comes not only to understand her parents' pain, but to realize her late husband's despair. She delves into the close relationship between the past and the present, and then the future. She tries to heal the wounds of the past through remembering and recollecting memories as a survivor in the family.

8

담화세계의 확대/축소에 따르는 명사의 전성

박한기

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 2호 2014.06 pp.173-195

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This paper examined how proper nouns are converted to a common entity noun in a more comprehensive universe of discourse and a common entity noun to a proper noun in a more restricted universe of discourse. A proper noun, which was named in a more restricted universe of discourse, is converted to a common entity noun in a more comprehensive universe of discourse. Family names like Smith are frequently converted to a common entity noun when uttered in a larger community as in The Smith I mean is a Scottish economist. A common entity noun, which was named in a more comprehensive universe of discourse, is converted to a proper noun in a more restricted universe of discourse. President is converted to a common entity noun when uttered among people of a nation as in President made an address on TV.

9

TedED를 활용한 대학 교양영어 교수-학습 방안

변지현

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 2호 2014.06 pp.197-226

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This research aims to incorporate TedED into general college-level English classes in South Korea. The students who participated in the research were English majors, who registered for general English classes. The TedED online site includes diverse lesson themes that are worth sharing. The site also offers unique functions such as ‘follow-up questions,’ ‘discussion questions,' and ‘dig deeper.' The research questions are related to learners' perspectives toward using the TedED video clips in English reading classes and the effects of the TedED on learners' affective factors. Throughout the classes, students watched the TedED video clips as a pre-reading activity. During the lesson, students received a lecture about the TedED video and the reading materials from the main textbook. For the team project of the course, students were required to perform a lecture demonstration like a speaker in the TedED. Since this paper is a case study, the data were collected from interviews, surveys, observations, and learners’ weekly journals in order to enhance the trustworthiness of the study. The findings of the research show several pedagogical implications regarding the incorporation of TedED into an EFL context. TedED is very useful for EFL English classes, but instructors need to select easy, varied, and interesting video clips from the TedED site so that learners may not perceive them as difficult.

10

지속적 묵독을 이용한 영어 읽기 교육

정수영

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 2호 2014.06 pp.227-253

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This study explores whether Silent Sustained Reading(SSR) is helpful of Korean university students to improve English reading ability. Understanding and participation on SSR, interest, confidence and willness on English were questioned before and after SSR. The data were analyzed statistically using the t-test. The result showed that the experimental group did better than the control group on English ability test. In the understanding on SSR, interest and willness on English showed statistically meaningful, but participation on SSR and confidence on English did not showed positive outcome. The findings of this study suggest SSR is effective when it is exposed during considerable long term periods and the need for further research on how to incorporate SSR into the reading curriculum.

11

영어 대화연속체에서 한국대학생들의 부사어구 사용에 대한 연구

조은아

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 2호 2014.06 pp.255-272

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This research explores the Korean university students' use of English adverbials by studying how adverbials contribute to pragmatic tone. English oral data from 80 participants whose native language is Korean were transcribed and analysed. All adverbials that have assertive tone and intense tone were identified and grouped by proficiency level of the Korean university students. The results show that both the range and frequency of adverbials used are very similar between the lower- and higher-proficiency groups. Both groups use adverb “so” that has intense tone far more frequently than other adverbials. However, the two groups differ in their use of adverbials to convey pragmatic tone. The lower-proficiency learners tend to rely more upon intensifiers by repeatedly using a limited number of adverbs. Compared with the lower-proficiency group, the higher-proficiency learners have a tendency to use various adverbials in interactional contexts. The findings indicate that pragmatic proficiency should be studied in the skillful use of adverbials to convey messages. Finally, EFL teachers should consider that the appropriate use of adverbs which are pragmatically rich items contributes to the learners' utterance.

12

딕토글로스 듣기학습이 토익 듣기 파트별 성취도와 수업태도에 미치는 영향—하위집단 중심으로

주미란

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 2호 2014.06 pp.273-291

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of dictogloss on listening scores of each TOEIC LC part and it is focused on low English ability level learners. In this study, 35 university students were chosen for the experimental group and 31 for the control group. Listening classes were run for three weeks two hours a day and dictogloss activity was carried out about 40 minutes a day. First, the Experimental group students' scores were spectacularly increased part 1 and part 2, and this group showed significant difference compared to the control group in part 2. This indicates that dictogloss can improve part 2. Second, dictogloss activity had positive effects on interest and self-confidence level, but statistically there was significant difference in interest only. This indicates that low level learners can pay attention to classes more and get more motivation through dictogloss activity. According to these results, to foster an environment where low level students can actively take part in the activity, simple and interesting material should be adequate at the beginning stages, and gradually complex and harder text should be used. part1 and part2 are composed of shorter and simple sentences and require more bottom-ups skill than top-down skills.

13

Who Killed the Father?: The Conflict of Tradition and Capitalism in Park Bum-shin’s Salt

Jai Young Park

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 2호 2014.06 pp.293-310

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Park Bum-shin’s Salt delineates a father who has lost his place in a capitalist society and a family collapsed by consumptive desire. Capitalism commodifies everything including human beings and polarizes the society on the basis of the possession of capital. It generates discursive alterations in culture and lifestyle, and the father’s place and roles too are influenced by it. Especially in Korea, capitalism collapses the tradition of patriarchy and drives the unproductive father out of his place as head of household. The feeble productivity of the father who fails to be interpolated into the middle class continues to be manipulated by the capitalist. Nevertheless the paternal responsibility that Korean culture imposes upon the father is still valid and incessantly oppresses him. While the family addicted to conspicuous consumption spend like maniacs, the father’s labor is always insufficient to gratify the family’s desire. In such circumstances, Sun Myung-woo whose family has become like his pancreatic cancer finds no way to survive in the reality. He has to leave, dreaming of being free from capitalist ideology. He proclaims disconnection from “productivity” that he has been subject to in his whole life. Through his devotion to paralyzed Kim Seung-min and his dysfunctional family, he attempts to begin a new life that can hopefully exist outside the periphery of capitalism. However ironically, he seems to be fettered again to the new family and to the goal of “the best salt.” In this context, this paper construes the novel within Marxist criticism and discusses the issue of identity of the Korean father, the connotation of Myung-woo’s new family, and the author’s advice.

14

Reconstructing East-West Disparity in David Henry Hwang’s Golden Child

Junggyung Song

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 2호 2014.06 pp.311-331

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The phenomenal success of David Henry Hwang’s M. Butterfly played a crucial role in Asian American theater. However, Hwang’s position as a successful Asian American writer was precarious due to continuous expectations from the ethnic group and his desire to move up the career ladder, even if it meant compromising his ethnic identity. The Miss Saigon affair shows the leverage of racial issues on him. He intended to aid Asian Americans, only to expose himself to harsh criticism from them. Since then, Hwang’s perspective on racial identity has been in a state of flux, and this change started to show in his later dramas. Golden Child was his second mainstream hit after M. Butterfly. Unlike M. Butterfly where he tried to deconstruct the boundary between the East and the West, Golden Child juxtaposes the two as irreconcilable sides, one of which should succumb. Golden Child finally concludes with the victory of the Western culture, which is described as essential progress in the future. Such an ending reflects his growing distance from his racial ethnicity, opposing his ending to Family Devotions (1981) where the Eastern culture wins. He strives to establish a new post-racial identity, freed from his ethnicity and thus becomes a target of criticism. But his lopsided view leaning toward the West brings him into self-subversion as a subject producing the same East-West misconceptions which he once intended to deconstruct.

15

Oriental Imagery and Female Victimhood in Nora Okja Keller’s Comfort Woman

Seungyeon Lee

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 2호 2014.06 pp.333-349

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

In the book Comfort Woman, Nora Okja Keller describes a tragic history of a woman whose past unfolds the atrocities of the imperial Japanese army. With the various elements of the traditional thoughts, Keller successfully depicts a mother- daughter relationship on top of the description of the woman's personal history as a ‘comfort woman'. However, it can be argued that the illustration with detailed oriental imagery may represent the main character in such a way that reinforces the victimization. This paper analyzes the use of the traditional symbology and shamanism in the novel. Then the female bodies will be studied as symbolic battlefields, and the actual issue of the ‘comfort women' will also briefly be investigated; then finally the paper will look for the reasoning that makes writers like Keller able to represent the group, and the problems will be discussed as to whether or not the graphic description doubly victimizes the women for the other's interest.

16

Temporal and Spatial Displacement in Black Homelessness in August Wilson’s Fences

Seoho Hahm

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 2호 2014.06 pp.351-368

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The quickly changing African American experience in the 1960s with the Civil Rights movement and many others, and the people’s struggles coping with even the positive changes are most blatantly yet subtly depicted in August Wilson’s Fences. Baseball is the most prominent theme by which he expresses the fortunes and misfortunes of his characters, mainly the Maxson family, and while this metaphor seems relevant and positive, it is also destructive to Troy and his family. The sense of being protected by fences as well as feeling limited by these fences begins blurring the sense of home or rather, homelessness and what it means to have a true home or not. This problem is especially pertinent to the contemporary black males who need to play the role of the patriarch, and who seem to be gaining by the changing atmosphere, yet cannot seem to accept the changes because of the fear of being left behind in history. All elements and motifs are double-edged swords in this play, but the men in the Maxson family slowly progress despite obstacles—especially family feuds—reflecting the new era to come.

17

Interdisciplinary Research on Hollywood Action Movies from 1930 to 2009

Jungsik Park, Min-Kyu Kim, Yun-Su Jun

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 2호 2014.06 pp.369-386

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This study performed an interdisciplinary research on action movies released from 1930 to 2009 based on the Internet Movie Database (iMDB). It targeted synopses and keyword tags of 799 movies and found there were major recurrent themes of “Rescue,” “Revenge,” “Chase,” “Thwart,” “Abduct,” “Escape,” “Sacrifice,” “Thieve,” “Betray,” and “(Dis-)inform.” The results show that fight scenes have increased their use of guns and martial arts since WWII; heroes have changed from groups to individuals; and background locations have changed from large scale outdoor towns and war zones, to more confined areas such as buildings and cars, though the variety of locations has increased to include multiple cities and countries.

18

Demotivation and Remotivation Affecting L2 English Learning of Korean College Students

Young Ah Cho, Ho Young Chung

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 2호 2014.06 pp.387-408

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This study explored the demotivation and remotivation of college students in L2 learning depending on different proficiency levels. A questionnaire which was composed of three sections was carried out: questions on background information, questions on demotivation, and questions on remotivation. The findings indicated that the external factor was found to be the main cause of the learners’ demotivation, followed by internal and reactive factors, showing that there existed statistically significant differences for the external and internal factors between the lower and higher proficiency learners. In terms of remotivating attributes, the internal sources appeared to be more influential than the external ones in regaining motivation toward English learning between the two groups. More specifically, grading and assessing English exam and awareness of raising English proficiency to get a job were the most frequent reasons for remotivation in the external and internal factors respectively for both groups. Pedagogical implications and suggestions were made based on the findings.

19

Reading Stories in Pictures with Children’s Picture Books

Jae-Young Choi

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 2호 2014.06 pp.409-433

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This study attempts to introduce the concept of visual text reading in Korean children’s picture book reading. It contemplates ways to implement analytic ‘picture reading’ in English classrooms with the purpose of Korean children’s literary and literacy development and incidental English learning. For the purpose the study first reviews research on the role of pictures in picture book narratives, and discusses principles and codes involved in analytic interpretation of the pictures. And to see the possibility of analytic picture reading in primary classrooms, the study reviews classroom studies experimenting on child readers’ ability to conduct pictorial analysis in literary groups. Then, to present a model picture reading classwork, picture analyses are done with two sample picture books, The Tiger Who Came to Tea (Kerr) and Clarice Bean, That’s Me (Child). Based on the analyses, sample discussion points for picture reading activities with the two books are created for Korean children’s English classrooms where such picture books can be read. Finally, possible issues for the implementation in Korean settings are discussed.

 
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