영어영문학21 [English21]

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  • 자료유형
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    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
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  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
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    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제25권 1호 (14건)

워즈워스 시의 역사적 상상력 — 「허물어진 농가」와 기타 시를 중심으로


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 1호 2012.03 pp.5-25

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This study is an attempt to investigate the radical political ramifications of Wordsworth's early poetry, with a special reference to “The Ruined Cottage,” “Goody Blake and Harry Gill,” “The Last of the Flock,” and “Michael: A Pastoral Poem.” Some of the so-called ‘historicist' critics of Wordsworth argued that his early poetry tends to reveal the symptoms of his later political conservatism, while other more genuinely ‘historial' critics emphasize the ancient local communitarianism tenaciously held on in his poetry. Sympathetic to the latter's position, this paper closely analyzes Wordsworth's four poems to recuperate the authentic historical meaning in his poetry. Overall, Wordsworth's poems discussed here deal with the historical problem in the transitional period of the Industrial Revolution and the Agricultural Revolution in the late 18th century Britain, through a personal account of the tragic suffering of an individual or a family, often an artisan and/or a small farmer whose traditional mode of production was destined to decline with the rise of the industrialized England. It is my premise that Wordsworth in these poems does not look back to or idealize the medieval socio-economic system which was dominated by the landed aristocracy but rather implies a utopian image of the traditional local communitarianism which goes back to the ancient times of Anglo-Saxon England, as an alternative to the dehumanizing forces of modern Industrialism. Wordsworth's sympathetic account of the honest, once-happy and hardworking rustic people in the throe of historical change, provides a radical critique of the ideologies of laisez-faire political economy and the controversial New Poor Law, because of the critical distance which the residual mode of production takes from the dominant one. The ramifications of Wordsworth's radical critique of the contemporary British society might be discussed in the further studies of Wordsworth.


에드먼드 버크의 미학과 정치


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 1호 2012.03 pp.27-62

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This paper explores the intricate interrelationships of aesthetics and politics that are represented in the works of Edmund Burke. Burke, in Reflections on the Revolution in France, expressed his strong aversion and fear against the French Revolution. What interests us about this negative criticism is his conspicuous modifications of the aesthetics of the beautiful and the sublime constructed in A Philosophical Inquiry into the Sublime and Beautiful. What made him change his perspectives? In order to find the answer to this question this paper reconstructs Burke's aesthetics with its political implications. In doing so, this paper also excavates Burke's hidden desire to be cultural capital as a way to share the political prerogatives with the upper classes. Burke's discussion of taste left a trace of his inner fragmentation that would be vanished when he criticized the Revolution.


‘드러내기’와 ‘감추기’, 야누스적 디오니소스의 세계 -『폭풍의 언덕』과 『주홍글자』를 중심으로


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 1호 2012.03 pp.63-92

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Dionysus is the god of the grape harvest, wine-making, and wine of ritual madness and ecstasy. Also Dionysus is represented as the protector of those who do not belong to conventional society and thus symbolizes everything which is chaotic, dangerous, unexpected, everything which escapes human reason and which can only be attributed to the unforeseeable action of the gods. Dionysian orgiastic ritual, Bacchanalia, is described to be violent, destructive, and erotic in Rene Girard’s La Violence et le Sacre: Violence and The Sacred because the obstacles such as Sexual, Age Difference and the difference between the rich and the poor disappear through the ritual but soon it becomes bloody. In this regard, Ritual Dionysus has negative and positive features. Main characters in Wuthering Heights and The Scarlet Letter show these dualities: Positive and Negative attributes, Good and Evil, Keeping and Breaking of social order, Showing and Hiding of intrinsic desires. Heathcliff’s and Chilingworth’s revenge spoil and transform their own physical and psychological attributes as well as their enemies who destroy their territories in which oneness is between them and their lovers, Catherine and Hester. The fundamental reason that changes happen in both works is from provocative sexual deviance which means the destruction of social norm. That is to say, two societies in both works have the dualities of Janus-like Dionysus. These dualities, keeping and breaking of order, are represented by “Showing and Hiding” Even though the superficial atmosphere of each society shows differences, both have similar features: the co-existence of Positive and Negative attributes to make ‘Artificial Paradise’, ‘De-Civilizational society’, Also these attributes happen as concealment and exposure.


로버트 프로스트 시의 운율 양상 연구


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 1호 2012.03 pp.93-112

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Robert Frost sticked to the traditional poetry forms such as blank verses or sonnets. However, he did experiments on various modification to the traditional meters. In his poetry, sentence sound, which is Frost's poetic principle and which is based on speaking voice, affects on the meter. The modifications to the meter sometimes strengthen the meanings and sometimes it imply irony, satire, or paradox. Additional syllables, flexible feet, modified rhymes in his sonnets, intended rhyme patterns in his blank verses could suggest something more than the words on the paper mean, so careful attention is needed to understand his poetry perfectly.


번역에 있어서의 문화고유어의 중요성 및 번역전략 -『카인의 후예』번역을 중심으로


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 1호 2012.03 pp.113-131

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When a message leaves the culture in which it was encoded, it carries the content intended by its producer, but when the message reaches the culture where it is to be interpreted, it undergoes a transformation because the culture in which the message is decoded influences the message interpretation and hence its meaning. As such, culture is in the center of translation, as one of the greatest sources of miscomprehension caused in the process of and post-translation is the mismatch between the source and target text cultures. Hence, the translator, as a knowledge and culture broker, is required to offer compensation that enables source and target text readers to have shared knowledge and culture. This paper first reestablishes the concept of culture-specific item by putting together several different definitions of culture-related terms. Then, it examines what role culture-specific items play in understanding a text and how important they are in the process of translation. Based on a clearer understanding of culture-specific items and in recognition of the role and the importance of the item, this research presents five translation strategies and discusses how such strategies can be deployed and what attentions should be paid in the process of translation. Each strategy exhibits its unique features and has strengths and weaknesses when applied. The translations that serve as the bases for the explanation of translation strategies are taken from The Cry of the Cuckoo, a well-known Korean literature, which contains a number of cultural-specific items.


술부부사의 사건구조 기술에 관한 연구


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 1호 2012.03 pp.133-154

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The purpose of this paper is to describe the meanings of some adverbs based on the event-structural semantics. The subclass of the adverb depends on the syntactic and semantic view of points. Traditionally the adverbs in syntax can be analyzed into a two major categories such as the sentential adverbs and the predicate adverb. On the other hand, the subclass of adverb in semantics is classified with the argument of modified constituent. However, the adverbs can be treated as a predicate of the event or individual as their arguments. It means that the adverbs take the sub-event which verbs represent, when decomposing the meaning of the verb. For instance, some adverb takes the ‘x CAUSE y' and ‘x BECOME y' as the arguments. We argue that it is necessary to introduce the some operators such as <, ∋, CR, UNDER. < represents the order of the event occurrence and ∋ represents the relation between two events, and one event is of a member of the other event. The CR is the contextual restriction, that is, the event can be interpreted in given domain. And the operator UNDER is a function from the event to the event. We try to describe the four different kinds of adverbs as the representative adverb having event structural meaning. That is the domain adverb, restitutive adverb, manner adverb, and measure adverb.


확장형 읽기를 통한 영어 독해능력 향상

김경훈, 임미란

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 1호 2012.03 pp.155-168

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The purpose of this study is to research middle school students' reading problems and to suggest how to improve their reading competence through the use of the extensive reading. For this study, we proposed two research questions of study as below. First, what difference is there in English competence between experimental group and control group? Second, what difference is there in the English reading competence according to English proficiency? The experimental group had been taught through extensive reading for 10 weeks. The data needed for this study was obtained by the questionnaires with 25 questions about the English reading. The data analyzing method were t-test through statistics program SPSS 12.0. Based on the result of this study, extensive reading was effective in improving the students' reading competence. Studying English reading through extensive reading led the students to be present in classes with interests.


영어교과서의 듣기분석 —제7차 개정 교육과정을 바탕으로

조은주, 정희정

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 1호 2012.03 pp.169-190

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The purpose of this study is to analyze the listening tasks in high school English textbooks and to find out whether the results are applicable to the 7th revised national curriculum goals. The analysis criteria presented by Peterson (1991) was applied for an in-depth analysis of the listening tasks involved in the textbooks. The results of the study show that the philosophy of the 7th national curriculum is properly reflected to a certain degree. However, some listening activities in textbook are presented insufficiently and improperly. The results suggest that the textbook should be designed and improved with more varied topics ranging from easier ones to more challenging ones. In addition, the MEST should suggest more specific aims and guidelines in the curriculum for textbook writers and educators.


Cinematic Representation of Multiple Narratives: Juxtaposing, Crossing, and Uniting Three Women’s Stories in the Film The Hours

Kwangsoon Kim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 1호 2012.03 pp.191-209

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Stephen Daldry’s film The Hours is based on Michael Cunningham’s Pulitzer Prize-winning novel of the same title, which describes three women’s stories that revolve around Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway. Despite the postmodern literary techniques such as multiple narratives and daunting leaps in time and space that Cunningham’s novel employs, Stephen Daldry successfully makes the novel into a 114 minutes film. Backed by the performances of such popular actresses as Nicole Kidman, Julian Moore, and Meryl Streep, the film smoothly handles the multiple narrative lines and clarifies the ideological implications surrounding the main characters. In his cinematic representation of multiple narratives, Daldry uses the swift camera swing technique with which he effectively juxtaposes a whole single day of three ordinary women who are respectively living in early 20th century England, suburban LA in the 1950s, and contemporary New York. Weaving together the apparently fragmented scenes leaping across different time and space, the film makes the three narrative strands structurally parallel, contextually crossed, and thematically united. Though, some critics have accused the film of distorting or misrepresenting the characters of the novel. However, those critics more or less ignore hypertextuality that is inevitable in the film adaptation of the novel. This essay sees the film The Hours not as a simply visual text of Cunningham's novel but as a hypertext to the novel. Thus, instead of discussing how the film misrepresents the characters of the novel, this essay more focuses on the cinematic representation of multiple narratives in Cunningham’s novel The Hours. More specifically, this essay explores how Daldry juxtaposes the multiple narrative lines on the screen and how he endows his film with a thematic unity.


We Have Never Been Non-Hybrid : The Cyborg as Our Existential Mode in the Posthuman Age

Ho Rim Song

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 1호 2012.03 pp.211-227

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As technoscience becomes significant part of human life and body, traditional discourses of liberal humanism based on purification, placing things into one of two oppositional poles, such as nature or society, no longer properly articulate the human subject in that changed environment. Posthumanism, which centers the relationship between the human and technoscience in its discourses, is replacing liberal humanist discourses. This essay offers cyborg as the posthuman subject. In doing so, the essay explores that the cyborg, a cybernetic hybrid of the human and the nonhuman, the organic and the nonorganic, and the material and the discursive, is not a revolutionary entity in order to maintain that the human subject has never been non-hybrid. Although the modern made hybrids invisible and unrepresentable, hybrid beings have always existed, and recently posthumanism foregrounds hybridity of the human subject through the image of cyborg. The cyborg used to be considered a postmodern model of the human subject. But this essay refuses that claim, showing that the postmodern is not real since even the modern based on purification is false as Bruno Latour argues, and also pointing out that postmodern theories cannot accommodate hybridity of the posthuman since it does not explain the materiality of the body, or bodily embodiment. The cyborg, as a model of the posthuman, is a historical text displaying how human beings are hybridized in the technoscience age.


The Effects of Intervening Narrators Represented in William Faulkner’s Absalom, Absalom!

Dong-In Cho

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 1호 2012.03 pp.229-245

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Faulkner's narrators occupy an unusual place in Absalom, Absalom! They perform at once the obvious function of relating the events of the story and the less obvious function of shaping the reader's perception of that story through their own participation in, and conception of, events. Particularly, the narrative technique in Absalom, Absalom! furthers a sense of inevitability within the novel by using as narrators people who were removed from the events they describe either by time or distance or both, and by allowing those narrators to deliver their information as a jumbled mass of interconnected, but not clearly linear, events. We must examine our response to the novel in terms of the ways in which we are drawn into the narrative. The narrative technique at work in Absalom, Absalom! which serves to draw us into the novel also serves to ally us with the narrators, particularly Quentin.


Korean College Students’ Reflexive Positions Toward Extensive Reading and Follow-up Activities

Ji-Hyun Byun, Hayriye Kayi-Aydar

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 1호 2012.03 pp.247-267

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

Extensive reading activities are believed to be an effective way of increasing literacy and language development. Although previous work focused on the relation between extensive reading and overall linguistic competence and learner attitudes, the perspectives of language learners toward the post activities of extensive reading have not been adequately addressed. The study reported in this article was conducted to illuminate how English major and non English major students at a university in South Korea positioned themselves with regards to the follow-up extensive reading activities. Through a recursive analysis of interview data, survey, field notes, and student journal entries, the findings demonstrated that although a majority of students positioned themselves as tolerant and competent when they engaged in extensive reading activities, they positioned themselves as less capable in the required post-reading tasks. In light of the findings, implications for extensive reading activities and roles of teachers are discussed.


The Validity of Subscores for a Reading Comprehension Test : A Bifactor Approach

Sae II Choi

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 1호 2012.03 pp.269-291

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This study examined the validity of subscores for a reading comprehension section in a TOEIC practice test for which subscores are routinely provided for test takers. The study employed a bifactor approach, a constrained version of full-information item factor analysis, in its investigation of the subscore characteristics. The results showed a) all the subscores have lower reliability indices compared to the reliability of the total score and b) that the information of the subscores is trivial and redundant after accounting for their contribution to the general reading ability. These results agree with most of the previous studies on subscore quality and again demonstrate that language testing programs should be cautious about reporting subscores despite the pervasive demand for subscores in the testing industry.


Learning to Use English in Korean Context : Teacher-Learners’ Perspectives

Jae-Young Choi

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 1호 2012.03 pp.293-320

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This study investigates English teacher-learners’ perspectives on learning to use English in Korean context. Fifty eight prospective English teachers' responses to a survey questionnaire on 1) the current English proficiency, use, and needs, 2) values attached to English proficiency, 3) the current practice of English learning, and 4) solutions and suggestions for English study are analyzed. For in-depth reading of the survey result, focus groups interviews are conducted and analyzed as well. The analysis shows that the teacher-learners perceive: 1) English ability is important but not main in Korean lives, 2) therefore, English learning is not given legitimacy to dictate Korean lives. 3) However, with the empowering presence of the language, its learning businesses might run out of control, and that needs to be managed by the government agency. One aspect to note is that while the teacher-learners claim lacking English input in Korea as causing learning difficulties, they tend to refuse various exposure measures if they appeal to encroach on their cultural and national integrity. Based on the result, this study suggests probes into the Korean context of English learning and use beyond the confines of the language classroom.

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