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영어영문학21 [English21]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
    학술지
  • 발행기관
    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
  • ISSN
    1738-4052
  • 간기
    계간
  • 수록기간
    1967~2019
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제24권 2호 (12건)
No
1

희망과 정신 이상 사이에서—사무엘 존슨의 「젊은 작가」, 『램블러』,『라쎌라스』새롭게 읽기

강문순, 윤교찬

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 2호 2011.06 pp.5-35

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

Between Hope and Insanity: A New Reading of Samuel Johnson’s “The Young Author,” The Rambler, and Rasselas Moonsoon Kang․Kyochan Yoon (Hannam University) Samuel Johnson, a man of high intellect and rational judgment intended to show the relationship between hope in its extreme forms and the onset of insanity. “The Young Author,” several Rambler essays, and Rasselas, respectively, reflects Johnson's own personal struggle with madness and the way that excessive hope or complete lack of hope contributes to mental instability. Hope is a necessary element of human existence and it must be properly controlled and balanced with the function of reason. Hope that is excessive or unreasonable leads to mental imbalance, whereas rational and proper use of hope can aid mental health. In these three works Johnson deals primarily with two types of hope. Phantom hope, which is inspired by the imagination, overthrows reason and leads to idleness and despair. Reasonable hope, which is controlled by the intellect, motivates action, and inspires perseverance even under the most daunting circumstances. Whereas phantom hope leads to insanity, real hope leads to accomplishment. Johnson claimed that hope is the “blessing to mankind” when it is regulated by reason; it is the curse of man when it is inspired by the imagination. Hope, it can be said, plays an important role in both the cause and the cure of madness.

2

가부장적 가족 담론의 부조리 — 토니 모리슨의『낙원』

김미아

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 2호 2011.06 pp.37-59

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The Absurdity of the Discourse of Patriarchal Family System: Toni Morrison’s Paradise Mi-A Kim (Jeonju University) This paper aims to re-think the absurdity of the discourse of patriarchal family system in Toni Morrison's Paradise. Toni Morrison's Paradise portrays the history of Ruby, the all-black town which tries to keep their blood purity, and the Convent women's lives who are denied by family-oriented society. Morrison's description of Ruby illustrates the negative implications of American exceptionalism, black nationalism, and racial purity, which constituted major American ideologies. Morrison's novel focuses on the unavoidable exclusiveness of American ideologies in Ruby by showing that Ruby rejects those who cannot fit in the rule of the town. Morrison also pinpoints the exceptionalistic discourse of black nationalism through the collapse of Ruby and criticizes the negative aspects of black nationalism which should have avoided the kind of injustice inflicted on by the Whites. In addition, she radically exposes the absurdity of pursing racial purity by highlighting its illusion. In short, Morrison criticizes the family, which is seen to symbolize emotional comfort and safety by the men of Ruby, is in fact a politically suppressive unit for its women. Therefore, if we view that Ruby represents American society and also African American society, Paradise's main there would be that a paradise cannot be achieved unless both exceptionalistic racist discourses and patriarchal family systems disappear. Morrison's critique of patriarchal family is also illustrated in the lives of the Convent women. Whereas the lives of Ruby women expose the absurd idealism of patriarchal family system, the lives of the Convent women illustrates the trauma of the suffering women who have been ostracized from patriarchal family-oriented society. However, Morrison also implies that these women cannot really escape from the family system but adapt themselves to a new patriarchal and oppressive relationship in the Convent. Ultimately, this failure to obtain comfort in the Convent emphasizes that women cannot be healed and empowered unless they refuse patriarchal family relationship and have an alternative community which suggests new relationship.

3

존 스타인벡의 『의심스러운 싸움』에 나타난 집단투쟁의 병폐

이병태

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 2호 2011.06 pp.61-76

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

It is meaningful to note a tone of affirmation in the social novels set in the bristling strikes and hopeless poverty of the Depression era. This affirmation is traced here in the work of the major writer of the 1930s, Steinbeck's In Dubious Battle. Unlike the highly class-conscious proletarian literature of the time, this work essentially deals with universal human values, not ideology of communism. In Dubious Battle depicts a migrant workers' strike instigated by communists. Devoted to a high cause, Mac and Jim exploit men only as instruments to achieve their goal. However, this work could be an attack on any impure motives that denies and destroys human dignity. This confidence in men is well reflected in this work. This study explores how to overcome the problems of the ills of group struggle for recovering human dignity on the Kant's proposition that only action done out of the motive of duty have moral worth.

4

영어대명사의 정의와 화용적 기능

배문숙

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 2호 2011.06 pp.77-98

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

There have been many arguments about pronouns under the assumption that a pronoun is a word used instead of a noun/noun phrase and a pronoun and its antecedent are co-referential. A pronoun is categorized one of anaphors when it is understood as being co-referential with a referring expression occurring elsewhere in the sentence, In addition, this paper observes, a pronoun also directly indicates an object like a noun/noun phrase. Most pronouns have indexicality and deictic function. They are pragmatically controlled in that referring objects change according to the context in which they occur, and that the referents can't be determined without regarding the context. For effective and successful communication reflecting their psychological attitudes, speakers select pronouns appropriate to the context. To convey intended pragmatic meanings, speakers sometimes decide to repeat the same nouns/noun phrases instead of using pronouns. Pronouns are linguistic and pragmatic entities. They couldn't be defined by linguistic meanings or structures alone. They should be analyzed pragmatically. The correct interpretation and the appropriate use of pronouns need not only their linguistic phenomena but also non-linguistic contexts including speakers/hearers and our knowledge about the physical and social world.

5

영어 구개음화와 순음화 현상에 대한 조화이론적 접근

오관영

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 2호 2011.06 pp.99-122

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This paper argues that a Harmonic approach having level structures has more explanatory adequacy than generative analyses which stipulate intermediate steps, and also lack generalization for palatalization and labialization in English. In the case of palatalization, SPE regards it as two phonological processes in which the palatalization rule and the /y/-deletion rule are applied orderly, but the inapplicableness of the /y/-deletion rule in isolation leads to the need for intermediate steps as well as an unnatural rule application without generalization and conciseness. On the other hand, others look at palatalization as a fusion of the phonological processes of assimilation and deletion which arise simultaneously. Fusion may thus be analyzed by a transformational rule format, like a phonological process. But analysis through the transformational rule can't show mapping morphological information to phonological aspects or a proper sense of fusion, in which an interaction of two segments bring about a new segment, which is shared and maintained by each feature of the two segments. Therefore I adopt a Harmonic approach that is not only able to show a difference in the environment of palatalized consonants, but also explain the phenomenon without intermediate steps and rule ordering in three level-structures. In the case of labialization, the method of SPE analysis includes some questions, which are based on a determination of the underlying form and a [w]-insertion rule. As an alternative to that, others view the labialization as a fusion, which is also analyzed by a transformational rule, in which assimilation and glide deletion are applied simultaneously. But in this case, it also can't show a proper sense of fusion, in which I think the labialized consonant is a result that shares the manner features of one segment with the place features of the other segment. Therefore I analyze labialization in a Harmonic approach, in which I can explain it in an interlevel structure harmonically, without intermediate steps and rule ordering in three level-structures. For the generality of the phonological processes of this study, it will be necessary to further research other connected speech sounds and compare the framework used in this paper with other approaches.

6

비대격동사와 비능격동사에 나타난 장소구 도치 현상

이혜영

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 2호 2011.06 pp.123-138

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The aim of this paper is to analyze the structure of locative inversion constructions in unaccusative verbs and unergative verbs in English. Generally, unergative verbs are not allowed to invert locative PP construction. But in some cases they are allowed to invert locative PP construction. The inverted locative PP constructions with unergative verbs go through the change of the meaning of unaccusative verbs. Especially, if unergative verbs have a close relationship with their complement PP, they allow to invert locative PP construction. In the pragmatic approach, locative inversion constructions are analyzed through informational lightness and the relative familiarity of information. Unergative verbs are allowed to invert locative PP if they have informational lightness. On the other hand, Unaccusative verbs are not allowed to invert locative PP, because they have informational heaviness. Finally, when we try to analyze the structure of locative inversion constructions in unaccusative verbs and unergative verbs in English, we have to consider not only syntactic structure but semantic situation.

7

초등영어 지도교사의 문화 가치관과 문화 교육에 관한 인식

박용규, 박주경

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 2호 2011.06 pp.139-159

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The purpose of the present study is to examine the Korean elementary school teachers' cultural value and perception of teaching culture reflected in elementary school English education. To this end, a questionnaire survey was conducted with one hundred and twenty one elementary school teachers of English based in G City. The result showed that most of the subjects possessed appropriate cultural values and fully understood the importance of recognizing cultural diversity and teaching cultural aspects in English classes. Also, most of them agreed to the necessity of teacher training for teaching culture, but only a few of them received relevant training. Courses on culture education need to be designed and included both in a university curriculum for pre-service teachers and in-service teacher training programs so that they develop appropriate cultural values and build their knowledge on cultural aspects of the English language and confidence in teaching culture.

8

중등학교 영어교과서 내용구성을 위한 학습모형

이흥수

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 2호 2011.06 pp.161-193

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The essential components of ELT involves learners, teachers, and teaching materials such as textbooks in a secondary school. Here the textbook involves the direct or indirect linguistic materials for the input of the target language. ELT textbook are including the four skills involving listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Then, which linguistic materials can we select for ELT in the classroom? There is no single way of teaching English, no single way of learning it, no single syllabus or textbook, and, indeed, no single variety of English which provides the target of learning. There is an extraordinary diversity in the ways in which English is taught and learned around the world, but some clear orthodoxies have arisen. English as a foreign language (EFL) has been a dominant one in the second half of the 20th century, but it seems to be giving way to a new orthodoxy, more suited to the realities of global English. In short, this study deals with syllabuses for textbook design, models of ELT involving EFL, ESL, EIL and ELF, and native versus non-native speakers of English.

9

Commercializing Crimes and the Newgate Fiction

Joengmeen Gye

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 2호 2011.06 pp.195-209

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Focusing on the Newgate texts by Edward Bulwer-Lytton, the founder of the Newgate fiction, and William Harrison Ainsworth, the most favored Newgate novelist, this paper examines how this particular type of fiction became a popular entertainment in early Victorian Britain. The reason of popularity of this particular type of fiction about criminals has been explained as the result of various dislocations in the 1830s in Britain. This paper argues that the huge popularity achieved by the Newgate fiction had little to do with the social criticism in the novels or popular fear of crimes and much to do with the sentimentalism, sensationalism, and mysticism frequently found in Newgate novels. Newgate texts relied not on the serious inquiry into the relation between the criminal disorder and inhuman laws, but on romance and melodrama for their popular appeal. They metamorphose serious crimes into merry, free-spirited acts and low criminals into mystic scholars and gallant outlaws. Their social protest is overwhelmed by the romanticized description of criminal life and engulfed in the melodramatic narrative structure and sensationalized description of crude violence.

10

Intertexts in Korean-American Adoptee Poetry: Sun Yung Shin and Jennifer Kwon Dobbs

Robert Grotjohn

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 2호 2011.06 pp.211-246

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The Korean American adoptee poets Sun Yung Shin in Skirt Full of Black and Jennifer Kwon Dobbs in Paper Pavilion create “intertexts” through a disruptive textual biopolitics as defined by Hardt and Negri in Commonwealth; Kristevan intertextuality helps illuminate the ways in which the biopolitics is enacted in the poetry. The poetry challenges administrative textualities that document and produce the orphan and the adoptee. Those documents of biopower and their accompanying narratives are normative textualities that regularize (or regulate) the adoptive situation. Because the texts that create orphans and adoptees are often incomplete and/or inaccurate, the space in which the adoptee himself or herself existed is often untexted. This untexted space is a subaltern space. Dobbs and Shin occupy and speak from that space in an oppositional intertextuality, a biopolitical poetics that fragments and disrupts normative textualities, recalling Kristeva’s original formulation of intertextuality as “transposition.” In affinal intertextualities the poets help to create a “commons” through resonance between the two volumes and into discourses that include the larger transnational adoptive and Asian American communities. Shin and Dobbs write as part of the disruptive multitude. Their poems model resistant writing, helping create a commons that, to adapt Eleana Kim’s phrase, contributes to a biopolitics of belonging.

11

The Apocalyptic Imagination: Nature, Enlightenment and the Genre of Disaster Films

Kim Su Rasmussen, Eli Park Sorensen

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 2호 2011.06 pp.247-274

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In this article, we want to investigate the cultural significance of disaster, and more broadly the contemporary apocalyptic imagination from aesthetic, political and philosophical angles. The apocalyptic imagination is in many ways an effect of what Horkheimer and Adorno labelled the dialectic of enlightenment, which represents the gradual, down-spiralling movement of enlightenment thought toward a point of disaster. The ruthless technological exploitation of the world’s natural resources has created a context for Adorno and Horkheimer’s theory which has made it all the more actual; what makes Adorno and Horkheimer’s thesis so compelling today is above all that for the first time in the history of human being it is as if there is nothing genuinely natural left today. Insofar as nature has lost its potency, the postmodern individual has been emancipated from the traditional source of collective anxiety. At the same time, however, the postmodern individual has also lost one of its fundamental motivations for banding together; if nature no longer poses a vital threat there is little reason for the individual to curtail his or her interests under that of the collective. It is in this context that the imagination of disaster takes on a renewed cultural significance. We explore this renewed cultural significance through Roland Emmerich’s eco-disaster movies, arguing that in our compulsion to produce and consume fantasies of disaster hides a utopian gesture of remembering, a desire to reclaim memories of a future social order that in our present world has long been forgotten, vanished.

12

A Study on Social Distance between Apology Strategies of Korean College Learners

Jaehwang Shim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 2호 2011.06 pp.275-297

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This study investigates the use of social distance on apology strategies in different situations. The data was collected from 30 participants(male: 16, female: 14) who were studying general English conversation course for freshmen at the Department of Biotechnology in a university in Seoul. From the beginning of the course, the researcher lead the class by presenting apology tasks and the participants conducted the activities in various situations. At the end of the course, the participants were provided with the discourse completion test (DCT) of apology. The DCT based on the principle of Olshtain and Cohen (1990) was revised from the speech act of apology in the textbook. The data was analyzed according to the speech act of apology, especially in four types of semantic formulas and four patterns of stylistic competence. The results show that in the use of semantic formulas, “expression of regret (REGR)” and “expression of an excuse (EXCU)” are more dominant than “offer of apology (APOL)” and “request for forgiveness (FORG)”. In stylistic competence for excuse, “admit a mistake (MIST)” and “make a promise (PROM)” are used more than “give an excuse (EXCU)” and “make an offer (OFFE)” or “no excuse.” The data indicates that the participants used different semantic formulas and stylistic competence on apology depending on the social distance.

 
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