영어영문학21 [English21]

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    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
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    인문학 > 영어와문학
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    KDC 840 DDC 820
제18권 1호 (11건)

「베니토 세리노」의 전복적(顚覆的) 서사미학


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제18권 1호 2005.06 pp.5-25

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“Benito Cereno” is the most controversial work of Melville's short stories. First of all, this work's structure makes readers feel uneasiness. The plot receives a conventional unraveling, but the essential mystery is left unexplained. It is because this story has a subversive deep structure. This story has three parts: 1) Delano's experience with his limited vision and thought of St. Dominick, 2) Benito's deposition, and 3) The enigmatic deaths of Benito and Babo. These three parts are subverted by the following parts. Melville exposes the superficiality of Delano's recognition by showing Benito's deposition. And then, the possibility of untruth of the deposition is strongly suggested by Benito's silence and death with Babo's “voiceless end.” But in appearance he develops this story only on the ground of the white by excluding the black's stand. The subversive structure of this story is fortified by narrative technics--the uses of irony, double negation, and shadow imagery. Above all this shadow imagery is pervaded everywhere in the story from the beginning to the end. The shadow of Delano's experience seems to be cleared by Benito's deposition. But in the last part the deeper shadow comes by the strong suggestion of the Babo's stand. Through the subversive narrative strategy Melville strongly reveals the black's stand and tells his opinion on the slavery in America. He does not handle the racial problem, but intends to tell the human relationship under the slavery is essentially fatal to both. Showing the essence of human relationship under the slavery Melville warns Americans of their superficial recognition of the slavery. The subversive strategy also reflects Melville's own situation as a writer at that time. And nowadays this story has a significance in that it makes us look around our circumstances to see if we are casting the shadows on others.


전지구화 시대의 대항 페미니스트 주체: 글로리아 안잘두아의 유색여성 페미니즘과 메스티자 주체론


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제18권 1호 2005.06 pp.27-52

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Chicana feminist author, cultural theorist, and activist, Gloria Anzaldúa played a crucial role in transforming feminism into a more inclusive theory in the early 1980s by bringing into discursive focus a spectrum of differences: race, class, gender, sexuality, ethnicity, and so on. Her ongoing effort since then was to break down dualistic hegemonic paradigms and transform oppressive structures of power, while inventing new forms of subjectivity with new languages and knowledges for social change. Imbued with oppositional consciousness, the entire body of Anzaldúa's writings is characterized by resistance and rearticulation. As a Chicana lesbian writer, Anzaldúa challenged white middle-class feminists to address their biases on race, class, and other issues, and to recognize the presence of women of color in the front of feminism. As a gendered and racialized subaltern, Anzaldúa rewrote the myths of Malintzin, the Virgin of Guadalalupe, and La Llorna as well as the history of the Aztec origin of Chicano people, so as to create a counter-history for Chicana women who are doubly colonized by Chicano culture and by Anglo American culture. In so doing, she brought into light Coatlicue, a Mesoamerican Serpent Goddess, as a source of empowering modern Chicana women. In Coatlicue who represents a fusion of opposites, Anzaldúa found ways of healing the wounds inflicted by dualistic cultural logic and taking account of the conflicts and contradictions of her culture and her own being. Informed by Coatlicue and her modern counterpart, queer, Anzaldúa created a mestiza consciousness as an alternative to all binary modes of culture including feminist identity politics. A mestiza, as a form of subjectivity in the borderlands, enables us to deconstruct all unnatural boundaries set up by dominant power and hegemonic ideologies, and to build a coalitional network of struggle against the transnational militarist and corporate power of the globalized Empire.


'타르 베이비' 신화에 함축된 해방의 의미 : 토니 모리슨의 「타르 베이비」


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제18권 1호 2005.06 pp.53-69

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Toni Morrison’s novels represent the African-American people’s predicament resulted from slavery and institutionalized racism in the U.S.. But Morrison suggests that harmony and coexistence are indispensable in a society constituted of different race, gender, and class. In Tar Baby, her fourth novel, Morrison shows the mental and cultural dichotomy in black society which stems from the history of domination and oppression of the Whites over the Blacks. But she also suggests a multicultural potentiality of Jadine, the heroine, as a solution to the problem. Tar Baby is based on ‘tar baby’ myth originated in Africa as a part of trickster tales. Morrison uses the tar baby myth to represent the repressed historical experiences of black people. It has various transformations, and Jadine shows the process of its transformation. Jadine wants to deny her own tradition and blackness. Used as a tool by white people, she is criticized and called tar baby by other characters and some critics. But she shows the ability to take advantage of her own situation as a ‘trickster’. She functions as a trickster to show that the violence and dishonesty are necessary tools for survival. And ultimately Jadine shows the positive ability to hold the opponents in black society together like tar and glue.


윌라 캐더의 생태학적 비전-『오 개척자들이여!』를 중심으로-


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제18권 1호 2005.06 pp.71-86

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O Pioneers!, the first novel in Cather's renowned “prairie novels,” is a portrait of the relentless efforts of a female pioneer to cultivate the rich, forbidding Midwestern prairie and convert it into a fertile farmland in the novel. Cather does not explore a human-centered development of nature, but a nature-centered one. She depicts Alexandra as a truly ecological heroine. The character comes to realize the “self,” cares for others, and harmonizes with nature through an ecological relationship with nature. Crazy Ivar who biocentric Alexandra cares for lives himself with nature as a “deep ecologist”. Cather attempts to find a solution to the environmental destruction and ecological crisis of modern society, and takes nature as an element of an eco-vision. At the same time, she suggests the possibility of coexistence between humans and nature, even in a modern materialistic society. And furthermore, Cather explores a way of life that is harmonized with nature and the earth by restoring the primitive power of life, and also provides a completely new model for tackling the present questions of the worldwide ecological crisis.


개릭(David Garrick)의 셰익스피어 각색에 관하여 : 『캐서린과 페트루치오』(Catharine and Petruchio)의 경우


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제18권 1호 2005.06 pp.87-105

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The history of Shakespearean studies shows that the adaptations of Shakespeare, whether they were made by first-class writers or by second-class ones, have been usually regarded as outrageous mutilation or defamation rather than “improvements” of Shakespeare. It is an undeniable fact, however, that ever since Restoration Shakespeare's works have been continually adapted by many writers, and these adaptations were often very popular, too. Various adaptations of Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew were made since its revival in the late 1620s and early 1630s. Of all these adaptations, David Garrick's Catharine and Petruchio, with alterations and additions, was the most important and influential. Between 1754 and 1844 Catharine and Petruchio was the only version of The Taming of the Shrew presented on stages both in England and America. Garrick conceived Catharine and Petruchio as a three-act “afterpiece,” reducing Shakespeare's three plots to one. The farcical Sly frame and the sub-plot focusing on Bianca were eliminated, so that the complex and multi-vocal meanings which could be generated by these two plots came to disappear. Only the taming plot remained intact. But the taming plot itself also limited the possibilities that the layered, ambiguous ending, the center of which was the famous lines of Kate's sermon with the ironic performance contradicting the content, could have been interpreted other than just a successful shrew-taming story. Although Garrick provided Catharine with some soliloquies and asides that revealed her intention to marry Petruchio and her plan to tame him, she might not be more independent than Shakespeare's Kate who had no other options than marriage. And whip-cracking Petruchio dominated the whole play as well as the final scene in which he announced that his pose as “the lordly husband” had just been “an honest mask” that he could “doff” now that Catharine had been tamed. He promised that the future lives with Catharine would be “one gentle stream of mutual love,” and women should “bound to love, to honour, and obey.” The significant differences between Garrick's adaptation and Shakespeare's text let us be aware clearly of the need to pay more serious attention to the dialogized potential of Shakespeare for generating new meanings and new appropriations, without necessarily paying blind homage to Bardolatry.


『마법사』에 드러난 존 파울즈의 교훈적 예술관


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제18권 1호 2005.06 pp.107-128

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While vigorously searching for a new novel form to accommodate the contemporary theoretical insight into the nature of language and novel, John Fowles pays great, though not devoid of irony, homage to the tradition of realism novel. His novels are permeated with his firm belief in the moral, didactic power of art to bring changes to life. This essay tries to show how his didactic intention informs the whole narrative of The Magus, one of his most comprehensive and compelling works. The Magus is a peculiar sort of Bildungsroman, a novel of education and growth, replete with metafictional elements, which also serve to enhance the aesthetic education of the reader. Nicholas, the protagonist of the novel, whose logical and cautiously sceptical attitude invites the reader to identify with him, plays the role of reader as he is induced into an active participation in and interpretation of the metatheatrical ‘godgame’ of Conchis who stands for the metaphorical fictional world. Going through it under the enigmatic direction of Conchis, Nicholas gradually gets over his evasive attitude towards reality as well as his escapist aesthetics. Also his self-centered, life-denying cynicism gives way to a new perception of the mysterious reality of life itself, combined with his growing understanding of the existential human condition. The concluding section of this essay thinks over a few problems regarding the author's overt didacticism in this novel, casting a last short glance at the ironical fact that, over the whole period of his writing, he failed to make much progress in his own existential ideas in spite of his unremitting passion for education.


넌센스와 센스 : 루이스 캐럴의 앨리스 이야기


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제18권 1호 2005.06 pp.129-151

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The purpose of this thesis is to study the matters of growth and identity based on nonsense and sense in language in Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found There. Alice, the heroine of these books, overcomes the fear of unavoidable growth and realizes the power of language through adventures in the nonsensical worlds. Thought and language used in the nonsensical worlds are different from those in the actual world. The characters whom Alice meets in these worlds deny her a name and identity of her own. She wanders in the subversive situation where her existence is not accepted. Both by the changes in the size of her body in Wonderland and by the name-finding in Looking-Glass land, however, she realizes how to resist nonsense. When she gets bigger, her change poses a threat to the characters in Wonderland. Sometimes she uses language in order to intimidate them. She wants to be master of her own life, not a part of the Red King's dream. Alice overcomes the discomfort of growth by understanding the relations between the self and the other. Through her conversations with Humpty Dumpty who thinks that he is master of his words, Alice becomes the master of her language. She obtains a good knowledge of its use. She realizes that the distinction between nonsense and sense in regard to language depends on social conventions.


초등학교 3ㆍ4학년 추상어휘 지도방법 연구

김귀석, 이수경

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제18권 1호 2005.06 pp.153-179

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This study aims to develop efficient vocabulary teaching methods to help third & fourth grade students master and actively use abstract words, to provide teachers with them along with their examples, and to help them teach elementary students abstract words more effectively. First, the basic vocabulary words in the English curriculum of elementary school are analyzed as follows. 1. They are divided into the two categories, function words(10%) and content words(90%). 2. They are further divided into the two categories, concrete words(35%) and abstract words(65%). 3. Among the abstract words, there are more verbs than any other word class(adjectives, nouns, and adverbs). 4. They are again divided with regard to the features of each word class as follows. Verbs are grouped into dynamic verbs and stative verbs; nouns into common, and collective material nouns; adjectives into character or state adjectives and number or amount adjectives. Next, Efficient teaching methods for each word group according to their characteristics are offered as follows: a) Action verbs: Use body movements or action, and correlations in meaning. b) Stative verbs: Use a chant. c) Common nouns: Use storytelling and drawings. d) Collective material nouns: Use the hyponym. e) Character or state adjectives: Use diagrams, sense relations, simple poems, and mime. f) Number or amount adjectives: Use picture cards.


동사구 생략과 공백화 구문


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제18권 1호 2005.06 pp.181-199

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This paper examines VP Ellipsis and Gapping in English and argues that the deletion analysis of Gapping is descriptively and explanatorily superior to the movement-based analysis. Also, this study shows that VP Ellipsis and Gapping construction can be explained unitedly by Multiple Spell-out. Johnson(1994) analyzes Gapping as resulting from Across-the-Board verb movement from conjoined VPs. He argues against a deletion analysis for Gapping, based on (i) the fact that Gapping and VP Ellipsis differ empirically, and (ii) a fear that a deletion analysis would falsely give a distributive interpretation of sentence-level negation. This movement-based analysis makes several correct predictions that a verb deletion analysis cannot. It correctly predicts that Gapping constructions require non-correferential subjects and prohibits adjunction of an S-adverb to the second conjunct, which is actually a V rather than CP. Furthermore, the accusative form in the second “subject” can be explained under the movement analysis because the case pattern follows from the fact that the second “subject” is not in [Spec, IP] on the surface. However, several problems against the deletion analysis can be refuted by appealing to a wider range of ellipsis data in light of recent ellipsis research and by being premised on the assumption that elided materials are not V but VP. Besides, the evident proof that Gapping constructions are a PF-deletion is to be confirmed by the Parallelism Requirement attendant upon the contrast focus and the strong feature-checking. However, the leftward and rightward analysis in the deletion approach of Gapping are different from each other when they analyze non-constituents and redundant materials of Gapping constructions. Therefore, Multiple Spell-out by Extended Projection Principle features is presented as a proper alternative to explain VP Ellipsis and Gapping unitedly. This coincides with the economy principle of Minimalism.


구범주를 통한 영어 문장 분석


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제18권 1호 2005.06 pp.201-220

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The purpose of this paper is to examine a satisfactory method about English sentence analysis by Chomsky's Standard Theory. Chomsky (1965) tried to analyze English sentences as not a set of words but phrase categories, that is NP, VP etc. For this, I will suggest several revised ph-rules based on Chomsky's theory as followings. (1) a. S→NP + AUX + V + Sub' b. NP→(Det) + (Adj) + N + (PP) + (Adjp) + (S') c. VP→AUX + V + (NP) (NP) (1,3,4형식) AUX + V + NP + ({NP, Adj}) (5형식) AUX + Be + ({NP, Adj}) (2형식) d. AUX→AGR + Tense + (Mod) + (Perf) + (Prog) With the revised ph-rules I have analyzed English sentence like this: (1) I consider Aux as the sub-category of Verb (2) NP (=subject, object, complement) as not a word category but a phrase category (=(Det) + (Adj) + N + (PP) + (Adjp) + (S')) and then we will find that the concept of extended ph-rules will help us to increase our English sentences analysis ability.


21세기영어영문학회 연혁 외

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제18권 1호 2005.06 pp.221-233

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