영어영문학21 [English21]

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  • 자료유형
  • 발행기관
    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
  • ISSN
  • 간기
  • 수록기간
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
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    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제21권 1호 (10건)

포스트식민 조건과 나이폴적 인물의 가능성: 『흉내내는 사람들』


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제21권 1호 2008.06 pp.5-28

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The purpose of this thesis is to examine the potentiality of the postcolonial subject in V. S. Naipaul(1932- )'s The Mimic Men (1967) through analyzing R. R. K. Singh, the protagonist of this novel. In this novel, which appears as memoirs of an exiled politician from a postcolonial nation, though Singh has the limitation of a negative subject who represents distress of postcolonial societies like Isabella sneeringly, his sneer and detestation aim at the Western imperial nations equally. Singh's continuous self- exposure and his attitude of self-examination, however, let the readers overcome the criticism that Naipaul's character is just cynical and skeptical, and expect him to develop into an open-minded and rebellious subject. The second chapter examines how Singh goes through the course of subject-forming in the conditions of racial and cultural hybridity and diaspora in Isabella and in the mechanism of the colonial education. Through Naipaul's keen, accurate description, we can acquire abundant harvest of uncovering of the substance of the colonial education. The third chapter focuses on Singh's desire to escape out of Isabella and detestation that he feels in the center of the imperial city during the period of study abroad in London. The colonial education makes Singh feel himself marginal and deserted and long for escape to the center of the Western imperial city. But what is left to him is the feeling of emptiness and detestation on the Metropolis. Singh, the colonial subject, carries out self-denial repeatedly. Through this process, though western imperialism is demythicized, we can observe that his pain is never cured easily. The fourth chapter focuses on Singh's seeking for order and existential stability which he could not find both in the postcolonial society and in the center of the Western imperial city through his act of writing. Disillusioned at the real world around him and choosing to go to England as an exile and a hermit, Singh begins to write his own memoirs. Through such writings, he seems to achieve order and stability he has longed for. In the conclusion, I estimate the potentiality of a Naipaulian postcolonial subject who evaluates postcolonial societies and the Western empires through the introspective writing based on keen sensibility and self-consciousness with a cool head. Singh can be evaluated as a Naipaulian postcolonial subject who has keen insight and rebellious potentiality.


에이츠 시에서 흰 새의 이미지: 현실과 이상의 통합을 향한 비전

조희정, 유미란

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제21권 1호 2008.06 pp.29-45

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This paper aims at investigating the ways in which Yeats develops the image of the “white bird” throughout his poetic career. While most critics claim that Yeats' early poetry tends to disregard reality and escape from it, some of his early poems already present a more mature artistic vision that attempts to unify reality and the ideal world. From the beginning of his poetic career, Yeats was deeply influenced by Blake's dialectical view of the world, which led him to explore the unity between two opposing entities. In “The White Birds,” Yeats portrays the birds as creatures that can mediate between the ocean and the sky. Instead of allowing the birds to fly away from the sordid world of reality, Yeats focuses on the birds' ties to “the foam of the sea.” Likewise, in “The Wild Swans at Coole,” the swans ceaselessly paddle in the cold, and their efforts are precisely what enables them to function as the symbol of continuity and perfection. One of Yeats' most successful late poems, “Coole Park and Ballylee, 1931,” appears to designate the swan as the emblem of idealistic purity, but this designation in turn admits the swan's continual return to the “darkening flood,” pointing ultimately to “the unity of being” that seeks a dynamic way of unifying the ideal vision with the real world.


『하계로 내려간 오르페우스』에 나타난 여정의 의미


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제21권 1호 2008.06 pp.48-65

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The majority of Tennessee Williams' characters are the fugitive heroes who try to escape from the real world because their purity, creativity, and vitality, and their strong yearning for freedom make them almost unable to conform to reality. They are, in some sense, the defeated, the alienated, and the rejected. However, they can be elevated to tragic heroes with Williams’ efforts to imbue his fugitive characters with mythic and symbolic images in many ways. Williams revised The Battle of Angels for seventeen years and released the new version under the name of Orpheus Descending. To know the reason why he had to struggle for such a long time with a play can be quite an interesting issue. In this essay, I want to analyze the new version of the play mainly through the paradigm of the namesake Greek myth, the Orpheus myth, and the myth of Jesus Christ, searching for the answer. In this re-written myth, Williams wanted to find a way of integrating the opposite values haunting him for life time: soul and body, art and artist, artistic world and real world, purity and corruption, and so on. His effort of seventeen years must have satisfied him more or less through the Orphic journey.


헴릿의 광기: 탈영토적 욕망기계


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제21권 1호 2008.06 pp.66-80

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This paper is an essay about the deterrritorialization of Hamlet's madness in Hamlet. His madness has been generally interpreted as his helpless and hopeless anxiety. Critics and readers have criticized him as vacillating and indeterminate. Many psycho-analysts have regarded Hamlet in dilemma as caged in a paranoiac and oedipalized state. If Gilles Deleuze's terms are employed to illuminate Hamlet's madness, a new argument will be made that Hamlet's madness results in a more creative achievement because his madness is a deterritorialized desiring machine to generate schizophrenic power and potential. Ghost of King Hamlet is an effective medium by which Hamlet's infantile subconscious is motivated to stretch into the mature domain of truth and fact. Through the ghost's appearance, Hamlet begins to strengthen the force of his internal desire to find out who is the murderer of King Hamlet. The new interpretation of Hamlet's madness subverts the conventional one in that his madness is acknowledged to be active and positive. And the interpretation deconstructs the paranoiac oedipal structure built by the conservative interpretive community of Hamlet. Accordingly, a black or white question whether Hamlet is mad or not might be avoided. Being creative and critical, Hamlet is schizophrenically engrossed in his quest for truth and fact as a deterritorialized subject on a line of flight.


유비쿼터스 디지털 문학: 하이퍼텍스트


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제21권 1호 2008.06 pp.82-108

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

Since “ubiquitous” emerged as a new growth engine in digital media technology and contents service, it has induced a revolutionary paradigm shift in our contents system, especially causing structural changes in literature. The study figures out what ubiquitous media is doing with digital skills and service and how to develop literary contents, especially hypertext, in such ubiquitous environment. In media receiver's environment, ubiquitous digital literature service includes digital TV, DMB, Net Streaming, iTV, data service, IPTV, and even any resources with intelligent computing devices put in. U-broadcasting system hereat needs to be recognized as service, with u-TV as a home media server which acts as a home gateway, a local storage and a home networking hub, systematically connected to related intelligent actors, that can be chosen to build up effective hypertext in digital literature. In hypertext, it is no surprise that technical use in CM has been growing to see how digital media technology has been applied in the digital literature in terms of research themes, data sources, and methodological refinements. Hypertext content and structure have been applied to real life situation across the reality of digital media and its networking environment, the so-called ubiquitous computing system working in actual life. Conclusively, enhancing the utility of hypertext will go with growing digital technology.


영어 수동구문의 제약기반적 분석과 by-구의 결속


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제21권 1호 2008.06 pp.109-132

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The main purpose of this paper is to recast passive constructions with a constraint-based analysis in which passive constructions are separated from active constructions. In general, a constraint-based analysis within the framework of HPSG explains syntactic and semantic phenomena such as passive constructions with types, constraints, and multiple inheritance hierarchy. To explain passive constructions as a separate phenomenon from active constructions, the type of English passives is regarded as the subtype of ergative, and according to Grimshaw (1990) and Wechsler (1995), PP[by] phrase in English passive constructions is considered as an adjunct, not as an optional complement. But there is still a problem that cannot be explained by the established binding theory, when PP[by] phrase is treated as an adjunct. It is necessary to adopt ‘Adverb Addition Schema' of Sag (2005) and ‘Amalgamation of Argument Structures' of Park Hyo-Myong (2006) to solve this problem within the framework of a constraint-based analysis.


허서 there와 결함 t의 일치관계


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제21권 1호 2008.06 pp.134-154

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The purpose of this paper is to inquire what formal feature the expletive there and Tdef possess and why the EPP phenomenon takes place. In the Agree theory in Chomsky (1999, 2000), the Agree of the features is the most important operation. The Agree relation consists of identifying probe and goal, giving value to them, agreeing and deleting them. The probe whose features are uninterpretable searches for the goal having matching features with the probe. If the features of the probe and those of the goal match, they agree and then delete. Chomsky (1999, 2000) argues that the expletive there has only uninterpretable [person]-feature to satisfy EPP, and Tdef also has uninterpretable [person]-feature and EPP-feature, and through the Agree relation between uninterpretable [person]-feature of the expletive there and the uninterpretable feature of probe, the relation between the movement of the expletive there and the associate NP is shown. According to Chomsky (1999, 2000), I may predict incorrectly that the derivations of the expletive there constructions such as in the Raising and in the ECM are crashed. Thus, to solve the problems, exceptional explanations are needed. In this paper, I argue that Tdef has no [person]-feature but only EPP-feature, and the expletive there has only the Case-feature to activate Agree. With the above suggestion, the problems occurring on the expletive there constructions in Chomsky (1999, 2000) can be solved, and through the simplification of the analysis, the Economy Principle that Minimalist Program has pursued can be satisfied significantly.


동요·동시 텍스트의 각운 패턴 활용 수업이 초등 영어 학습자에 미치는 영향

이올순, 조초희

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제21권 1호 2008.06 pp.156-183

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The purpose of this study was to teach rhyming English song texts of literary qualities and to examine the effects on primary 6th graders' reading and writing abilities and some affective factors. The same rhyming literary texts were taught in two classes. However, the experimental class was taught with the balanced approach which used benefits of both phonics and the whole language approach, focused on the rhyming words in each text, while the concept of rhyme was not introduced to the control group who was taught in the way suggested for the textbooks of the national curriculum. After 17 weeks of experimental lessons, tests on reading and writing were given to the students of both groups, two times over the span of two months. The results of this study were: In the experimental group, the students' ability in reading and writing increased to a statistically significant extent, compared to those of the control group(p=.003, p=.013), with the result of the follow-up test showing more difference(p=.000, p=.000). It means that the approach focused on rhyming words in the instruction of the song texts was more effective than the meaning-based way as shown in the current textbooks. There was no significant difference statistically in emotional effects (interest and confidence) between two groups. However, the interest of the experimental group by itself increased to a statistically significant extent(p=.003). Therefore, it may be interpreted that the approach focused on rhyming words was more effective than the way as adopted in the current textbook instruction in terms of students' interest. On the basis of the results, it is suggested that: Rhyming texts should be presented in our textbooks, as supplementary materials tailored for fast and slow learners; activities such as finding word families and making new rhyming words after understanding the whole meaning of texts should be included in the textbooks. Eventually it is necessary to develop more effective ways to apply rhyming literary texts positively, in the balanced approach.


Ghostly Writing: Narrative Structure in J.M. Coetzee's Foe

Youngnam Cha

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제21권 1호 2008.06 pp.186-205

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The paper provides an in depth of examination of the narrative structure of J. M. Coetzee's Foe. First of all, Coetzee writes back to Robinson Crusoe, written by a British author, Daniel Defoe in the eighteenth century. In writing back to Robinson Crusoe, Foe appropriates Defoe's rhetorical devices such as an autobiographical element, journal and memoir. The appropriation is shown from the section one to the section three. Most significantly, the appropriation aims at (de)constructing the reliability of the novel in the early eighteenth century. It is, however, notable that the strategy of writing-back in Foe is not that simple. That is to say, Coetzee essentially questions the reliability of Robinson Crusoe within the postcolonial context. The subversion of the reliability begins with the third person female narrator, Susan Barton, instead of the first person narrator, Robinson Crusoe in Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. Under the gaze of Susan Barton, the reader finds that Defoe's rhetorical devices are not applied to the racial other, Friday. By pointing out the problematic representation of Friday, Foe maximizes the subversive effect of the writing-back strategy. In particular, Coetzee's idea on representing the other goes a step further. For him, Susan Barton also cannot speak of the other as well as for the other. The disappearance of the reliable narrator, Susan, in the last section reveals the radical idea of Coetzee on writing and representation. The ghostly voice of the last section questions the reliability and narrative of Susan Barton. The ghostly narrator clearly tells that any narratorial subject cannot be free from the reliability in terms of representing the other. In sum, J. M. Coetzee's Foe takes advantage of the effect of the appropriation and subversion as a postmodern parody of Robinson Crusoe. And at the same time, the narrative structure of Foe offers the reader a chance of reconsidering its textual limitation as well as a counter-discourse to the racial contract embedded in colonial narratives.


A Study of Supportive Moves on Request for Korean EFL Students

Jaehwang Shim, Duk-Yong Kim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제21권 1호 2008.06 pp.208-229

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The purpose of this study is to investigate pragmatic competence on request for Korean college learners. 175 college students were divided into two groups by the test score of English: low level(81) and high level(94). Ten DCT items on request were provided for the students and written down the answers in each situation. Cross-Cultural Speech Act Realization Patterns(CCSARP) coding scheme was used for written responses of request sequences. This study analyzed supportive moves in various aspects. Although the learners used the grounder strategy, they also used the apology strategy as a higher rate. They also made use of the different supportive moves such as disarmer, imposition minimizer, sweeter, preparatory, promise of reward, etc. The frequency rate of other eight strategies except grounder strategy was somewhat different depending on the levels. Most learners in low and high level heavily skewed to the grounder because of their lack of the pragmatic abilities. The findings imply that the teachers in EFL classroom should teach the supportive strategies of request by means of real data.

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