영어영문학21 [English21]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
  • 발행기관
    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
  • ISSN
  • 간기
  • 수록기간
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제31권 3호 (13건)

캐나다 다문화주의와 대항서사 — 마이클 온다체의 『사자 가죽을 입고』


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 3호 2018.09 pp.5-26

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This article explores suppressed histories of those residing on the margins of social power as counter-narrative against the official history in Michael Ondaatje’s In the Skin of a Lion (1987). The novel is a ‘historiographic metafiction’ and deals with the immigrant workers in Canada. It is centered on the construction of the Bloor Street Viaduct and the Toronto Waterworks at the beginning of the 20th century. To dispel the myth of documentary objectivity and to recuperate the hidden histories of the dispossessed, the novel writes the counter-narrative silenced by the official archive. And it exposes the internal colonialism hidden in the past history of Canada. My reading relies upon two epigraphs that show the themes and aesthetics of the novel. Through a seeking of the past, Patrick Lewis’ journey from passive observer to political actor is mirrored in the first epigraph taken from the Epic of Gilgamesh. The second epigraph comes from John Berger’s G. It implies the style and strategies Ondaatje employs, such as fragmentation, indeterminacy, estrangement, and ambiguity in the form of collage. Also I read this novel focusing on colonialist psychology from the viewpoint of the colonial subject, the cultural outsider. I suggest that the novel reveals the ways in which colonialist psychology operates to sustain the imbalances of cultural power, that is, the colony within.


신형식주의, 신미학주의, 영시교육 — 시적 사건을 찾아서


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 3호 2018.09 pp.27-51

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This paper aims to illuminate new formalism and new aestheticism as alternative theoretical bases to previous literary theories of new criticism and new historicism for teaching English poetry. Both new formalism and new aestheticism concur in the way in which poetry (and its textual meaning) occurs as an event through the readers’ experiences of reading. First, new formalism emphasizes the significance of formal elements in poetry. Unlike the former theories concerned with historico-political implications of the text, new formalism searches for the poetic singularity occurring through the materiality of the formal elements of the text, irreducible to exterior values. The singularity leads readers to the poetic event, a temporal, somatic experience of poetry reading. Second, new aestheticism reevaluates the aesthetic, neglected by contemporary leftist theorists preoccupied with politics. Instead, new aestheticism notices the importance of the readers’ affect in constructing textual meaning, which is always in flux. In applying new formalism and new aestheticism to English poetry classes, poetry teachers can retrieve the poetic event by encouraging their students to transform poetry to other genres. In so doing, the readers are expected to regain the pleasure of reading and the ability to share the aesthetic experiences with others.


『여인의 초상』에서 인식의 문제 — 관찰 경험에서 현실 경험으로


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 3호 2018.09 pp.53-73

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This study analyzes the way in which Isabel Archer, initially a romantic idealist, faces and then willfully decides to embrace the painful experience of actual reality. While she is eager to “see” life for herself, she wants to escape from the obligation and burden of ideals. Inevitably, she lacks a sense of reality until her zeal for ideals is tested by the crucible of her matrimony. Isabel goes through two different phases of experience before and after her marriage to Osmand. While staying in Europe, she first imagines, then observes, and finally lives the life of a young lady with an inherited fortune. This experience transforms Isabel’s vision of life from a romantic idealist’s to that of a moral fundamentalist. At the beginning she yearned for freedom and independence, but in the end she accepts her moral obligation, responsibility, and life of oppression. In a sense, such a change in her vision and attitude can be interpreted as a case of so-called “felix culpa,” meaning “fortunate fall.” Isabel's marriage to Osmond might be seen as a channel to her maturity. In sum, the whole process of Isabel's experience represented by her will to see the world, her marriage to Osmond, and then her reflection on her married life in the scene of “night vigil” enables her to have a perceptive growth.


마가렛의 『회고록』을 통해서 본 샐린저의 전기와 작품

오성록, 심상욱

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 3호 2018.09 pp.75-90

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This paper is aimed at studying, and rectifying misunderstandings, of J. D. Salinger's works in the light of his daughter Margaret A. Salinger’s Dream Catcher: A Memoir. Salinger pursued Oriental ideas including Zen Buddhism and Vedanta theory. He studied and practiced Orientalism and Zen at the American Zen Center in the 1940s. Since Salinger lived a secret life for a long time without relationships with his family and others, we have had to read his works themselves without considering his biography. However, Margaret’s Memoir sheds light on the mystery of Salinger's writings and gives acute psychological insights to researchers. Through her Memoir, she makes readers reconsider Salinger’s works. Accordingly, her memoir has become one of the best books to reignite Salinger criticism. Thanks to this book, we can understand the Salinger myth in the papers published from the past until now, and studying his works can be vivid and strong again like in the 1960s. This new interest has been, called, “the second Salinger Industry.”


애도의 이야기하기 — 새러 룰의 『죽은 남자의 휴대전화』


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 3호 2018.09 pp.91-110

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This study examines the work of mourning through storytelling in Sarah Ruhl's Dead Man's Cell Phone (2007). Ruhl’s play delineates the essential character of mourning as something that everyone deserves whoever they are. Jean happens to witness the untimely death of a stranger in a cafe, answers the dead man’s cell phone, and goes on to mourn for him. The deceased person, Gordon, was a capitalist businessman illegally trading human organs. Deviating from the traditional Freudian mourning that prioritizes effective object change and libidinal reinvestment, Jean performs the work of mourning by telling stories of her own fabulation the surviving members of the dead man’s family. By strorytelling, as a means of mourning in this play, those who share the stories find themselves participating in the work of mourning. Jean’s stories let them confront their loss in the face of Gordon’s death and conjure up alternative meanings in their relationships. Through this journey to remembering and sharing stories together, they recover fragmented relationships and respond with ethical responsibility toward the others, fostering hospitality and reciprocal recognition.


성적 소수자로서의 정체성 탐구 — 『각성』과 『플라스틱 섹스』


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 3호 2018.09 pp.111-133

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The Awakening (1899) by Kate Chopin, an American writer, and Plastic Sex (1998) by Namhee Lee, a Korean writer, reveal sexual minorities being alienated from mainstream society. This perspective is expressed through the heroines of the two novels, Edna and Eunmyung. Edna in The Awakening and Eunmyung in Plastic Sex, who have suffered from the male-centered and heterosexual society, rethink the assumptions of traditional sexuality struggling to find themselves and resist the social norms by reacting against the notions of established femininity. Through the homosexual disposition, Edna explores the different faces of woman’s sexual desire, that is, Edna uses ‘a kind of subtle love’ beyond sisterhood among female friends, Adele and Reisz, and tries to establish her own sexual identity. While Edna expresses her homosexual disposition as an agent seeking for her identity, Eunmyung represents her lesbian identity more directly than Edna, and searches to fulfill her carnal desire with her female friend, Chorok. Eunmyung insists that a woman can pursue sex for sensual pleasure based on equal sexual and emotional relations to a female partner, while avoiding the worries of pregnancy and sexual harassment by a man. As such, Edna and Eunmyung’s sexual orientations imply that a homosexual’s unfulfilled desires start showing up as a personal entity both in America and Korea. In this context, Chopin and Lee carve the path not for the collective, but for the individual, more clearly the homosexual woman, who begins to establish her own sexual identity.


초등영어 문법교육에 대한 영어 전담교사의 인식과 통합적 문법지도 방안


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 3호 2018.09 pp.135-160

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This paper has dual aims. One is to analyze the results of interviewing four English teachers about focus on form approaches and corrective feedback techniques as well as English grammar teaching in elementary schools, focused on the necessity, the timing and the methods of grammar instruction. The other is to discuss strategies for integrating grammar instruction with communicative language use to propose effective grammar teaching approaches which can be implemented in the elementary school English classroom. The results of this study are as follows: Grammar should be taught to 5th and 6th grade students deductively, if necessary, as well as inductively since they will have to develop productive skills and written language skills to communicate more accurately with each other. Focus on form approaches are needed for students to pay attention to specific forms or correct their errors by themselves during communicative tasks under the teacher’s preferred corrective feedback techniques such as recasts, elicitation, repetition, etc. Two types of approaches are discussed to integrate grammar instruction with communicative language use. One is to design focused communicative tasks that focus students' attention on the predetermined specific forms during the tasks. The other is to provide reactive feedback explicitly or implicitly when grammatical errors occur while students’ primary attention is on meaning during the tasks. It is suggested that grammar can be taught to students at the intermediate level or above based on the former approach in which they can pay attention to specific forms, whereas it can be taught to most other students based on the latter in which they can receive the teacher’s feedback to correct errors, during communicative tasks.


정형화된 배열 학습을 위한 수업 모델과 그 효율성 — 미녀와 야수를 활용하여


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 3호 2018.09 pp.161-182

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The purpose of this study is to suggest a class model for learning formulaic sequences(FSs) in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom and to consider the effects of pragmatic functions in context on learning FSs. Three stages using a famous Disney animation, Beauty and the Beast, were suggested, namely, noticing, learning, and production. In the noticing stage, students choose FSs for themselves after watching the animation and understanding the story. Subsequently, they share their chosen FSs in a group discussion and become aware of language. In the second learning stage, the teacher imparts information about the social and pragmatic functions of FSs in context. At this stage, students acquire FSs through role play, which they record with their smart phones to produce a short video clip. Finally, in the production stage, students write down their experiences and/or opinions about the topic using the acquired FSs. This study consists of two groups using the class model for FSs: an experimental group that focuses on the pragmatic functions of FSs in context and a control group that focuses on the explicit meaning of FSs. The results show that the three-stage class model is effective for learning FSs. However, providing pragmatic functions does not seem to have a positive effect on acquiring FSs. As the acquisition of FSs is necessary for EFL students, teachers need more effective and creative activities for learning FSs, such as this model.


이러닝 학습자의 영어독해 능력에 관한 연구


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 3호 2018.09 pp.183-201

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The purpose of this study is to investigate the English reading ability of e-learners and the effects of the e-learners’ learning background characteristics on their English reading ability. To achieve these goals, an English reading diagnostic test of 9 subskills was developed and administered to 274 Korean online university students. Before this, however, a survey was conducted about the characteristics of their English learning backgrounds. The results of the study are as follows. First, the e-learners were not proficient at English reading. Second, the e-learners had a low ability to infer information that was not presented directly in the test. Third, lengthy visits to English-speaking countries, prolonged use of English audio-visual materials, frequent writing and reading, as well as long conversations with English native speakers were helpful to improve English reading skills. The results suggest that e-learners need to make a lot of effort to improve their reading ability and that proper feedback and remedial learning are necessary for those with weaker reading ability.


Ambiguity Preserved: Shanley’s Screen Version of His Play Doubt : A Parable

Derek McGovern

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 3호 2018.09 pp.203-221

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American playwright John Patrick Shanley’s 2004 Pulitzer Prize-winning play Doubt: A Parable is a morality tale that addresses both the elusiveness of certainty and the implications of judging a person’s guilt without proof. Its plot concerns the suspicions of a senior nun, Sister Aloysius, at a Bronx Catholic parochial school in 1964 that her parish’s popular young priest, Father Flynn, has sexually abused the school’s only African-American student. The evidence against the priest is far from conclusive, however, and the play ends without definitively resolving his guilt or innocence, thereby obliging each member of the audience to determine if Sister Aloysius was justified in driving the priest away from his parish. This article examines the ambiguity surrounding Father Flynn in the play and then compares the work with the 2008 film adaptation, which Shanley himself wrote and directed, viewing the latter as the playwright’s attempt to establish a definitive version of his play. In particular, this article demonstrates how the adaptation, through a number of new scenes and a much larger cast of characters, carefully maintains the play’s ambiguity with respect to Father Flynn’s guilt or innocence. The article also demonstrates how the film, partly through the use of visual means, underlines how the same event can be interpreted in different ways, thereby further illustrating the elusiveness of certainty.


The Redistribution of the Sensible and the Politics of Aesthetics in Paul Auster’s Moon Palace

Ho Rim Song

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 3호 2018.09 pp.223-243

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This essay analyzes Paul Auster's Moon Palace based on Jacques Rancière's theory of aesthetics. The novel traces how young and traumatic Fogg transfers his way of perceiving the world from an imaginary and mythological one to an aesthetic and political one. The essay reads Fogg's homeless life in Central Park as an aesthetic suspension of existing order. The suspension prepared him to realize a new aesthetics and its way of perceiving the world, which Rancière calls “the aesthetic regime of art.” Dismantling the existing system of identification and classification, the aesthetic regime of art redistributes the sensible. Literature under the new regime deconstructs rules for representation and proposes a new notion of fictionality and literarity, which incorporates the heterogenous and the contradictory and reconfigures the relationship between the visible and the sayable. Throughout the novel, Fogg is trained to be an artist that could redistribute the sensible and thus give the invisible a locus.


Effects of Collaborative Writing Activities on University Students’ Business Writing Performance and Learning Strategies

Bong-Gyu Kim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 3호 2018.09 pp.245-265

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This study explores the effect of web-based collaborative writing activities through interactive peer-to-peer corrective feedback conducted by students. 40 university students participated in a writing module and were encouraged to participate in both individual and group writing activities based on online interactions with other peers. 40 writing samples from individual writing tasks and 40 writing samples from the web-based writing were collected and scored by both a native teacher and a Korean teacher. Cohen’s analytic scoring rubric (1994) was used for the analysis of learners’ corrective behaviors. This study illustrates three main research questions on student writing behaviors through web-based collaborative Business writing activities. This study shows that experiencing online collaborative Business writing activities may have positive effects on both students’ writing and their writing strategies.


Speaker’s Perspectives on Request of Junior College English Learners

Jaehwang Shim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 3호 2018.09 pp.267-288

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This study examines the use of different types of perspectives on request. The subjects were two groups of junior college learners of English. The first group was 81 students of three conversation classes, and the second group was 94 students of three reading classes at a college near Seoul. At the end of the semester, the students were presented four pragmatic situations on request and answered the open-ended questions with four types of perspective. In the preference of perspectives, most students skewed to speaker-oriented and hearer-oriented strategies. However, some results show a difference depending on the class types. In the analysis of gender, the total mean scores are skewed to the hearer-oriented strategy. Compared with differences of class type, the factor of gender rarely influences the use of perspectives. This study suggests that various types of perspectives should be taught to the college learners of English.

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