영어영문학21 [English21]

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  • 자료유형
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    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
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  • 간기
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  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
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    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제25권 3호 (16건)

『오셀로』— 타자의 타자


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 3호 2012.09 pp.5-32

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The purpose of this paper is to explore how the prejudice against ‘otherness' determine the tragic fate of Othello. Othello is not a tragic hero but rather a victim of the racial prejudice of Venetian society. Desdemona is also a victim of the gender prejudice in that society. Iago is the main character who represents the social prejudice against ‘otherness.' However, we should notice the fact that Othello is both an ‘other' and one who oppresses ‘other.' It is revealed in the relationship between Desdemona and Othello himself. He is a racial other oppressed by the prejudice of Venetian society, and also a male character who tortures Desdemona with his gender prejudice at the same time. He represents a dual persona, as a victim of racial prejudice and also as a Venetian who gets rid of himself, a jealous and cruel Moor, an ‘other' in himself. Othello seems fit to the concept of the traditional tragic discourse. A great and noble general makes a terrible mistake obsessed by uncontrollable jealousy, and at the moment he recognizes the truth he destroys himself. Tempted by the villain Iago, Othello who committed sins of jealousy and murder arouses pity and fear to the audience, warning the danger of evil and jealousy. According to this perspective, it seems Shakespeare's view of human nature is that a great general can be a cruel monster in a moment. However, the most important element that determines the tragic result of the play is the prejudice against ‘otherness' to the eyes of both Venetian people and Othello. We should approach Othello not with the conservative view that justifies the prejudice against ‘otherness,' but with a critical view of the misfortune and pain that this prejudice results in. This play reflects a rage against other's success, overflowing of materialism, and social reality full of deceptions and intrigues. The tragedy of ‘other' is not an imitation of an individual's behavior but that of social prejudice and political ideology. If this play is regarded as a tragedy and we feel pity toward Othello, it enforces how wicked the conservative prejudice of white male society is.


『멋진 신세계』에 나타난 진보된 과학과 인간의 자유의 문제


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 3호 2012.09 pp.33-54

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

Scientistic utopian novels originating from the idea of “New Atlantis” in the 17th century have expressed the desire to change people's lives into a more developed and advanced state by borrowing the power of science as the 18th and 19th centuries progressed. However, it is notable that Aldous Huxley's novel Brave New World (1932) started off from a totally different context than prior utopian novels. Unlike writers such as Francs Bacon who dreamt of realizing a utopia, Huxley considered the problems that could occur when the utopia they dreamt of became reality, and planned his novel Brave New World with the aim of guarding against the realization of a utopia. In other words, the fantasy dreamt up by Bacon, that is, the fabrication of science against human life and nature was a nightmare to the 20th-century Huxley, and the great pains of dreaming up a scientific utopia was ironically reversed into the toil of preventing the utopia from happening and returning to a non-utopian society. In his foreword of 1946, Huxley established the nightmare he depicted in Brave New World as occurring 600 years later, but he predicted that the horror of this nightmare would actually be realized within a hundred years while warning against the rapid advance of scientific technology and its side effects. We who are living in the modern day of the 21st century are witnessing a much more rapid advance in scientific technology than what Huxley had experienced in the 20th century, and therefore, we need to pay attention to the voice warning against its side effects. Huxley's novel Brave New World contains the humanistic self-examination that questions whether the ideal we aspired to is heading in the right direction and is significant in that it involves the serious introspection reflecting on how the human race may be in the state of heaven or hell due to the power of science. The epigraph of Brave New World hints at Huxley's desire to return to a world less perfect but more free, while the foreword to Brave New World Revisited (1958) explores what he terms “the subject of freedom and its enemies.” This paper addresses this problem of human freedom in a scientifically advanced society. In Brave New World, Huxley is in a certain way projecting the side effects that occur when science is combined with totalitarianism while pointing out the prices paid for the advance in science and the gains made within society, or in other words, the individuality, freedom, independence, humanity, and various human emotions lost in the name of advancement and security. By contrasting the ideological language of Brave New World with Shakespearean language, this paper reveals that Huxley cautions against the disciplinary power of language that is concomitant with scientific advancement. The paper also examines in Brave New World the process in which human beings are denied free will and existential worth as a result of the sole pursuit of security in a society and community through advanced scientific technology.


『욕망이라는 이름의 전차』에 나타난 남성성과 가부장적 폭력


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 3호 2012.09 pp.55-80

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

Tennessee Williams's A Streetcar Named Desire shows layers of aspects in violence represented by the power struggles between Stanley and Blanche. As they were born and grown up in a completely different environment, they inevitably create a conflict and conflict with each other on everything. Namely, Blanche from the Southern nobility and Stanley from Polish emigrant working class inevitably come in conflict with each other. Patriarchal Stanley seeks the material amenities of life, and thinks of Blanche as a threatening person who destroys his family and his own community as well. In A Streetcar Named Desire, Blanche's illusory world consistently collides with Stanley's real world. To Blanche, the real world is just a series of sufferings such as ex-husband's sexual perversion and his suicide, the loss of Belle Reve, and the following sexual disorders. Thus, she excessively holds fast to her dreamy world to avoid the pains of the stern realties of life. On the other hand, to Stanley, nothing is more important than the material amenities of life and physical comfort. He destroys Blanche's sensitive fragile illusory world. And then drives her to despair physically and emotionally through his violence and brutality. In previous studies on A Streetcar Named Desire, the conflict between Stanley and Blanche has been summed up as ‘a clash of different civilizations.' Thus, Stanley's violence against Blanche has been regarded as legitimately defending modern American culture against the Southern nobility. Even his raping Blanche has been justified partially. But exactly speaking, Stanley's violent behaviors arise not from a noble cause of protecting modern civilization but from selfish snobbery. In this study, I investigated a diversity of aspects of patriarchal violence imposed by a male-dominated society through the power struggles between Stanley and Blanche in A Streetcar Named Desire. In fact, the violence is not merely a way of pushing out human's immediate feelings. Instead, it is a kind of tangible and intangible strategic arms of procuring hegemony, which contains a political undertone. The violence is a theme of modern or contemporary American plays including A Streetcar Named Desire.


고통의 유목학—에드윈 알링턴 로빈슨의 “방랑하는 유태인” 읽기


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 3호 2012.09 pp.81-115

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This paper tries to point out that cursory readings of E. A. Robinson’s poem “The Wandering Jew” that emphasize its ethical and philosophical meanings fail to acknowledge the narrator’s ever-increasing capacity to be affected by the Wandering Jew’s never-ending suffering, which enables a different reading seen through the perspective of Gilles Deleuze’s idea of nomadology. The basis for this can be associated with the possible similarities between the Wandering Jew’s nomadism and anathema as well as the Deleuzian subtraction (n-1). Even though the Wandering Jew is interpreted as a living corpse, the uncanny, or the marginal man by logocentric structures such as Jesus’ dictum of giving him eternal exile, his recurring experiences of suffering and wandering which always lead to differences by which any trial to catch their definitive meaning is deferred. With his detachment from the center by use of the strategy of rhizome, he can achieve an arrogance through the repetition of his suffering because the repetition itself leads to a form of eternal variation or expansion which can eventually result in his obtaining his place next to God. In this sense, his wandering is not so much a curse but a kind of bliss that is allowed to him by following the “lines of flight” through an “a-centered, non- hierarchical, non-signifying system without a General.” This new interpretation helps to break away from the traditional approaches towards the poem which see the Wandering Jew’s pride as purely a lack of repentance, and which becomes the source for his stigmatization. This understanding of the poem leaves both the Jew and the readers to wander on not only in the continuous nomadic life of his real suffering, but also to keep their wanderings in the realm of its interpretations.


존 스타인벡의 『분노의 포도』의 짐 케이시와 민간전승에서의 그리스도론적 전통


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 3호 2012.09 pp.117-136

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The purpose of this study is to attempt to trace the ‘christological tradition' to which Jim Casy belongs. This method of previous studies has now largely been achieved. Hitherto, the quest for literary antecedents and parallels for Steinbeck's portrayal of Casy has largely been confined to trawling through the gospels. What I have tried to do in this essay is to establish Casy's position in a christological tradition; a tradition stretching from the evangelists themselves, via the battlefields of the Civil War, to writers such as Hayes and Guthrie. Therefore I try to pursue a christological tradition through similarities in Christ-like figures including Jim Casy and Jesus Christ in American literature. Of Course, this trial will not be a wholly new one. Already in the 1960s Edwin Moseley noted parallels between Casy and a particular sort of “Christ figure of the thirties.” However, He errs in characterizing this christology as merely presenting in the last analysis a kind of melodramatic hero who represents the potential goodness in man. I think that Christ came as a leader of the oppressed masses, and as a sacrificial figure. Therefore, as Jim Casy is a primary character, he has a distinguishing mark in the christological tradition, Jim Casy, with his eye-catching initials, is such a Christ figure in this novel.


이중목적어 동사의 분포


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 3호 2012.09 pp.137-185

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In addition to the verb give, verbs of GIVING such as pay, reimburse, teach, show, tell, feed, serve, bequeath, issue, award, accord, afford, offer, lend, loan, ask, promise, guarantee, prescribe, leave, owe, allow, permit, grant, allot, allocate, assign, deny, refuse, grudge, begrudge are found in double object constructions of GIVING. Verbs of SENDING such as mail, fax, wire, email, radio, drop, write (write and send), telephone, telegraph, sell, trade, flog, send, hand, pass, throw, chuck, fling, cast, blow, shoot, slide, slip, shin, ship, fetch, return, forward, advance, bring, take, pour, pull, push, drag are found in double object constructions of GIVING. Verbs of PREPARING such as make, cook, boil, bake, mix, fix, light, melt, cut, sew, set, prepare, clear are found in double object constructions of GIVING. Verbs of GETTING such as get, buy, order, find, choose, prepare, book, reserve, catch, win, wish, secure, leave, steal, take, save, spare, answer, quote, cite are found in double object constructions of GIVING. Verbs of MAKING such as cause, make, build, bake, bear, incur, pose, do, knit, draw, paint, color, play (song), play (trick), sing, spin, write (create), read, kiss, flash, score, earn, bang, mumble, mutter, whisper are found in double object constructions of GIVING. Verbs of TAKING-OFF such as forgive, pardon, fine, charge, envy are found in double object constructions of TAKING-OFF. Verbs of TAKING such as steal, take, ask, envy, cost, save, spare are found in double object constructions of TAKING- OFF. Verbs of LOSING such as loose, kill, slay, restrict are found in double object constructions of TAKING-OFF. Steal, take, save, spare are found both in double constructions of GIVING and of TAKING-OFF.


시청각 자료를 활용한 영어 듣기능력 향상

임미란, 김경훈

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 3호 2012.09 pp.159-175

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The purpose of this study is to research middle school students' listening problems and to suggest how to improve their listening comprehension through the use of the audio-visual aids. The experimental group had been taught through audio-visual aids for 12 weeks. The data needed for this study was obtained by the questionnaires with 20 questions about the English listening. The data analyzing method was the t-test through the statistics program SPSS 12.0. The result is as follows. First, the mean score for the experimental group was significant higher than that of control group. Second, it was found that there were significant differences in the intermediate and low levels of English proficiency. Third, most of the students who were taught listening by audio-visual aids responded that they were more interested in and more satisfied with the listening lesson than the students in the control group. From the results of this study, we found that the use of audio-visual aids were more effective in improving the students' listening competence than the use of the audio tapes.


대학 신입생의 전공 및 학습 성과별 영어 학습동기와 학습전략 연구


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 3호 2012.09 pp.177-200

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The purpose of this study is to investigate the usage of and correlation between learning motivation and learning strategies of university freshmen students by their majors and English skill. Noels's test (2000) for motivation and Oxford's test (1990) for strategies, and TOEIC scores for English skill were applied for analysis. Participants of this study consisted of 284 university freshmen students from six different majors. Of these students, 146 students submitted their TOEIC scores. High and low level groups consisted of 40 students each, excluding 70 students of medium level. The result of analysis is as followed. In terms of motivation, external and identified regulation of the four regulations were found to be utilized by the college students by every major, and both high and low English achievement levels. Out of the six strategies presented in the Oxford's test, compensation strategies and meta cognitive strategies were found to be utilized the most by students in every major and both high and low English achievement levels. The internal regulation were found to have the closest correlation with overall strategies by every major, and both high and low English achievement levels. High level group uses stronger strategies than the low level group does. These results indicate that teachers need to motivate students to learn other various learning strategies to help students learn English more effectively.


The Narcissistic Entrapment of Scarlett O’Hara

Marika Joubert

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 3호 2012.09 pp.201-222

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The popular image of Scarlett O'Hara's character easily polarizes readers into extreme and equally superficial opposites. Her existence in readers' minds as feisty American heroine or self-centered princess neglects the nuanced depiction of her complex and destructive personality. The author's achievement lies in providing a morally superficial and simplistic character with a complex subtext of motivations. In conjunction with a clinical understanding of narcissism, it can be shown that she ought neither to be admired as icon nor scorned as psychotic, but seen as the profoundly flawed character the text carefully conveys. The clinical understanding of narcissistic personality disorder is currently under debate again. It stands to be eliminated from the next edition of The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) due to renewed uncertainty whether narcissism should be seen as a clinical disease or just a collection of signs and symptoms better understood in terms of other disorders. In Scarlett's actions and motivations it is possible to see such a collection of signs that invite the broader label of narcissistic personality traits. Specifically, Scarlett's narcissistic complex stems from the insufficient mirroring supplied by her distant mother Ellen and the resultant overidealization of Ellen's womanhood. The aim of this essay is to show that Scarlett's enchantment with the image of her mother and consequently her own ego-ideal, has consequences for relating adequately to others and being able to mature. Since her lack of self-analysis cannot aid her in detecting these flaws, she is also unable to avert a regression to girlhood strategies and fantasies. This dynamic can best be constructed as a narcissistic entrapment.


A Cross-Linguistic Survey of Psychological Predicates

Wonho Kim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 3호 2012.09 pp.223-245

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This paper surveys psychological predicates cross-linguistically and observe some morpho-syntactic characteristics of a psych construction which takes a psychological one as its predicate. A psych construction usually involves two participants as the arguments: human experiencer and theme. They exhibit some correlative relationships between these semantic roles and surface grammatical relations cross-linguistically. In topic-prominent languages, the human experiencer of a psych construction is consistently marked as dative. These dative marked nominals are called as dative subjects, which exhibit properties otherwise limited to grammatical subjects. In many subject-prominent languages, the human experiencer is a nominative, or ergative marked subject and the theme appears as a superficial object. Some Sp languages, however, have dative subjects in psych constructions. A cross-linguistic sample tests that dative subjects are more freely recognized in psych constructions of topic prominent languages without any change of a case form. On the basis of this empirical evidence, this paper suggests that the dative subject in a psych construction is closely related to a topic of the structure and that if a language is topic-prominent, it has a dative subject as an implicational universal.


Syllable Structure in Korean Revisited

Inkie Chung

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 3호 2012.09 pp.247-267

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This paper argues that the maximal surface syllable structure in Korean is (C)V(C), with the single onset consonant and the single coda consonant optional and with the syllable peak non-branching. Specifically, there is no glide between the onset consonant and the peak vowel regardless of the position of the alleged glide whether it would be part of a complex onset or part of a branching nucleus. Supporting arguments are from the conspiracy effect in loanword adaptations, loanword adaptations of consonant-glide and consonant-liquid clusters, the distribution of the glide [ɰ], palatal variants of non-plosives before a vowel other than [i], and hiatus tolerance.


Metonymy and Korean Noun-Noun Compounds

Youngju Choi

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 3호 2012.09 pp.269-289

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

Many of nontransparent compounds, which have been a recalcitrant problem to the generative approach, can be well analyzed from the perspectives of cognitive semantics. Benczes (2006) analyzed English noun-noun compounds with metonymies, one of the major analytic devices within cognitive semantics. He categorized the compounds with five types based on Langacker's (1993) analysis on compounds. Following his lead, the paper analyzed Korean noun-noun compounds with metonymies, providing a crosslinguistic evidence for word-level metonymy.


Use and Misuse of Linking Adverbials: A Corpus-based Study on NS and NNS Writings

Son-Hee Ro, Yoon-Hee Na

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 3호 2012.09 pp.291-317

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The purpose of this study is to investigate how Korean EFL students use linking adverbials in argumentative essays in comparison to how American university students use them in their writings. Two comparable corpora representative of the two groups were compiled. Sixty-four linking adverbials were selected and classified into six categories: enumeration/addition, result/inference, contrast/concession, apposition, summation, and transition. The findings show that except for the category of transition, Korean EFL students significantly overused the linking adverbials in the rest five categories. In an investigation of the use of individual linking adverbials, this study shows that out of 64 linking adverbials, 18 adverbials were overused by Korean leaners and only two were underused by them. Four types of misuse were also identified in a learner corpus. Based on the results of the study, teaching implications for L2 writing are presented.


Korean College Students’ Perception of the Pronunciation of English as an International Language

Joo-Kyung Park

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 3호 2012.09 pp.319-341

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Ever since American English was introduced in the First National Curriculum, it has been ‘the English model' in English classes as well as social practices in Korean context. It is still the case even in the age of English as an international language. The present study focuses on the Korean college students of English, one of the key stakeholders, and examines how they perceive learning English for international communication, pronunciation in particular. It also aims at identifying their problems and concerns with acquiring English pronunciation. Three hundred and ten Korean college students participated in the questionnaire survey. The results showed that the Korean students lack confidence in their own pronunciation and the major issues in learning pronunciation include the lack of pronunciation instruction, grammar and reading-focused English classes and some teachers’ poor English pronunciation. It was suggested that teacher education program needs to be developed to build confidence and promote an ownership of English among the Korean teachers and learners of English.


Acquisition of Semantic Categories of English Phrasal Verbs by Korean Speakers

Gil-Soon Ahn

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 3호 2012.09 pp.343-368

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Because of high productivity of lexical category in English, phrasal verbs are more difficult to master. Since most of them are noncompositional or idiomatic, their meanings are different according to semantic categories. This paper aims to determine what the systematicity of meaning in phrasal verbs becomes easier to perceive when they are not treated monolithically. The instrument consisted of 30 short dialogues with three types of phrasal verbs (literal, aspectual and idiomatic), in which the verb components were left blank, containing a phrasal verb, an equivalent one word verb, and two distracters, of which one was a phrasal verb with the same semantic category. The participants (45 low-, 45 intermediate-, and 45 advanced- level ESL students from Korea and 15 natives) were asked to fill out a background questionnaire, which was composed of questions regarding personal information. This paper has yielded two key findings as follows: First, the Korean speakers of English perceived the phrasal verbs significantly worse than American speakers, which suggests that differences between L1 and L2 cause the inherent semantic difficulty of phrasal verbs; Second, the three groups' means in the three type use were significantly different from one another, which suggests Korean students have a significant learning challenge in the development framework. That is, although there is some semantic systematicity in learning phrasal verbs, many idiomatic phrasal verbs lead to difficulty for ESL students. Pedagogical implications and suggestions for further study are also discussed.


Are There Two Different Writers in You? A Study on Contrastive Rhetoric of Korean Students in the US

Yunkyung Jeong, Hohsung Choe

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 3호 2012.09 pp.369-395

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The present study explored the locations of main ideas, macro-level rhetorical patterns and directness/indirectness in L1 and L2 argumentative essays written by Korean ESL students in the United States. They were divided into two groups based on their writing proficiency ability. The results indicate that most participants used English rhetoric to construct their L1 and L2 essays. They also preferred the initial location when placing their main ideas regardless of the languages they used and the varying L2 writing proficiency levels. With regard to the macro-level rhetorical patterns, they often utilized the “Explanation-Collection” style, in which the writer’s opinion is followed by equally weighted supporting reason. For argument directness/indirectness, most participants preferred to write directly. The findings of the study confirm “reverse unidirectional transfer,” meaning that the rhetoric transfer actually occurred from L2 to L1.

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