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영어영문학21 [English21]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
    학술지
  • 발행기관
    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
  • ISSN
    1738-4052
  • 간기
    계간
  • 수록기간
    1967~2019
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제22권 2호 (12건)
No
1

각성과 의식개혁 강조 -『미국에서 송어낚기』를 근거로

고지문

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제22권 2호 2009.06 pp.5-30

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This paper examines Richard Brautigan's Trout Fishing in America and his writing philosophy and technique embodied in the novel. He derives his philosophy from the writers of the Beat Generation, who strived to reform Americans' false consciousness. According to his philosophy, due to unwillingness to search for the true self and identity, Americans have been overwhelmed by the false consciousness filled with egoism, the strong desire for power and money, the neglect of the poor and the weak, the pursuit of erotic pleasures, meritocracy, and unreasonable exploitation of nature. Therefore, they have lost individuality, self-reliance, spontaneity, freedom, and love in their lives. In an attempt to liberate Americans from the false and obstinate consciousness, Brautigan created Trout Fishing in America using techniques of postmodern fiction. His technique denies the plot based on cause and effect, continuity in thought and action, and consistency of characterization. The novel consists of 47 episodes, which are not entirely interrelated in cause and effect, continuity, or consistency. However, the novel maintains a theme of awakening and reforming readers’ false consciousness. It makes readers see that the false consciousness has devastated and contaminated nature as well as robbing them of self-reliance and creative power. At the same time, it makes readers realize, even in devastated nature, they can be reborn and lead a self-reliant and creative life.

2

J. M. 쿳시의 반인종주의 윤리학 ―󰡔야만인을 기다리며

김현아

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제22권 2호 2009.06 pp.31-55

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

As a Afrikaner writer, John Maxwell Coetzee(1940-) focuses on the representations of anti-racism and the responsibility of interpersonal ethics, In his novels, it is characteristics that these two issues are dealt with through the postcolonial perspective to examine the matter of coloniality relevant to race, class, and gender. This thesis examines anti-racism and ethics represented in J. M. Coetzee's novel, Waiting for the Barbarians. It is also an aim that Coetzee intends to tell ethics beyond politics through Waiting for the Barbarians. Waiting for the Bar barbarians can of course apply to a variety of historical moments just as the concerns of the complicit person of privilege who wishes to renounce their complicity can resonate with a diverse multitude people. Coetzee criticizes unjust domination and violence, on the other hand, deals deeply with the ethical responsibility of individuals who have supported the ruling classes. This dissertation explores how anti-racism and the ethics of the Other are embodied in this novel. Waiting for the Barbarians is explored how Coetzee reveals the falsehood of imperial ideology and simultaneously highlights the conspiratorial reality of an intellectual who resists. Coetzee describes how the magistrate's implication in the substance of imperialism is revealed through a “barbarian girl”, who becomes a sympathetic object of the magistrate in terms of race and gender. This thesis stresses that the deconstruction of imperial racism discourse is narrated by the magistrate himself. Therefore, this novel show that the narrator's ethical self-reflection toward the Other is not different from Coetzee's own ethical self-consideration. Furthermore, Coetzee tries to overcome his own limitations as an Afrikaner writer through his main character, the Magistrate. In this way, Waiting for the Barbarians reflects Coetzee's literary view that “writing is inevitably ethical.” Thus, Coetzee's novels can be considered to be eminent postcolonial writings beyond the literary category normally confined to the South African Literature and show deep insight and rich imagination concerning the Other.

3

그녀는 용서받을 수 있을까? ―『루쓰』와『테스』에 나타난 성(性)의 문제

문상화

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제22권 2호 2009.06 pp.57-73

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The purpose of this article is to compare the fates of heroins in Ruth and Tess of the D'Urbervilles in order to show how ideology affected the lives of fallen women. Ruth and Tess have similar fates that they are raped by men before their marriages and that their loss of charity is found during their happiest time in their lives. And the two heroins are killed with the result of the appearance of their former lovers. In spite of the similarity between two characters, however, there is one distinctive difference: Ruth is considered as a fallen woman by Gaskell and Tess is called pure by Hardy. The reason why they are called fallen or pure is that Ruth has knowledge of sexuality and Tess not. Although two heroins have sex with men before their marriages, their attitudes toward sex decide the reputation of the two girls. In the Victorian Era, the most important fact related with women is that women should not know of sexuality. For this reason, Ruth is labeled the unforgiven and Tess a pure woman.

4

버나드 맬라머드의『신의 은총』에 나타나는 신, 인간과 침팬지들의 환상적 알레고리

송태정

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제22권 2호 2009.06 pp.75-98

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This paper is an attempt to discuss Bernard Malamud's last fiction God's Grace (1982), focusing on how he depicts this work using a sophisticated and smooth writing style. Malamud presents the reader with allegorical narratives which seamlessly blend themes like atonement and redemption, grace and mercy, freedom and language, the genre of fantasy and the mode of allegory, and explores comedy and tragedy in the human condition. In the outcome Malamud establishes a fantastic society in which God, humans, and animals coexist. The most obvious literary precursors of God's Grace are Robinson Crusoe, Lord of the Flies, and Animal Farm. Malamud creates a post-apocalyptic comic fantasy; a pseudo-biblical fable after the manner of the book of Genesis. God's Grace is divided into six parts: “The Flood,” “Cohn's Island,” “The Schooltree,” “The Virgin in the Trees,” “The Voice of the Prophet,” and “God's Mercy,” which may represent the first six days of Creation. Two of the book's motifs are the story of Abraham's sacrifice of his son Isaac at God's request and the Darwinian of evolution. Malamud uses these motifs to begin to approach the human experience. God's Grace is a modern-day dystopian fantasy, set after a thermonuclear war prompts a second flood—a radical departure from Malamud's previous fiction. The novel's protagonist is paleontologist Calvin Cohn, who had been attending to his work at the bottom of the ocean when the Devastation struck, and who alone survived. This rabbi's son, now a ‘marginal error' in God's calculation, finds himself shipwrecked with an experimental chimpanzee capable of speech, to whom he gives the name Buz. Other creatures appear on their island—baboons, chimps, five apes, and a lone gorilla. Cohn works hard to make it possible for God to love His creation again, and his hopes increase as he encounters the unknown and the unforeseen in this strange new world. Having studied for the rabbinate Cohn teaches his Judaic world-view to the primates but faces opposition from Buz whose previous human companion taught him the principles of Christianity. Cohn tries to recreate the monkeys in his own image, and goes as far as formulating his own set of seven commandments and creating his own addition to the scheme of evolution. But alas, paradise is lost again. Nevertheless, Malamud's God's Grace shows there still may be hope to save our civilization when we confront the wintry devastation of a global doomsday. This book is ultimately a tragedy with a message, when, with our free will, we choose to deny God's mercy.

5

『천로역정』에 나타난 구원의 과정

정재창

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제22권 2호 2009.06 pp.99-117

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The purpose of this paper is to show that The Pilgrim’s Progress is the process of sanctification which finally shapes the Sprit of Christ in the hearts of christians. The writer of this book describes The Pilgrim's Progress in the form of Allegory. The story of The Pilgrim’s Progress is divided into the seven parts: departing from City of Destruction, realizing the Gospel truth, Faith’s martyrdom, drinking Water of Life, far away visible Celestial Gate, Country of Beulah, and entering in through the Gate into the Celestial City. That division follows ‘A study on the Christian’s Image of The Pilgrim’s Progress in Terms of Avila Teressa’s Soul-Castle Theory by Kim, Jin Pil'. This paper will help the understanding of the book, introducing John Wesley's theology of gradual sanctification, because this book reflects the strict Puritan faith. John Wesley classifies the process of salvation into justification, regeneration, initial sanctification, entire sanctification, the grace of Holiness, glorification from the basic step. This paper reviewed The Pilgrim's Progress based on the classification of John Wesley. For the better understanding, John Bunyan uses the form of Allegory to portray the journey of Christian, realizing the human salvation and sanctification process is the happenings of human spiritual world. Therefore the journey of Christian is not the adventure of any physical travel but spiritual growth in the faith of Christ.

6

예술의 불멸화 기능 ―셰익스피어 소네트 연구

황훈성

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제22권 2호 2009.06 pp.119-145

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Up to the Nineteenth Century, critical comments on Shakespeare's sonnets tended to revolve around the identification of the poet's male and female lovers. This paper however attempts to appreciate each sonnet as aesthetic object in lieu of biographical accumulation. In other words, Shakespeare's sonnets are less an expression of personal complaints or wishes than an artistic project of immortalization, which endows the aesthetic objects like youth, beauty, love with Gestalt (Form) in Schiller's sense. Shakespeare's tour de force lies in his imagination to transform a legion of abstract ideas into concrete sense data fragrant of the odor of roses. The sense of touch is dominant in sonnet 19, where strong verbs associated with the act of devouring, grasping and attacking are dynamically adopted. Sonnet 54 is redolent of various odors as is well evidenced in the synesthetic words, “sweet ornament”. Visual senses permeates Sonnet 60, where abstract concepts like Time, Maturity, Aging, Fortune and Glory are clothed in the metaphors of concrete objects to be visibly perceived. For a Platonic Shakespeare, life is a series of Phenomena, flickering shadows cast on the wall of the cave; however, their Ideas such as youth, beauty in love are aesthetically tasted and perceived at the pinnacle of their existence. The artist's primary mission is to grasp those revelatory moments and eternalize them. Shakespeare thus immortalized the Idea of Beauty in his “eternal lines” so that the reader may relish it “so long he can breathe or eye can see” and can smell and hear.

7

영어 역행 대명사

이고희

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제22권 2호 2009.06 pp.147-172

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The purpose of this paper is to analyze English backward pronouns with the discourse-functional view of language after the survey of the syntactic approach. The purely structural approach to the backward pronouns cannot explain many backward anaphora phenomena because the backward pronoun is primarily a discourse-functional matter. Therefore, it should be analyzed in terms of discourse-functional factors which deal with linguistic communication. It is examined that there are some communicative factors in determining backward pronoun coreference. The discourse-functional factors of the backward pronouns discussed in this paper are as follows: firstly, the information concepts such as given and new information, theme and rhyme, and presupposition and assertion; secondly, the content of the sentence; thirdly, the tightness and looseness between main and subordinate clauses; finally, the reported ways of discourse such as direct discourse, indirect discourse, semi-indirect discourse, and point of views. This discourse-functional approach can capture the semantic-pragmatic properties of English backward pronouns and can solve some problems raised in the purely structural analysis. It is considered that the discourse-functional approach is useful and necessary for the determination of backward pronoun reference, but it is not a unified theory. So, a unified framework in which all the functional explanations are interrelated with each other will be the task to be further researched in the future.

8

English, Nankina, Spanish의 강세와 퇴화음보

서정민

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제22권 2호 2009.06 pp.173-191

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

According to Prince (1990: 360), the rhythmic harmony of trochaic foot is divided into the scale, {LL, H} ≻ HL ≻ L. In line with him, the degenerate foot, L is more marked than LL, H, and HL. In spite of the fact, we can come across the degenerate foot in English, Nankina, and Spanish, which we will deal with in this study. The aim of this study is two folds. One is to investigate common properties and differences, which are revealed in the languages' stress. The other is to analyse the degenerate foot with a consistent constraint hierarchy by employing classic Optimality Theory (Prince & Smolensky 1993, 2004).

9

요청화행에서의 환기소(alerter) 유형 분석 ―고등학교 영어교과서를 중심으로

심재황

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제22권 2호 2009.06 pp.193-214

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The purpose of this study is to investigate pragmatic competence on request for Korean high school learners. This study focused on the features of alerter in three speech units: alerters, head act, and supportive moves. Fifteen English textbooks for the first grade of high school students based on the 7th national curriculum were selected and analyzed by Cross-cultural Speech Act Realization Patterns (CCSARP) coding scheme with social variables. In eight types of alerter, most textbooks use the ‘attention getter' and ‘title/role' as main strategies, while they show two minor alerters such as ‘first name,' and ‘endearment term.' There do not use three features such as ‘nick name,' ‘offensive term,' and ‘pronoun' other than one frequency in ‘surname.' The frequency of alerters is somewhat different depending on social power. Some strategies are heavily skewed to ‘attention getter' or ‘title/role,' which may lead learners to lack of pragmatic competence. The findings imply that teachers and textbook developers for EFL high school learners should consider various sociocultural factors in teaching alerter strategies on request. Furthermore, textbooks should include various formal and informal alerters on request appropriate to learners.

10

대학생들의 어휘전략사용과 영어듣기, 읽기능력과의 상관관계

임미란, 김경훈

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제22권 2호 2009.06 pp.215-233

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The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there are any differences in gender and English listening and reading proficiency according to learners' vocabulary learning strategies. The subjects are 123 university students, of which 55 are male and 68 are female students. Schmitt(1977)'s vocabulary learning strategies questionnaire was administered to measure the learners' vocabulary learning strategies. The learners' English listening and reading proficiency respectively were measured by the scores from TOEIC actual test. And to examine the study questions, the collected data was analyzed by t-test and one-way ANOVA. The results of this study showed that there were no gender differences in use of vocabulary learning strategies. The male students used memory strategy frequently and the female students used cognitive strategy more frequently than any other strategies. And there were significant differences in listening proficiency according to the use of metacognitive strategy. Also, there were significant differences in reading proficiency according to the use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies.

11

영어 학습에서 모바일 러닝(Mobile-Learning) 수용의도에 영향을 미치는 요인

정희정

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제22권 2호 2009.06 pp.235-255

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

With more advanced hardware and software, the new stage of education using technology called Mobile-Learning (m-Learning) has become an innovative root of language education. Regardless of this trend, there is little research that examines factors influencing an individual‘s intention to use m-Learning as the gateway for English learning. Therefore, this study proposes the research model to investigate factors impacting users' intention to use m-Learning for English learning. Based on Fred Davis's Technology Acceptance Model(TAM)(1989), the research model suggests Ubiquity, Mobility, Self-Directed Learning, and Enjoyment that affect to usefulness of m-Learning in English learning, which leads to learners' intention to use m-Learning for English learning. The survey of 212 participants reveals that all factors proposed in this study hold the hypotheses. Findings from this study suggest some implications for english education researchers and practitioners.

12

The Development of English Immersion Education in Korea

Joo-Kyung Park

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제22권 2호 2009.06 pp.257-276

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

Ever since immersion was first introduced to ELT in Korea, a variety of English immersion programs have been developed and implemented. They include ‘English camp’ or ‘English village’, ‘Teaching English in English (TEE)’, 'Content-based English instruction (CBEI),' and a total immersion school. The purpose of this paper is to examine the development of these English immersion programs in terms of their current state, the characteristic features, and the major issues and challenges. It was suggested for a successful implementation of English immersion education in Korean ELT context that a general consensus should be made on the goal of teaching English in general and immersion education in particular. Developing additive, balanced bilingualism was suggested as a more desirable goal than focusing on L2 acquisition only. Proper teacher education focusing on teacher collaboration was also emphasized.

 
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