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영어영문학21 [English21]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
    학술지
  • 발행기관
    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
  • ISSN
    1738-4052
  • 간기
    계간
  • 수록기간
    1967~2018
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제28권 1호 (20건)
No
1

르귄의 『세상을 가리키는 말은 숲이다』에서 ‘꿈’의 은유와 그 정치학

강용기

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 1호 2015.03 pp.5-23

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This science fiction sets its time to several centuries in the future. Terrans establishes a logging colony and military base on Athshe, a forest-covered planet. The plot weaves round conflict and violence that occur between Terrans and native Athsheans. In the final confrontation, the natives prevails and the Terran colonists retreat to Earth. WWF invites a cultural interpretation beyond its superficial story line. The Athshean concept of ‘dream-time' metaphorizes yin, darkness or sense which counters the forces of ‘world-time,' yang, light or reason. The Athshean culture roots in the interdependent relationship of the two forces while the West has historically privileged the latter forces. Because the western culture tends to assign goodness to light or reason, it justifies its oppression and exploitation of marginalized people and their culture. That is why colonialists like Davidson log the Athshean woods, exploit the natives' labor, and reveal sexist abuse without any stricken-conscience. In short, Le Guin criticizes cultural paranoia rooted in the westerners' mind and warns its mass- destructive practice in terms of speciesism, racism and sexism. In other words, she advocates ecological preservation, cultural diversity, and racial & sexual equality as much as she sympathizes with the Athshean society in which dream-time and world-time are well-balanced.

2

로버트 로월의 『인생연구』에 나타난 종교적 갈등

김정규

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 1호 2015.03 pp.25-41

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In the various assessments of Robert Lowell's poetry, I would suggest that Robert Lowell's religious conflict be an integral and consistent part of his works. As a young man, Lowell converted himself to Catholicism. But he retained an earlier interest in the religious philosophy and works of learned Puritans throughout his life as a poet and a man. In Lowell the two became reconciled. This religious motivation gave his style a determined boldness, supported by complexly disciplined language, symbol, and idea. In his poem Life Studies Lowell, expecting death, writes his own requiem while summing up his life's achievement. These strong as well as peculiar characteristics of religion in Lowell's poetry provide an overall and comprehensive vantage point from which readers of his poems better understand and appreciate his most complex psychology and his most intricate works of words. Therefore, Life Studies holds the key to a new understanding of Lowell and his poetry.

3

『빌러비드』의 중층적 폭력양상 연구 — 사유의 원리를 중심으로

김지은, 조성란

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 1호 2015.03 pp.43-65

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This paper inquires into the aspects of violence and principles of thought which trigger such violence in Toni Morrison’s Beloved. As Morrison’s novel represents ambiguity of good and evil while it demonstrates explicit and implicit violence, this paper focuses on Sethe’s equivocal position as an assailant and a victim of violence. This paper first explores Sethe as the object of violence by two white masters, Mr. Garner and the School Teacher. The cruel violence toward her by the School Teacher is incurred by the dichotomous thought principle which underlies the institutional violence of slavery. Mr. Garner’s attitude toward violence and the underlying thought principle is elaborated upon in the light of the concept of ‘sheer thoughtlessness’ by Hannah Arendt. Meanwhile, the aspect of violence incurred by black community triggered by envy and anger is explored with the concepts of ‘intentional ignorance’ and ‘negligence’ by Thomas Aquinas. Next, Seth as the instigator of violence and her murder of Beloved is discussed. The thought principles underlying the violent act of the infanticide are dual: protection of Sethe’s freedom and subjectivity as a human being and rescue of Beloved from the future life as a slave. Through the analysis of the aspects of violence and the thought principles in Beloved, the paper ultimately argues that Morrison’s novel reexamines ethical dilemma which confronts humanity. The novel urges the reader to reevaluate the violence imbedded in dichotomous thinking, sheer thoughtlessness and intentional ignorance and negligence in thought, while continuing to “rememorying” and mourning as the last sentences in the novel resonate: “It was not a story to pass on. It was not a story to pass on. This is not a story to pass on.”

4

『어둠 속 읽기』에 나타난 정상과 비정상의 경계 — 미친 조를 중심으로

박은숙

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 1호 2015.03 pp.67-87

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Reading in the Dark is set in the politically turbulent period in British-ruled Northern Ireland Derry, spanning from 1945 to 1971. This novel is about a young nameless narrator’s familial secrets and his perilous endeavor to decipher them, during an era of governmental silencing. The prevailing aphonia in the Derry society can be construed as an effect of the interiorization of ideological discourses. According to Foucault, this discourse causes the people to continually scrutinize themselves, as well as others, to prevent deviations from the societal norms. Such normality brings a sense of belonging to the people. ‘Normality' also becomes more powerful along with the ideological state apparatuses, such as school and church. For instance, those who obediently follow a religious doctrine are branded as normal; on the other hand, those who disavow them are abnormal. As a consequence, the silent people can be viewed as docile members of their society; but Crazy Joe does not keep quiet, which is why he is considered crazy in his community. Furthermore, his genius is vulnerable to such distinctions, for this trait subtly borders on madness. In short, Joe knows “too much” [truths]. Due to his knowledgeability, he has to be in and out of the communal asylum, Gransha, regularly. That is, the authority must occlude his knowledge in order to maintain their colonial paradigm. Most prominently, Joe’s fumigated mouth with his false teeth symbolically demonstrates the steep price he must pay for his knowledge; yet, Joe never stops telling the truth. Instead, he becomes more persistent by dismantling the forced silence imposed by the state through his speech. Ultimately, Joe’s resistance to the regulations on his mouth symbolizes that of the Irish orifice to England’s attempts to tame it. This seems to suggest that the Irish oral culture has survived, however deformed and distorted, despite England’s threat to expunge it.

5

서정사회학으로서의 톰슨의 「사계」

양승갑

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 1호 2015.03 pp.89-121

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James Thomson’s The Seasons could not be measured by just one approach because of its multidisciplinary writing style that consists of sociology, science, religion and so on. The popularity of The Seasons crossing the two antithetic periods—neo-classical era known as ‘the age of reason’ and romantic era known as ‘the age of emotion,’—can also explain its assorted writing style and completedness as well. “Lyrical Sociology” here is just an approach to reveal how effectively and deeply the heterogeneous combining can hold reader’s attention even today. Seen from the perspective of Lyrical sociology, Thomson’s balanced tightrope feat between lyrical emotion covering myriad natural scenes in cyclical season and reasonal sociology covering various social systems and human relationships makes tension from readers’ minds, which results in the active reconsideration of the place where we are dwelling in. And in The Seasons the reconsideration is much the same with the recognition of the sublimity of nature. Nature writing and ecocriticism have sought the way to turn readers’ anthropocentric mind into ecoconscious one. And ecocriticism has refused flatly men’s ‘reason’ or ‘language’ as a chief instigator for men to have their own superiority over nature, which, in a way, result in alienating literature from its own characteristics. But The Seasons, regardless of its anthropocentric basis from the age of reason, attains completely the sublimity of Nature and humble position of men in nature. This precedent set by The Seasons can be a good weapon against ‘the environmental war’ today without discarding the dignity of literature itself at all.

6

사도 바울과 벤야민의 메시아주의, 그리고 아감벤의 ‘동시대성’

윤교찬

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 1호 2015.03 pp.123-146

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The main aim of this paper is to examine and compare Apostle Paul's, Walter Benjamin's messianism and George Agamben's ‘the Contemporariness.' Agamben mentions that he was quite moved when discovering Pauline idea of messianic time in Benjamin's theses on the concept of history. In The Time That Remains, Agamben attempts to revive the messianic character of Paul's letters and to search out Paulinine messianic message from Benjamin's writings on the concept of history. Agamben finds that Paul's “typological relation” and “recapitulation,” in which all the moment of the past is recognized as the messianic now, reappear as the image of constellation in Benjamin's writings, in which the instant of the present and the instant of the past are united. Agamben also finds that his concepts of ‘impotentialities,' ‘means without ends,' and ‘profanation' share much in common with Paulian concepts of recapitulation and ‘remnant.' We see that Agamben's concept of ‘the contemporariness' can be fully grasped when viewed from Apostle Paul and Benjamin's main ideas concerning ‘the time of the now.' The contemporary, Agamben argues, is one who can perceive the darkness of the present and, at the same time, is capable of transforming it. Agamben tells that Paulian attempt to let his people know the contemporariness, that is messianic time, his being contemporary with the Messiah, becomes the exemplary gesture of the contemporariness.

7

엘리엇의 「번트 노턴」 읽기 — 물체의 진자운동과 원심력 운동의 구상화

이철희

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 1호 2015.03 pp.147-167

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Eliot’s Four Quartets is maybe the most difficult to understand in his poems. In spite of that, Four Quartets has been studied in many respects. We can see that Four Quartets is meditative, philosophical and abstractive, but after we read it through more carefully, we can understand its meaning very well. Eliot categorizes time into three in “Burnt Norton”; past, present, future. We can apply Eliot's time to a centripetal motion. In a centripetal motion, while the pendulums below (means all things which are in the world) change constantly and irregularly, a centripetal point doesn’t do so. For Eliot, the centripetal point is Word. That is, the way up and down is the same. The status which a centripetal point and a pendulum are harmonious with each other is “still point.” For example, Eliot embodies it; “present and past time are present in future time,” “what might have been and what has been point to one end.” etc. And for the purpose of representing still point, Eliot uses such images as “axle-tree, dance, rose- garden, darkness, words and love.” These images are key words in reading and appreciating Eliot’s “Burnt Norton.” Besides, to support these images, Eliot shows “destitution of all property,” “desiccation of the world of sense,” “inoperancy of the world of spirit.” Although Eliot defines time metaphysically and abstractively, we can recognize that he makes efforts to present time more visually and concretely.

8

존 스타인벡과 조셉 애디슨 — 문체와 어조의 연관성

황치복

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 1호 2015.03 pp.169-188

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This paper aims to study the literary relation between American writer, John Steinbeck’s late two works, Travels with Charley in Search of America and America and Americans and works of Joseph Addison, a British writer in eighteenth century, in The Spectator. Steinbeck’s Travels with Charley is a travelogue to search for his country on a personal level and America and Americans is a collection of John Steinbeck's journalism, including the title piece. Steinbeck observed and commented on what he saw around him in America in these books. Perhaps his observation is likely to be influenced by Joseph Addison’s style. Joseph Addison is an English essayist, poet, and dramatist who was a leading contributor to and guiding spirit of the periodicals The Spectator. Steinbeck himself said that “Only through imitation do we develop toward originality.” Steinbeck’s access method appears in his style and wit, a national identity and nature and human nature through The Spectator. Therefore, these sensibilities Steinbeck shares along with Addison mark and echo of his style and wit. Through this method, Steinbeck tried to recover his own originality, acknowledging that he must find his literary basis in imitation.

9

인성기반 창의ㆍ융합적 리터러시 교육 — 뉴 3Rs 리터러시 언어학습 모형을 중심으로

김지숙

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 1호 2015.03 pp.189-217

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This paper is to provide a new language-learning model, ‘New 3Rs Literacy’, largely psycholinguistic in nature and sociocultural in practice, which emphasizes the role of literacy with a range of digital technologies. The model, taking the reciprocal teaching concept for communication, focuses on humanity-based teaching to foster a variety of language-using, learning activities. The model of ‘New 3Rs Literacy’ language learning is specifically of; 1) Reading through questioning language use and behavior of the characters who reflect various viewpoints and thinking in the storybook; 2) Researching of exploring various learning materials for the study to expand knowledge and critical thinking skills; 3) wRiting to lead a creative expressing ability in view of humanity and social discourses. The study is to provide the humanity-based literacy learning model for language learners to the extent that they can talk of, really language use and activities by various characters in the storybook and e-text, and creatively produce, share, access, and interact with meaningful content by engaging in participatory culture in the digital era.

10

동료의 대면 피드백과 익명 피드백이 대학생의 영작문 수정에 미치는 영향 탐구

오예은, 이호

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 1호 2015.03 pp.219-243

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This study aims to investigate the effects of anonymity of peer feedback on Korean college students’ English writing revision by comparing face-to-face and anonymous feedback. Students took English writing tests and shared written peer feedback according to where the comments are given: in-text, marginal and end-note comment. The acceptance rates of face-to-face and anonymous feedback as well as students’ awareness were analyzed to achieve the purpose. The results are as follows: 1) the amount of anonymous feedback was more than that of face-to-face feedback, especially in-text comment which is mostly comprised of form-focused feedback; 2) in contrast with the amount, students used more face-to-face feedback for their revision and it can be inferred that they regard face-to-face feedback as being more reliable; 3) students responded that both face-to-face and anonymous peer feedback were beneficial to their revision.

11

False Consciousness and the Social Stratification : A Marxist Reading of Saul Bellow’s “Looking for Mr. Green”

Jai Young Park

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 1호 2015.03 pp.245-263

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In “Looking for Mr. Green,” Saul Bellow exemplifies false consciousness and the class stratification of a capitalist society. False consciousness is a kind of ideology that the bourgeois generate to sustain power over proletarians, according to Marxists. Capitalism, religion, racism, and the American dream become instrumental for the bourgeois to create false consciousness. Armed with God, pseudo-science, and tempting dreams, the bourgeois indoctrinate the proletariat the legitimacy of the difference between the two classes. The former justifies the failure and poverty of the latter. False consciousness solidifies the social stratification by substantiating their power with the accumulation of wealth. All the characters in Bellow’s short story are tainted by the false consciousness and suffer from the vain belief. Bellow visualizes the hypocrisy of capitalism through Mr. Raynor who believes in the fairness of capitalism, the protagonist George Grebe who lives a proletarian’s life while dreaming the American dream, Staika who manipulates the ideology of the dominance for her own sake, and Mr. Green, the invisible black man. This paper deconstructs the entity of capitalism embedded in “Looking for Mr. Green” through a Marxist reading of the story.

12

False Consciousness and the Social Stratification : A Marxist Reading of Saul Bellow’s “Looking for Mr. Green”

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 1호 2015.03 pp.245-263

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

In “Looking for Mr. Green,” Saul Bellow exemplifies false consciousness and the class stratification of a capitalist society. False consciousness is a kind of ideology that the bourgeois generate to sustain power over proletarians, according to Marxists. Capitalism, religion, racism, and the American dream become instrumental for the bourgeois to create false consciousness. Armed with God, pseudo-science, and tempting dreams, the bourgeois indoctrinate the proletariat the legitimacy of the difference between the two classes. The former justifies the failure and poverty of the latter. False consciousness solidifies the social stratification by substantiating their power with the accumulation of wealth. All the characters in Bellow’s short story are tainted by the false consciousness and suffer from the vain belief. Bellow visualizes the hypocrisy of capitalism through Mr. Raynor who believes in the fairness of capitalism, the protagonist George Grebe who lives a proletarian’s life while dreaming the American dream, Staika who manipulates the ideology of the dominance for her own sake, and Mr. Green, the invisible black man. This paper deconstructs the entity of capitalism embedded in “Looking for Mr. Green” through a Marxist reading of the story.

13

A Thematic Study on John Steinbeck’s Cannery Row : Mack and Dock Act for Steinbeck and Ricketts

Geon-Geun Lee

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 1호 2015.03 pp.265-287

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This paper is written based on the historical facts about Steinbeck’s second phase of career. The biological and philosophical expedition to the Sea of Cortez is a dividing ridge between the two phases—divorce with his first wife, Carol Henning, remarriage with Gwyndolyn Conger, moving to New Yor, and serving as a World War II correspondent. However, Steinbeck did not lose a nostalgia about his hometown, Cannery Row. Thus, observing Steinbeck’s and Ricketts’s idea in their works, Tortilla Flat and Sea of Cortez, this paper insists Steinbeck’s view of Tortilla Flat is “agrarian realism,” and Ricketts’s of Sea of Cortez is “group-man,” or “non-teleological thinking.” Additionally, this essay aims to reveal that Cannery Row integrates the two ideas into “counterculture naturalism” as a strengthened realism, and the novel emphasizes humans are more valuable than material, and communalism expressed by Carnival is an important alternative of ruthless naturalistic facts. Lastly, this paper assumes that Mack and Doc act for Steinbeck and Ricketts because Steinbeck loves the socially disadvantaged people such as Mack and the boys, and Ricketts is transcendental enough to be available to anyone.

14

Lyric Principles and Productivity: Intersecting Landscapes and the Culture of Coleridge’s Cottage Gardens

Bumsoo Jon

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 1호 2015.03 pp.289-303

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This essay suggests that Coleridge’s poems of poetic failure are often considered thematically, and perhaps narrowly, in terms of an intensely private genre in which a poet-speaker confronts a scene of personal crisis or transition and confesses lyrical impulses at the breakdown of his creative power. Take, for example, “This Lime-Tree Bower My Prison,” “The Eolian Harp” and “Reflections on Having Left a Place of Retirement.” Fascinated with the images of a poet-speaker secluding himself in an enclosed, embowered place, Coleridge presents the contained site as partly a lyrical and sublime space in which the effects of the fall of imagination could be reversed; but this essay argues that the genre assumes greater importance as it draws on the changing values of plants and places. The genre helps twenty-first century readers understand the Coleridgean tropes of containment and botanical analogies as an open, if stylized, question about the transitions in the cultural representation of rural Britain and vernacular landscapes in poetry. Highlighting the contrasting values of extravagant beauty and vast productivity, Coleridge’s scenic mode helps us rethink the conventional views of Coleridge’s blank verse lyric poems as a vehicle for a quintessential Romantic meditation on the content and interruption of the poetic vision itself.

15

The Process of Spirit Possession in Edgar Allan Poe’s “Ligeia”

Gumhee Che

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 1호 2015.03 pp.305-320

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“Ligeia” reenacts the possessed psyche of the narrator, which develops through his bewildering experiences of the three significant stages: being obsessed with the trace of Ligeia, mixing and confusing her with Rowena, and finally, identifying Ligeia with himself. The narrator’s obsession with his late wife in reincarnated form is revealed mainly through his memories and reflection on the past. Believing in the rebirth of Ligeia, he also mixes the images of Ligeia with those of Rowena and reaches a conclusion that the two incommensurable characters are one, undermining most of the classical rules and regulations about the life of humans. Finally, he realizes that Ligeia is everywhere as a free soul, revealing his protestations of love and identifying her with himself. Exacerbated by the three stages of possession, the fragmentation of his mentality constantly affects the way he reacts with the Ligeia’s spirit. The fragments may be construed as symptoms of demonic possession or schizophrenia, but his capacity for madness challenges the secure boundaries of absolute truth, since in some respects insanity is supposed to mean resistance against totality. Considering her fragments as parts of himself, he finally realizes that he has never been separated from Ligeia, and that he will go on living with the splits and fragments of her soul. In place of the separation between humans and spirits, Poe’s narrative may include the most trenchant criticism on reality, highlighting a mysterious process that legitimates conversations between humans and spirits. Ligeia still lives as a powerful human being as he strives for the process of self-identification.

16

Is the Unification of Sem-Pragmatic Category Coordination Driven?

Eun Kyeong Lee

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 1호 2015.03 pp.321-340

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This study aims to unify and streamline the existing categorial coordinations depending on outward configuration. First, typical syntactic studies point out that there are identical, func-grammatical and c-selected scopes: identical Likes means the simple outward oneness, func-grammatical and c-selected, conjuncts’ parallelism from head v. Next, sem-pragmatic Likes is situational apart from syntactic constraints, making it fall into a common topic. Finally, this paper insists that sem-pragmatics covers syntax given the former underspecifies the latter. It concludes that sem-pragmatic Likes is most likely to be representative of categorial coordinations, implying that syntactic embeddings are inherent behind.

17

Non-nominal Tul as a Local Part Operator

Yoon-kyoung Joh

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 1호 2015.03 pp.341-360

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The semantic contribution of non-nominal tul in Korean is widely known as distributivity. Yet, Kim (2005) observes many examples in which Korean non-nominal tul is compatible with collectivity. To capture the seemingly conflicting properties of non-nominal tul, Kim (2005) claims that the distributivity sense of non-nominal tul is presupposition rather than denotation. However, it is attested that the distributive sense of non-nominal tul cannot survive under negation and this fact tells us that the distributive interpretation of non-nominal tul should not be considered as presupposition. Instead, this paper claims that Korean non-nominal tul is a local Part operator which is intrinsically a distributivity operator but can also allow a collectivity sense to arise. By explaining the core properties of non-nominal tul with a pragmatic operator, this paper also explains that the notorious interpretational fluctuation of non-nominal tul, which has frustrated many researchers working on it, comes from its inherent pragmatic nature.

18

The Relationship between the Integrated Writing Task and Strategy Use in L2 Instruction

Jee Hyun Ma, Young Ah Cho

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 1호 2015.03 pp.361-381

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The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between the integrated writing tasks and strategy use in L2 learning depending on the different proficiency levels. Sixty university students were classified into two groups—the lower proficiency group and the higher proficiency group—based on their general English performance with 30 students for each group. For the study, the integrated reading-to-write task and the strategy inventory for integrated writing questionnaire were administered to gauge the learners’ writing outcomes and writing strategy use in general. The results revealed that there was a significant difference in the self-regulatory strategy use between the two groups. The findings also demonstrated writing test scores and test-wiseness strategy showed a positive correlation in the lower proficiency group while these two variables indicated a negative correlation in the higher proficiency group. Pedagogical implications were made based on the results.

19

A Discursive Assessment of Narrative Journalism Using Coh-Metrix and Principal Component Analysis

Jungsik Park, C. Bruce Lawrence, Hyunkeun Cho

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 1호 2015.03 pp.383-400

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This study measures the discursive factors of current narrative journalism through analyzing a corpus of sample narrative news and describes how the reporters realize the news event in news-writing. A corpus was collected of comprising of 200 narrative news reports, collected from the major online newspapers such as New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, and Metro Times. The primary objective of this study was to use Coh-Metrix indices to retrieve the distinctive language features of narrative news, and a multivariate statistical technique to provide an empirical, statistical measurement. As a result, five linguistic dimensions of narrative journalism are found as being significant: 1) Lexico-Phrasal Familiarity Dimension, 2) Action Sequence Dimension, 3) Varied Word Position Dimension, 4) Diminished Noun Phrase Dimension, and 5) Casual Connectives Dimension. In sum, the discursive features of narrative journalism can be summarized as having enhanced comprehensibility, narrativity, and spoken discourse characteristics.

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The Use of the Verb Make in the Corpora of American NS Students and Korean EFL Learners

Sujeong Lee, Yoon-Hee Na

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 1호 2015.03 pp.401-426

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This study aims to investigate the use of the high-frequency verb make in the argumentative essays of American native speakers and Korean EFL learners through a corpus-based analysis. The investigation focuses on how frequently American NS students and Korean EFL learners use the verb make, how the categories of meaning differ between the two groups, and what kinds of errors are dominantly made by Korean EFL learners. The study adopts a frequency-driven quantitative approach in order to identify frequently used semantic categories of make. The quantitative approach is supported by further qualitative analysis of the instances of make as presented in each corpus, in which the differences are delineated with reference to the various categories of meaning of the verb. The findings show that Korean EFL learners overuse make compared with their native speaker counterparts in terms of the overall frequency. With regards to the sematic categories, the productive and causative uses were overused by the Korean EFL learners whereas the delexical use was underused by them. An error analysis revealed some dominant patterns of misuse of the verb by the Korean EFL learners.

 
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