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영어영문학21 [English21]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
    학술지
  • 발행기관
    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
  • ISSN
    1738-4052
  • 간기
    계간
  • 수록기간
    1967~2019
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제23권 3호 (15건)
No
1

씌어진 역사(history)와 씌어질 역사(herstory)의 변주곡 —핀터의 『재에서 재로』에 나타난 ‘침입자’의 정치성

나희정

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제23권 3호 2010.09 pp.5-19

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Variations on History and Herstory: An Invisible Intruder’s Politics in Pinter’s Ashes to Ashes Heejung Na (Chonnam National University) The Polish-Jewish playwright, Harold Pinter (1930-2008), was influenced by the traumas of World War II, and the memories of that violence deeply affected his internal landscape. These traumatic memories are not easily transformed into narrative or welded into dramatic prose. These unsettled narratives evolved for over 40 years in Harold Pinter's works. Except his Revue Sketches, Pinter's works consistently introduce various “intruders” in his twenty-nine oeuvres. The amorphous natures of Pinter's intruders are the source of many of his plays' intense dynamics. From absurdist intruders to political intruders, Pinter's plays encompass a wide spectrum of these intruders. Pinter's plays are generally categorized into three stages. The three phases generally agreed upon by critics are: Comedies of Menace (1957-1966), Memory Plays (1967-1982), and Political Plays (1984-2000). In Ashes to Ashes, a Political Play, the intruder is Rebecca's “remembered” Nazi lover, who most probably did not exist. Here, Pinter, engaged in the representation of history and political issues, and chooses to investigate the problems of representing and receiving history, rather than simply assumes that the stage is a proper forum for dispensing historical information, fostering identification, or engendering compassion for the victims of “wrongful” politics and history. The present work is an investigation of the “Invisible Intruder,” who exists solely in the memories of Rebecca and Devlin. In Ashes to Ashes, Pinter interweaves an examination of a difficult personal relationship with public and political issues. By adopting a more malleable view of history, by deforming the conventions of realism, and by not settling the theme of personal reconciliation with the outside world, Pinter ultimately shapes an obscure and political landscape, and thus his play resonates with the audience in ways that are not always easy to identify.

2

『마블폰』에 나타난 생태의식

박양근, 이치운

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제23권 3호 2010.09 pp.21-39

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Nathaniel Hawthorne’s Ecological Consciousness in The Marble Faun Yangkeun Park・Chi-Wun Lee (Pukyong University) The purpose of this thesis is to study the ecological consciousness of Hawthorne in the The Marble Faun. The Marble Faun is a masterpiece which shows Hawthorne's ecological insight that was backed up by the period of his background while he was staying in Europe and the mental wandering throughout his life during his four great masterpieces. The ecological approach that The Marble Faun displays is regarded to be helpful for overturning the situational development and the motive of change in ecological thinking. The masterpiece is responsible for rediscovering the value of ecological symbiosis. The former part of the masterpiece can be seen as the process of Miryam, Donatello murder in Rome and move to Montebeni recovering natural characteristic and waking up ecological awareness. Hawthorne adopts Montebeni's natural characteristic for recovering humanity of degenerated Donatello by murdering. The last part of the work goes on with an indirect corruption from also Kenyon and Hilda's murdering. However, Kenyon gets along with farmers visiting Montebeni and starts to get ecological awareness while enjoying the pastoral environment. In conclusion, even though The Marble Faun was written in the 19th century when environmental corruption and ecological crisis were not as serious as these days, we could identify that Hawthorne was one novelist who evoked ecological awareness through his masterpiece.

3

존 파울즈 서술 기법의 영화적 변용

배현

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제23권 3호 2010.09 pp.41-66

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Cinematic Application of John Fowles’s Narrative Technique Hyun Pae (Mokpo National University) John Fowles doubted the traditional view of the novel which conceived it to be a literary genre that could faithfully represent the reality, and raised questions concerning the authority of the novelist who could create the significance through writing. In his The French Lieutenant's Woman, Fowles tried to represent the reality which was newly perceived in this postmodern world through various innovative narrative techniques: he invented an equation of higher degree using “third-person omniscient narrator” and “first-person intrusive author” as its variables and induced a creative participation of the reader by manipulating multiple endings. Harold Pinter's screenplay of The French Lieutenant's Woman adopted “a film-within-the-film” technique: he used the location romance between Anna and Mike as a frame story in which the 19th century love story of Charles and Sarah was made into film. This device turned out to be a brilliant cinematic application of the formal characteristics of the novel and an effective analogy to the self-reflexiveness of the narrative voice and the intricate plays of the multiple endings. In so doing, this method successfully recreated certain traits of the original story, while exposed its incompetence in representing another and produced a little different visual aestheticism.

4

영어 부정사 ‘to’의 기능에 관한 연구

박현석

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제23권 3호 2010.09 pp.67-85

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A Study on the Function of ‘to’ in English to-Infinitive Hyun-seok Park (Deabul University) Little attention has been attracted to the contrast in meaning between bare infinitive and to-infinitive. In traditional grammar, it has been defined that infinitival to is a function word which has no meaning of its own. And many generative grammarians like Chomsky(1957,1981) hold that to is a morpheme that ‘can hardly be said to have a meaning in any independent sense' or tense inflectional element. In contrast, I have examined infinitival to is a prepositional element through the usage of two infinitives in Old English and Middle English. This paper is an attempt to explore whether meaning differences exist between bare infinitive and to-infinitive by focusing on the meaning of the infinitive particle to as a preposition. On the syntactic and semantic grounds, I put forward two proposals: i) to preceding the infinitive has a discernable meaning that distinguishes the bare infinitive from the to-infinitive construction—it refers to the sequent movement between the infinitive and the matrix verb in a time continuum, ii) to is capable of evoking an event of non-realized or possible future. Futhermore, considering a wide range of full verbs having different semantic properties such as help, make, have, see, etc, it is concluded that the meaning of the bare infinitive can be characterized as ‘direct actualization' between the two events, whereas the to-infinitive can be analyzed as ‘indirect actualization'.

5

은유의 형식과 의미기술

이영헌

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제23권 3호 2010.09 pp.87-112

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Classification of Metaphors and Their Semantic Representation Young Hern Lee (Chosun University) The purpose of this paper is to represent the meaning of metaphors depending on their types. Miller(1979) classified the metaphorical expressions into nominal metaphor, predicative metaphor, and sentential metaphor, and represented their meanings such as nominal metaphor; Be(x,y) → (∃F)(∃G) {SIM [F(x), G(y)], and predicative metaphor; G(x) → (∃F)(∃y) [SIM [F(x), G(y)]] when a x is not G, and sentential metaphor; G(x) → (∃F)(∃y) [SIM [F(x), G(y)]] when y is not a discourse referent. However, those classifications of metaphors and semantic representations are not appropriate to formalize the metaphorical expressions and their meanings. First, Miller's classification does not cover the various types of metaphors. Second, the operator SIM is not necessary to describe the metaphorical meaning. Third, it is very hard to give the meaning of the argument forms of F(x) and G(y), In order to solve the problems above mentioned, we employ the subatomic semantics by Kearns(2000), which expended and revised Davidsons(1967). Every expression of metaphor can be decomposed into a subatomic formula, so that it is not necessary to define the meaning of F(x) or G(y), and to implement the abstract operator SIM. In addition to these, Complex Noun Phrase such as “river of time” can not be analyzed in Miller's mechanism because this complex noun phrase expression does not belong to the three types of classification that Miller(1979) analyzed. However, we can represent the metaphorical meaning of Complex NP more clearly. For instance, the expression “river of time” can be represented such as ∃e,e'[Pass(e) & Flow(e') & Theme(time,e) & Theme(river, e') & Imply(e, e')]. We also give the representations of the linguistic or metaphorical meaning of the expressions with evaluative and evidential adverbs.

6

유형론에서 본 영어의 양상

조경숙

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제23권 3호 2010.09 pp.113-138

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The Typological Approach to Modality in English Kyungsook Cho (Honam University) This paper aims to discuss English modal system and modal evolution from a perspective of language typology. This approach contains classification of English modal categories with regard to the target and the domain of modality, and description of the methods of expressing modality. Also, it includes the discussion about diachronic changes of the meaning of English modal auxiliaries, in relation to the evolution of modal categories. First, English modal categories are divided into 3 types according to their target of modality, such as participant-oriented modality, event-oriented modality, and proposition-oriented modality. They are also divided into 4 types according to their domain of modality, such as epistemic modality, deontic modality, volitive modality, and facultative modality. Second, English has the modal system in which it expresses modality through various lexical and syntactic methods. The main lexical method is to insert lexical items of modal meanings, but other lexical devices, such as modal tags and modal particles, are used sometimes. However, the most important method of expressing modality in English is to use modal verbs, like modal auxiliaries, semi-modal auxiliaries, and periphrastic constructions. The morphological method is not used in English modal system because subjunctive as a mood system is not justified. Instead, using past tense form, that is, modal past is frequently found in expressing ‘tentativeness' or ‘unreal situation'. Third, the polysemy of English modal auxiliaries is the result of their diachronic changes, which were caused by the evolution of modal categories. The evolution of modal categories is usually realized by the enlargement of their target and domain in expressing modality.

7

초등영어 문화교육 연구 분석

박용규, 박주경

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제23권 3호 2010.09 pp.139-157

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An Analysis of Research on Teaching Culture in Elementary English Classroom Yong-Gyu Park (Yudeok Elementary School) Joo-Kyung Park (Honam University) The purpose of this paper is to examine teaching culture in Korean elementary English classrooms from a critical point of view based on the results of the research analysis and to suggest an appropriate direction for the elementary English language and culture education. To this end, one hundred and thirty two research papers published from 1997 to 2009 on teaching culture in elementary school English classes were analyzed by the publishing year and the contents. It was found out that 30(22.7%), 78(59.1%), and 24(18.2%) papers were published during the 6th, 7th, and further revision periods of national curriculum respectively. The largest number of papers were about culture teaching programs(33%), teaching material analysis(39%) and the effects of teaching culture(34%) in each of the three periods. The results show that there is a gap between curriculum rhetoric and the classroom reality and that more cultural component needs to be incorporated in teaching English language.

8

효율적인 어휘 교수・학습에 대한 접근 방법 및 실제

장동식

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제23권 3호 2010.09 pp.159-182

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Approaches and Practices for Effective Vocabulary Teaching and Learning Dongsik Jang (Sunchon National University) The purpose of this paper is to study theoretical approaches to vocabulary teaching and learning, and to suggest practical instructional methods to maximize EFL learners' vocabulary acquisition. For this purpose the paper firstly reviews the definition of knowing a word from the perspectives of spoken form, letter form, word meaning, grammatical function, and register. Two approaches to vocabulary teaching and learning, respectively, planned/unplanned teaching and intentional/ incidental learning, are investigated based on previous research findings. Factors to influence vocabulary acquisition are frequency, pronunciation, saliency, imageability, contextuality, vocabulary input processing, and vocabulary network. Word lists, mnemonic techniques, word cards, saliency, computer programs, dictionary are suggested to be made use of as practices to aid learners' vocabulary acquisition. The most noteworthy finding from the literature survey is that teaching vocabulary as lexical sets was ineffective since they interfere with lexical inference.

9

개정된 토익(NEW TOEIC)이 한국 대학생들의 영어 교수・학습에 미치는 역류효과

정행

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제23권 3호 2010.09 pp.183-207

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Washback Effects of New TOEIC on Korean College Students’ English Teaching and Learning Haeng Jung (Honam University) This study aims to investigate the washback effects of new TOEIC on Korean college students' English teaching and learning. The data were collected through both questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Questionnaires were administered to a total of 72 college students who were taking TOEIC Preparation Courses. Interviews were conducted to 6 TOEIC teachers. Quantitative analysis of the data earned from students' questionnaires indicated that the TOEIC had an influence on the students' English learning methods and strategies in terms of vocabulary and expressions, listening, reading, and pronunciation. Qualitative analysis of the data obtained from interviews with the teachers showed that the TOEIC had an effect on the teachers' teaching contents, methods, activities, and materials.

10

라벨지를 활용한 역할극 대본 구성 활동이 초등 저학년 영어 학습자의 말하기, 읽기 능력에 미치는 효과

조초희, 문지현

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제23권 3호 2010.09 pp.209-233

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The Effects of Role-Play Activities Based upon Student-Generated Scripts Using Label-Sheets on Primary English Learners Cho-Hi Joh (Gwangju National University of Education) Ji Hyun Moon (Hakkang Elementary School) This study aims to examine the effects of role-play activities based on scripts generated by students using label-sheets on the 4th-grade primary English learners in reading, speaking, and interest. Key words and sentences listed on worksheets were taught in both the experimental and the control groups. However, in the 4th lesson of each unit only the experimental class was asked to generate scripts. Each group of the class chose the setting and created dialogues by rearranging the key phrases listed on the label-sheet version of each worksheet. After 26 weeks' instruction all the students’ achievement in reading and speaking was assessed. The results of the data analysis are as follows. The experimental group showed a statistically significant improvement in reading and speaking compared to the control group(p=.001, p=.000). In the affective domain, however, the student- generated script group showed a limited improvement: there was a statistically significant difference between two groups only in terms of engagement(p=0.044); most of the students in the experimental class responded very positively to the role-play activities based upon student-generated scripts, when they were asked to write down their feeling after each unit was over. This study shows that using a simple material such as label-sheets can have a significant impact in a primary English classroom. Thus, it is suggested that the student-generated script method be adopted for elementary school English role-plays. Furthermore, new English textbooks need to be organized to facilitate the method.

11

Power Structure in Heart of Darkness

Chang Hyun Kim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제23권 3호 2010.09 pp.235-252

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김창현/동의대학교
Power Structure in Heart of Darkness Chang Hyun Kim (Dongeui University) This essay attempts to define the entity that colonizes, the entity that is exploited, the witness and in this case also an exhibitor, the various characters within the novella, the receiver or reader, and the critics that evaluate, all affect each other in achieving a meaning of the novella Heart of Darkness. Conrad, who was scornful of capitalism that institutionalized Christianity under a pretence of civilizing barbaric society, had chosen to not actively participate in political matters and events, but rather focused on merging his art to display a mosaic of political criticism within a language spectrum the audience was familiar with, with signs signifying meanings that are easy to accept. This study examines the power relations between the various entities and how Conrad’s methods described above proves effective in balancing the power entities. I intend to examine the relationships between the above mentioned entities to argue that the power relations are evident in various aspects of the novella and even in its criticism that has accumulated in the proceeding centuries, and illustrate how these relations bear fruit in the literature.

12

Ezra Pound the Imagist: Major Source of T. S. Eliot’s Early Poetics

Kyung-Sim Chung

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제23권 3호 2010.09 pp.253-271

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Ezra Pound the Imagist: Major Source of T. S. Eliot’s Early Poetics Kyung-Sim Chung (Duksung Women’s University) Any discussion of T. S. Eliot’s early poetic theory is imperfect without commenting on the influence of Ezra Pound, whose Imagist movement served as a stepping stone for the younger poet’s declaration of impersonality in 1917. The impersonal theory of poetry, in fact, was prepared and vigorously experimented by Pound before Eliot became its official spokesman. Especially Pound’s idea of “tradition” and “Image,” his use of persona, and the Symbolist irony became the foundations of Eliot’s key ideas and methods of impersonality: the doctrines of “tradition” and “objective correlative,” the dramatic monologue dominant in early poetry, and the Laforguean irony to intensify and concretize language. Though the two poet-critics' different views of the final authority had prepared for their partings from the very beginning, Eliot’s thesis of impersonality as both traditional and modern was deeply indebted to Pound who took the lead in the theorization of modernism and bridged Eliot with major sources, especially Imagism and Symbolism.

13

A Discourse of De-enlightenment in Joyce Carol Oates’ Where Is Here?

Gumhee Che

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제23권 3호 2010.09 pp.273-288

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A Discourse of De-enlightenment in Joyce Carol Oates’ Where Is Here? Gumhee Che (Chungbuk National University) The emphasis on rationality and reason may be construed as the main project of the Enlightenment, and the text Where Is Here? is a criticism of this Enlightenment search that blindly advertised order and logic. The text is designed to promote a discourse of de-enlightenment by deconstructing the transcendental values championed by the rational project and highlighting characters whom the system considers irrational and who can hardly be categorized as autonomous subjects. Legitimating the world of instinct and passion, the new breed of characters challenge the entire system of the rational ideology that doggedly distorts the way they see their own creative reality. To promote a temporal state in which instinct and reason almost coexist, the text blurs the boundary between fantasy and reality, serving to bring out the underlying interdependence between passion and de-enlightenment. Oates uses such strategies as de-enlightenment to break down the distinction between passion and reason, revealing that there is no such thing as perfect autonomy.

14

Students’ Development as Writers and Reviewers through Trained Peer Review in a Writing Course

Dosik Moon

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제23권 3호 2010.09 pp.289-314

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Students’ Development as Writers and Reviewers through Trained Peer Review in a Writing Course Dosik Moon (Hanyang Cyber University) This qualitative case study explored how participating in trained peer review affected seven Korean students’ development both as writers and reviewers in a general academic writing class. The data were gathered through students reflective journals and an interview with each student. The findings indicate the overall positive influences of trained peer review on students' development both as reviewers and writers. As reviewers, the students gained confidence in giving feedback and raised an awareness of the strengths and weaknesses of their writing. As writers, the students fostered an ownership of the text and gained a new insight about their writing process and audience. On the other hand, the students' initial struggle with giving peer feedback suggests that the effects of peer review training was not immediate but gradual, but the students gained long-term advantages related exchanging feedback, reflecting on it, and revising. It is concluded that trained peer review has potential to help the students to become self-reliant writers.

15

The Relationships of Reading Attitudes between L1 and L2 in Middle School Learners

Hu-Seung Bing

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제23권 3호 2010.09 pp.315-336

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The Relationships of Reading Attitudes between L1 and L2 in Middle School Learners Hu-Seung Bing (Chosun University) The primary aim of the study was to examine the differences in L1 and L2 reading attitudes. It furthermore explored the relationship between the components of reading attitude and students' English proficiency. A total of 199 students from intact reading classes in middle school participated. Collected data using Reading Attitude questionnaire and Students' English proficiency scores were analyzed by descriptive statistics, factor analysis, reliability coefficients, correlations, and t-test. Results identified four factors of reading attitude in both L1 and L2: anxiety, comfort, practical value, and self-perception. The study indicated that the affective domain of reading attitude transfer from L1 to L2 and learners' beliefs and thinking about practical values is more likely to transfer from L1 to L2 than their emotions such as anxiety and comfort. But L2 proficiency does not affect this transfer, in which the linguistic threshold hypothesis would predict if this hypothesis were applied to the affective domain. Though this hypothesis explains the transfer of cognitive domain of reading, these findings provided that cognitive and affective domains of reading relate differently in L1 and L2. The notion of a linguistic threshold does not apply to transfer of reading attitudes from L1 to L2. Furthermore, there are different degrees of transferability among different attitude components. These results are in consistent with the claim concerning transferring of reading attitudes from L1 to L2.

 
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