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영어영문학21 [English21]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
    학술지
  • 발행기관
    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
  • ISSN
    1738-4052
  • 간기
    계간
  • 수록기간
    1967~2019
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제28권 4호 (24건)
No
1

영국 디아스포라 문학에 나타난 몸 — 재디 스미스의『하얀 이빨』을 중심으로

김연정

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 4호 2015.11 pp.5-27

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This paper looks at the meaning and formation of the diasporic identity using the analogy of the body in British diaspora literature. Futhermore, it examines how the body can move in any direction in order to seek a positive multi-cultural society. This paper analyzes the body of diaspora from the colonial era to the recent past through diasporic writer Zadie Smith’s White Teeth. First, the way in which the body in the Biritish colonial era is portrayed as a “suffering body”, an “imprisoned body”, and then as a “treated body” is assessed through different perspectives. Second, the voluntarily diaspora for the UK’s industrial workforce after World War II is analyzed in terms of the social and cultural conflicts of the diaspora between their home country and their assimilation into their host country. Finally the “body” of the second generation of the diaspora is portrayed. This “body” undergoes much more complex patterns of change than the first generation so the analysis of this takes into account how this complex aspect is represented by its identity, and relationships between the diasporic community and traditional societies in Smith’s work. This study furthers the understanding of the identity and problems diaspora through use of the analogy with the body and it helps provide an opportunity to recognize the value of “harmony” in the age of globalization.

2

‘사이’에서 ‘사이 바깥’으로 — 셰이머스 히니의 『산사나무 등』

김은영

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 4호 2015.11 pp.29-48

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Seamus Heaney’s seventh collection, The Haw Lantern can be called the book of “in between” in many ways. The landscape of the poems in The Haw Lantern builds a bridge between Field Work and Station Island, which are mainly about encounters with dead people, and The Spirit Level, which sees the poet’s return to life in Northern Ireland. From a different angle, the poems discuss the space between the pursuit of identity about a place in North, and an expanded place toward universality in Seeing Things. The motif of “in between” and the various metaphors for space in The Haw Lantern clearly reflect the location of the poems. This paper tries to develop the motif of “in between” into “out between” through Victor Turner’s key concepts of liminality and liminoid. Especially, following the death of his mother, Heaney identified a present empty space with a presence in the past. In addition, he became aware of a space, or a gap, between presence and absence as “a bright nowhere.” Finally, his awareness makes it possible to assume the multiple identities of Northern Ireland, and visions of the future.

3

‘연대기적 속물주의’, ‘심오한 주문’, 그리고 시간 — 『나니아 연대기』가 천착하는 과거의 중요성

백정국

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 4호 2015.11 pp.49-72

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This essay attempts to show that The Chronicles of Narnia is a fictional embodiment of C. S. Lewis's unique conception of time in which the past overrides the present as the dominant referential locus of truth. To Lewis the present as opposed to the past was potentially deceptive. This deep trenched suspicion of the present with its ethos being best captured in those words “chronological snobbery” was like a life-long mantra for Lewis and is pervasive throughout many of his writings and memorably in Narnia. In order to give a solid shape to his extraordinary re-envisioning of the cherished past, Lewis integrated into the novel diverse elements of Norse and Greco-Roman mythologies, biblical stories, and some of the ancient philosophical perception of the world within an extremely complicated and confusing time-scheme. And he highlighted the strong political implication of Narnia: the present regime is wicked and thus ultimately subject to recuperation under the guidance of Aslan. The apparently radical, bewildering end of the story in which the authenticity and integrity of Narnia is declared as being eternal in its totality, regardless of its visible physical destruction, is hardly reductive. Rather, it suggests that it was a final maneuver on the part of the author not only to cut off the tiring, if not vicious, circle of corruption and restoration, wickedness and goodness but also to perpetuate the glorious past into the future, a terminal blow on the ugly face of the deceptive present.

4

문학과 정보과학의 상호작용 — 닐 스티븐슨의 사이버펑크 소설 『스노우 크래쉬』

송태정

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 4호 2015.11 pp.73-89

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This paper illustrates how Neal Stephenson's cyberpunk fiction Snow Crash (1992) recreates the transformation from the human to the posthuman through the possibility of human and machine interface in a virtual reality, and connects this to other interdisciplinary fields to create new ideas of their interrelations through rapid technical development. I focus on the interaction between the human brain and the computer to reflect high scientific technology within the current historical moment, in which the infinity of the cyberspace is articulated through the cybernetic metaphor. I explain correlations of human acquired language and computer languages like assembly or programming language, and a hacker and a computer virus, snow crash which is a kind of computer language. The Metaverse and avatars reflect not only cybernetic technology, but also express new ideas about the human nature, science, cyberpunk culture and their respective combination in the near future. In Snow Crash characters like cyborg interact with software programs, in a three dimensional cyberspace that uses the metaphor of the real world. Stephenson in the unstoppable advances of the culture of web and internet, suggests some solutions to the problems and desires to contemplate how virtual reality systems affect our lives because nowadays, realms of our lives in a virtual reality enlarge continually.

5

“종결에 대한 거부”와 시인의 삶 — 린 헤지니언

양균원

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 4호 2015.11 pp.91-115

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Lyn Hejinian played a key part in forming and leading Language poetry, the most influential avant-garde poetry since the 1970’s. She refuses to comply with main-stream poetic tradition and its hegemony, and, to realize her denial effectively, conducts a variety of linguistic experiments, and publishes critical theories, while, like most other Language poets, dealing with poetry in a wider context of politics, society, economics, and culture. However, unlike many other Language poets whose voices are often anti-confessional and anti-realistic, she makes use of autobiographical memories and daily details as essential to her poetry. She neither seeks the authoritarian subjectivity nor accepts the idea of organic closure, while not inclined to pursue nonsense or non-referentiality. She revolutionizes lyric poetry, and at the same time, stirs readers’ imagination with her unique lyricism. Her new sentence is supposed to be complete as a unit but defamiliarized with others. In this new sentence and open-ended closure, memory is not confined in a specific time and place but continues to regain its significance whenever evoked repeatedly in ever-changing life. This experimental lyricism makes Hejinian distinct from other Language poets as well as from traditional poets. This paper studies her “The Rejection of Closure”(1983) to look into her view of language, and considers her My Life as an open text where memory, growing to a realm of metaphor or metonymy, provides an implicit vision of life.

6

전복과 집 찾기 — 『딕테』의 언어 전략

임경규

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 4호 2015.11 pp.117-141

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This study aims at examining the linguistic strategy employed in Theresa Hak Kyung Cha’s Dictee. First, this paper identifies two conflicting impulses in the text: one is an impulse for home (or homing desire) and the other an impulse for non-identity and difference. The narrator of Dictee never tries to reconcile or dialectically synthesize these two impulses into a kind of third one. Rather, she leaves them coexisting, conflicting and finally driving the whole text to fall apart. However, these two impulses have one thing in common, which is the fact that they both challenge—through language—the social authority (imperialism, nationalism, patriarchy and hegemonic culture of the US) or the big Other in Lacanian sense. Therefore, language becomes a battleground in which the two conflicting impulses wage the war against the social authority. That is to say, the narrator of Dictee attempts to subvert dominant ideologies of all sorts and to tease out a possibility of finding home for Korean diasporic women from language that is imposed on her by the dominant culture.

7

어머니에서 광란의 오필리아로 — 『밤으로의 긴 여로』에서 메리의 연극적 재현

임미진

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 4호 2015.11 pp.143-165

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O’Neill’s Long Day’s Journey into Night is in great part about feminine suffering. Throughout the play Mary recalls the happy times of her life-as a promising piano student at the convent and as a young woman who believed that she had a religious vocation but gave it all up when she married James Tyrone. The action of the play chronicles Mary’s regression. The issue of Mary’s addiction to morphine is crucial to the problem of the Tyrone family. She abandons the family during her drugged states. Her habitual injection of morphine is motivated by an emotional rather than a physiological craving. She does not have psychic capacity for empathy toward her family because of her self-centered view of reality. Mary seems to be a totally lost cause. Living in a fog which shuts out reality, she tries to find the meaning of her existence only in the past. But she is not weak but shrewdly manipulative, managing to set her three men against each other in order to avoid confronting herself with what she has become. At the final act, “The Mad Scene, Enter Ophelia!,” even though Mary claims that she never had the slightest desire to be an actress, she ironically takes center-stage, and becomes a complex and theatrically powerful stage woman. Mary, who finally changes from mother into mad Ophelia by adopting theatrical representation.

8

『암흑의 핵심』에 드러난 몸들의 공동체

정지은, 홍옥숙

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 4호 2015.11 pp.167-184

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This paper explores the concept of the body and its openness suggested by Jean-Luc Nancy in Joseph Conrad’s novella, Heart of Darkness. In Corpus, Nancy suggests a unique way of thinking about the body. He explains the body as the other and suggests its openness. When he says the body as being open, it is turned toward the outside and toward the ‘touch' with the other. Nancy’s discussion of the body can shed new light on the interpretation of Heart of Darkness. Conrad’s novella has been read as an allegorical or symbolic journey in which Marlow meets the other while he is going up the Congo river or interpreted in the context of postcolonialism. When we apply Nancy’s idea to the novella, however, Marlow’s meeting with the other is realized through the body. It is the body or the openness of the body that allows Marlow to recognize his connection with the other, either the cannibals on the ship or those Africans he encounters along the river. Moreover, Marlow understands Kurtz through the voice, a part of the human body. Thus Marlow’s journey becomes a journey toward the bodies resonating with each other in a community of bodies.

9

『워싱턴 스퀘어』에 나타난 심미주의와 계산된 의도의 양상

조흥근

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 4호 2015.11 pp.185-205

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This paper has an aim at analyzing the aspects of aestheticism and calculated intention in Henry James’s Washington Square. Sloper, Morris, and Mrs. Penniman, the three major characters around Catherine have a tendency to manipulate and control other people, especially Catherine, with calculated intentions to get them or her to their own advantage. Sloper and Morris compete with each other in order to control or take possession of Catherine just like a property, and Mrs. Penniman tries to meddle with the love affairs of Catherine and Morris with her own melodramatic imagination. All the intentional activities of the three persons are closely combined with their aesthetic tendencies. Being ‘natural’ and ‘sincere’ is suggested as Morris’s motto but proves to be just his pose as an aesthete. The genuine meanings of the words ‘natural’ and ‘sincere’ belong only to Catherine in Washington Square. Her sincere efforts to love both her father and Morris and to determine her fate with her own will are the genuine criticism of the above three persons, and here lies the real nature of Henry James’s social criticism of American society in Washington Square.

10

여행 문학과 1798년 『서정 민요집』

주혁규

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 4호 2015.11 pp.207-228

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It has been well-documented that Wordsworth and Coleridge, who decided not do use their names on the title page of the 1798 volume, read avidly travels and voyages in order to expand their scope of knowledge in man, nature, and human life. This paper intends to demonstrate how Lyrical Ballads of 1798 actively appropriates motifs, imagery, and scenes of travel literature. More specifically, it proposes a single traveller-narrator who practices his authorial function over the individual poems in the volume; he is a composite figure of two author of the 1798 volume. He is also an explorer who attempts to achieve his authenticity by participating, and often endangering himself, in a pedestrian journey. To prove the efficacy of the travel narrative framework in analysing the 1798 volume, this paper is carefully examining the original motives of Lyrical Ballads project, the material dimension of the volume, significant travel motifs of individual poems, and the trends of travelling industry in 1790s.

11

NONFINALITY 제약의 재고

조혜성

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 4호 2015.11 pp.229-246

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The goal of this paper is to reexamine the proper applications of NONFINALITY constraints, in particular, NONFINALITY() constraint and NONFINALITY (FT) constraint within Optimality Theory (OT). To properly describe the prosodic status of final syllables in languages with trochaic systems like Latin and English, we propose that the foot-leveled NONFINALITY(FT) constraint be replaced with a new NONFINALITY(σweak-in-foot) constraint regulating the foot membership of word-final syllables. Although NONFINALITY(FT) constraint is for antepenultimate stress patterns in more than 3-syllabled words, it fails to account for the stress patterns of 2-syllabled words in size because they are undersized for the constraint application. With the ranked NONFINALITY() constraint and NONFINALITY(σweak-in-foot) constraint interaction, we can capture and describe both of the avoided prosodic structures, word-final stressed syllables and weak-footed syllables word-finally. NONFINALITY(FT) constraint still survives to reduplicate the effects of Foot Extrametricality within constraint-based approaches.

12

플립러닝과 학습유인물을 활용한 대학영어 수업모형

고준석

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 4호 2015.11 pp.247-271

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Flipped classroom learning has stirred up great resonance both in domestic and foreign universities, and in other educational institutions as well, throughout the world. The central axis of learning has been shifted from teacher-centered teaching to student-centered learning; from surface thought to deeper thought: thus, the learners actively participate in the learning process. This paper suggests college English be taught following the principles of the transformed flipped learning-teaching skills. When a teacher utilizes printed learning material in a flipped classroom, there are effects as follows: first, students improve self-directed learning capability; second, there is more interaction between teacher and learner; third, students through learner experience-centered learning process attain deeper comprehension of their material; fourth, students expand their metacognition through feedback with their teacher or fellow students. This paper demonstrates that flipped learning develops student's learning capability in class. It is necessary that teachers should deal with learning and teaching problems, not from teachers’ points of view but students’. This study suggests that teaching should be students-centered: that is, the flipped classroom model is one of the significant skills to that effect.

13

과업 기반 학습을 위한 초등 영어 교수 절차와 교재 재구성 방안

김영현

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 4호 2015.11 pp.273-294

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This paper has dual aims. One is to examine the appropriateness of teaching procedures for task-based learning focused on language skills and communicative activities in elementary school English lessons. The other is to discuss some strategies for adapting elementary school English textbooks to do task-based teaching (TBT) for fifth and sixth graders. The results are as follows: (1) Presentation-practice-production (PPP) is useful in a focus on forms lesson, where grammar points are taught particularly to lower-level third and fourth graders. Whereas TBT is useful in a skills lesson for higher-level fifth and sixth graders, where focus on form may occur as a result of something they hear or read. (2) Fifth and sixth graders should be taught based on TBT procedures with an initial focus on meaning which enable them to use the language they have already learned or known as maximally as possible while doing tasks. (3) The current textbook lessons based on PPP for fifth and sixth graders should be adapted to suit TBT procedures by reordering textbook activities, turning the activities into tasks or doing the skills lesson first and the form-focused work last. (4) The sample application of TBT procedures to a textbook lesson for sixth graders will help teachers reconsider the weakness and strength of PPP and TBT called ‘PPP upside down' and adapt textbooks for TBT procedures with focus on meaning first and on form last.

14

중등 영어 교과서 선정 사례 분석

김해동

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 4호 2015.11 pp.295-312

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The main purpose of this study is to analyse English language teaching(ELT) textbook selection procedures in secondary schools in South Korea. For the data collection, published case reports on textbook selection procedures were collected and a meta-analysis was carried out. Also, a total of 51 English teachers were invited for a semi-structured interview on textbook selection procedures. The overall results from the meta-analysis and interviews indicated that school-based committee, including English teachers, head teachers, parents and principals, were organized in order to select textbooks. The committee adopted three to five steps in their selection procedures. The results revealed that a checklist made for selecting government-authorized textbooks was adapted and used for systematic evaluations. In many cases, it was noticed that teachers did not have enough time to carry out in-depth evaluations on potential textbooks. Also, some teachers mentioned that they had not had enough opportunities to be trained to evaluate ELT textbooks in a professional manner. Based on the results of the analysis, it is suggested that a systematic ELT textbook selection scheme which may enhance and reflect teacher-evaluators' professional judgements should be made for secondary school English teachers in Korea.

15

내용 중심의 단어결합체 학습이 대학생의 독해 이해력 향상에 미치는 영향

김혜정

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 4호 2015.11 pp.313-331

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This study considers how a content-centered approach affects learning of word combinations in undergraduate English reading classes. It also deals with the effect on retaining word combinations in long-term memory. Word combinations are so naturally and sequentially connected that they are regarded as one chunk, for example read a book or what's going on. This study suggests a content-centered approach for acquiring word combinations, and examines its effectiveness in retention of long-term memory. To verify this suggestion, the study observes an experimental group focused on content-centered word combinations, and a control group from a common reading class based on student presentations. Assessment is carried out through first and second tests, word combination test of long-term memory. Results show that two groups have positive effects on students' reading comprehension development. Results also show that a content-centered approach is helpful for improving students’ reading comprehension ability, and that student satisfaction with this approach was high.

16

중학생의 영어읽기이해에 영향을 미치는 변인들 — 구조방정식을 통한 분석

정희정

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 4호 2015.11 pp.333-351

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This study examines the effect of reading strategy, self-efficacy, motivation, and previously acquired knowledge on English reading comprehension. The casual relationships among those variables were hypothesized. Data from a sample of 240 middle school students were collected to empirically test the proposed hypotheses in the research model. The structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was used to analyze the casual relationships between variables. The results indicate that four learners variables have a positive impact on English reading comprehension. In particular, reading strategy has a strongest impact on English reading comprehension followed by previously acquired knowledge. Finally, academic and practical implications are discussed based on the study results.

17

L2어휘학습 요인에 관한 구조적 관계 모형

지문건

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 4호 2015.11 pp.353-380

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The purpose of the current research was to investigate the potential elements impacting on second language (L2) vocabulary proficiency and their cause-and-effect relationship to L2 vocabulary knowledge with data from 300 participants from 4th-grade to 6th-grade in an Korean EFL context. The tools of the current study are L2 productive/receptive vocabulary tasks and questionnaire survey on L2 vocabulary acquisition strategies. The vocabulary test consisted of synonyms, antonyms, and analogies and the questionnaire was composed of 24 items. First, a factor analysis confirmed four factors: L2 vocabulary learning strategy, extra-curricular learning, first language (L1) proficiency, and parents’ interest. Regression analysis identified the importance of L2 vocabulary learning strategy and extra-curricular learning to L2 vocabulary knowledge. On the basis of SEM, L2 vocabulary learning strategy and extra-curricular contributed a significant amount of unique variance to L2 vocabulary proficiency. These findings are consistent with the depth of processing hypothesis that L2 vocabulary learning strategy plays an important role in progressing L2 vocabulary achievement (Craik, & Lockhart, 1972).

18

“Strutting” Black Fathers : The Pitfall of the Black Middle-Class Patriarchal Vision in Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon

Kwangsoon Kim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 4호 2015.11 pp.381-397

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This essay discusses the black middle class patriarchal vision for black liberation that is portrayed in Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon. Unlike her previous novels, Morrison foregrounds the strong black fathers who are domestically authoritative and economically affluent. The “strutting” black fathers in the novel seemingly liberate blackness from its necessary association with poverty/servitude and fashion a new vision for racial uplift. For this reason, Morrison criticism has vastly read Song of Solomon as the novel that revises the myths of black manhood and finds a hopeful vision from the middle class black patriarchy. However, this essay contends that the middle class black fathers are not redemptive nationalists but greedy businessmen who are servile to and complicit with whites in order to accumulate their wealth. They simply capitalize on the racial segregation of the United States to gain the material basis for self-authority. Their self-authority and economic power are only limited to and recognized only within the segregated black community; they still remain servile to the white people outside the black community. In this context, rather than finding a hopeful vision in the patriarchal fathers, this essay reads Morrison’s Song of Solomon as a novel that registers the failure of the vision projected to strutting black fathers which was prevalent during the Black Power Movement in the late 1960s and early 1970s. In other words, the seemingly redemptive black patriarchs are not able to offer any liberatory vision for black Americans because their vision was not accompanied by political and racial consciousness and simply attempted to bleach their blackness with material success.

19

The Photographic Rewriting of “Merlin and Vivien”: Julia Margaret Cameron’s Photobook of Tennyson’s Idylls of the King

Jeongsuk Kim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 4호 2015.11 pp.399-420

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This essay examines Julia Margaret Cameron's photographic illustrations of Alfred Lord Tennyson's “Merlin and Vivien” from the Idylls of the King in terms of its aesthetic value which expanded the limited scope of Victorian aesthetic and cultural standards. The essay argues that Cameron's visualization of the poem with her singular photographic style was a modern ekphrastic challenge to form a photobook, which not only brought questions about Victorian gender norms but also paved the way for modernist experiments with images and text. First, the essay investigates the artistic value of Cameron's out-of-focus photographs, which promoted the status of photography to a fine art, after which it explores how Cameron's unconventional artistic photographs became texts in which the illustrator's photographic interpretations of the poem were inscribed. Although Cameron's incongruous photographic illustrations of the poem deviated from the conventions of ut pictura poesis, the essay argues that they newly formed a modern artistic invention, a photobook, mirroring Cameron's artistic practices of photography in the conservative Victorian visual world. While attempting to interpret and analyze the two images of Vivien and Merlin, the essay focuses on the fact that Cameron not only defied the generalized female identity by illustrating her own version of Vivien with unusual behavior but also wished for a reciprocal relationship with male photographers.

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Contentious Afterthoughts : Shaw’s Surprising ‘Sequel’ to His Greatest Comedy

Derek McGovern

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 4호 2015.11 pp.421-441

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Pygmalion (1913) is widely regarded as George Bernard Shaw’s greatest comedy. A subversive work, it was conceived as an inversion of Ovid’s “Pygmalion and the Statue.” In Shaw’s version, his Pygmalion, phonetician Henry Higgins transforms his “statue,” flower seller Eliza Doolittle, by teaching her to speak like a duchess. Instead of marrying her overbearing “creator,” however, Eliza becomes an independent woman. The play culminates with her walking out on Higgins, vowing never to see him again. But interpreters of Pygmalion thought otherwise, and meddled with the ending to imply that the pair ultimately married. To counter this tampering, Shaw concocted a prose sequel that he appended to Pygmalion. The sequel, he declared, would explain what really happened to his characters after the play was over. Rather than preserving the integrity of his play through the sequel, however, this paper argues that Shaw’s postscript had the opposite effect: it removes all of the finely wrought ambiguity of Pygmalion’s ending by painstakingly detailing a mundane future for Eliza, robbing her of all her great promise in the play. Moreover, Eliza emerges in the sequel as a less talented individual than in the play, further disillusioning admirers of this character. Worse still, her behavior in the sequel contradicts her fierce commitment in the play to an independent life without the misogynistic Higgins, undermining both her and Shaw’s feminism, and the central theme of Pygmalion.

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On John Steinbeck’s War Propaganda Works : With John Rawls’s International Pacifism

Hanyong Choe, Geongeun Lee

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 4호 2015.11 pp.443-464

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This article aims to evaluate John Steinbeck’s ideas in his war propaganda literature in the 1940s and compare them with John Rawls’s political philosophy in The Law of Peoples. Until now, Steinbeck’s fictions and non-fictions joining the American war effort during the World War Ⅱ have been undervalued as being hasty, superficial, mechanical, abstract, and even unrealistic as a solemn sacrifice to the greater cause of patriotism. Nevertheless, the writer did not lose his old concepts and rather developed them into a kind of international pacifism. To demonstrate this opinion, the researchers observe the works—Sea of Cortez, The Moon Is Down, Bombs Away, Once There Was a War, Lifeboat, A Medal for Benny, and A Russian Journal. As a result, these works turn out to materialize Steinbeck’s previous ideas, and especially A Russian Journal is analogous to Rawls’s view in that the international society should respect the peoples’ diversity under the absolute value of human rights. That is, Steinbeck’s group-man idea assumes another bigger entity other than the sum of individuals in a community and non-teleology cherishes what it is rather than what it should be. Meanwhile, Rawls insists that there should be a consolidated norm among the peoples and all the societies should observe the duty of non-intervention. Lastly, this interdisciplinary research shows that Steinbeck’s literature of propaganda is not too cheap or worthless.

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Native Language Effect on Production of Merged Vowels in Korean Language

Syejeong Kim, Mira Oh

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 4호 2015.11 pp.465-489

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This study investigates the phonetic realizations of Korean vowels /ㅔ/ and /ㅐ/ produced by Chinese and English learners of Korean at beginner and advanced levels of proficiency. Further, it tests the extent to which acoustic similarity between L1 and L2 sounds is crucial in predicting easy/difficult perception and production of L2 sounds. Although Korean vowels /ㅔ/ and /ㅐ/ used to be two separate phonemes in Korean, Korean speakers no longer distinguish them due to the merger of these two vowels. The results from this production study reveal two findings. Firstly, the L1 influence on L2 production is partially supported for learners of Korean in that English learners of Korean do not differentiate Korean [에] and [애] in durational and spectral cues in their production. Secondly, the advanced Chinese learners exhibited hypercorrection in that they produce the Korean vowel /ㅔ/ very distinctively from /ㅐ/. These findings suggest that acoustic similarity alone cannot predict the likelihood of easy/difficult production of L2 sounds contra Flege’s (1995) Speech Learning Model (SLM) and Escudero et al.’s (2004) Second Language Linguistic Perception Model. They indicate that teaching method also plays a crucial role in second language acquisition.

23

L2 Article Sensitivity to Semantic Contexts in L1-Bengali L2-English Learners

Bijon Krishna Sarker, Seunghyun Baek

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 4호 2015.11 pp.491-514

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This current study investigated the sensitivities of 42 L1-Bengali L2-English learners with article-less background, to the article choice distinction into the semantic contexts of [+definite, +specific], [+definite, -specific], [-definite, +specific] and [-definite, -specific]. Furthermore, the effects of the L2 grammatical ability of the participants, determined by a cloze test on the use of the articles in those four article semantic contexts, were assessed by a forced-choice elicitation test. The results determined that regardless of their grammatical ability, the participants are more likely to accurately use the in the contexts of [+definite, +specific] and [+definite, -specific] than a in the contexts of [-definite,+specific] and [-definite, -specific]. Moreover, in spite of their grammatical ability, the participants tend to overuse the and a in the contexts of [-definite,+specific] and [+definite, -specific] respectively. Additionally, the L2 highly grammatical group is more likely to overuse a more than the L2 low group, in the context of [+definite, -specific]. On the other hand, the L2 lower grammatical group has tendencies to overuse a more than the L2 high group in the context of [+definite, +specific]. However, in the two contexts of [-definite, +specific] and [-definite, -specific], both groups tend to overuse the in a roughly equal amount. These results suggest that L1-Bengali L2-English learners may encounter persistent difficulties stemming from the parametric variations of noun phrases in their L1 and L2, during their process of transfer from L1 NPs to L2 NPs.

24

Awareness Campaign Projects for Transformative Learning in Critical Language Classrooms

Jocelyn Wright

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 4호 2015.11 pp.515-553

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The main purpose of this article is to propose awareness campaigns as novel learning projects and to discuss the pilot study that sheds light on their potential utility for critical language classrooms. Because awareness campaigns attempt to positively influence behavior for social improvement, the hypothesis is that they may provide meaningful, transformative learning experiences for participants. The context for this particular study is a small, undergraduate EFL class at a rural university in South Korea. Making use of an initially inductive, mixed-methods approach, consisting of SWOT analyses, a post-experiment survey, student materials, and participant observation, the study seeks answers to the following questions: 1) How does this project provide an impetus for students to engage in actions that promote social change? 2) What evidence is there that students participate in increased critical discourse as a result of this project? 3) How is this project successful at raising awareness of social issues? 4) In what ways does this project induce students to reflect critically on and to challenge assumptions? 5) To what extent do the students' self-report measures suggest that they value awareness campaigns as useful tools for language learning? The initial findings of this pioneering study although tentative, appear promising both for the project's use in language classrooms and for further research.

 
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