영어영문학21 [English21]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
  • 발행기관
    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
  • ISSN
  • 간기
  • 수록기간
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제23권 1호 (11건)

여성작가의 글쓰기와 사회의식—여성교육과 유니테리언 네트워크


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제23권 1호 2010.03 pp.5-23

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

Unitarian educational philosophy was egalitarian, optimistic and humanistic in the later eighteenth century. They did not accept that women were an inferior species of mankind, believing that both sexes were equal in talents and mental qualities. One of Unitarians, John Aikin wanted young women to be educated to use their own good sense to judge literature. Joseph Priestley believed the female intellect to be equal to the male's, if properly educated. Within these Unitarian families women played a huge, if often publicly unacknowledged, role by networking. Higher concepts of womanhood than norm and deeper education were given to females, but there were still marked gendered differences of role. By 1815 within the Unitarian network there was an active acceptance of women's intellectual capacity which was unusual for the time. Anna Barbauld, John Aikin's sister, who was not denying women any rational study, was establishing a new role model for woman, especially in her achievement of writing for education. Mary Wollstonecraft was much influenced by the general Unitarian emphasis on reason and the need for all to develop their mental and moral abilities through education, and by their respect for women's intellectual powers. Lucy Aikin, niece of Anna Barbauld, preached the intellectual equality of the sexes, promoting a rational education for both sexes. Lucy Aikin argued that history showed that whenever women had been allowed to share in the best efforts of men “no talent, no virtue is masculine alone, no fault or folly exclusively feminine.” While she was stretching the boundaries of what was usually accepted that women could do, she lived at home quietly among her family. Thus even when Unitarian women did extend the boundaries of female achievement, they did so within the limits of writing and teaching.


심리적 중간경관으로서 미국의 교외—존 치버의 교외 소설


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제23권 1호 2010.03 pp.25-54

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John Cheever's Shady Hill short stories explore the psychological paradoxes of American middle-class suburbanites epitomized by their indefinable inner pain ironically exuding from their perfect safety and happiness. This paper first discusses the equivocal narrative voice which Cheever has adopted to express the aesthetic and moral discontinuity between the facade, the back, and the inside of the life in the American suburbia, a so-called bourgeois Utopia. Such an equivocal narrative voice enables him to effectively express his sympathetic satire on the American suburbs. Then I try to describe the psychological middle-landscape of the suburban dwellers by focusing on their premature self-compromise and feeble selfhood which in turn cause their paradoxical pursuit of happiness. The suburbanites' strong desire for the ease of life motivates them to move into the suburb. Ironically, however, their psychological misery is chiefly engendered by their excessive concern for their own safety and happiness. Such a self-centered pursuit of wellbeing depending on their other-directed conformity of attitude reflects their feeble self which lacks some internalized principles for their acts. The American middle-class, mostly composed of self-made men, have chosen the suburb for their dwelling environment, a middle ground between a metropolis and rural area. They intend, on the one hand, to escape from the struggles and troubles of urban life and, on the other, to secure the harmony and relief of life under the influence of nature by deciding to live in the suburb. Never completely removing their life from the material wealth of a big city nearby, they seem to secure a perfect golden medium for their dwelling environment between nature and culture. In that sense, the suburb as a geographical middle landscape incarnates an ideal space for dwelling. In terms of their social status, the middle-class occupy a middle ground between the lower working-class below and the higher upper-class above. Reflecting such a socio-economical position of them, they indeed tend to show an eclectic attitude of life between the stimulation and the repose in it. Such an eclecticism of them, however, entails some serious emotional problems in the psychological middle landscape of the middle-class suburbanites. Hence their serious self-contradictions and terrible feeling of anxiety and hollowness.


욕망의 모호한 대상—핀터의 『지난 세월』을 중심으로


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제23권 1호 2010.03 pp.55-70

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

Pinter's play, Old Times, having its own peculiar characteristics, defies any easy categorization into either traditional drama or absurd drama. It can be said that Pinter's plays can and/or cannot be considered one of these two dramatic modes. His unique aesthetic form represents a world governed by the principle of “undecidability”. The linguistic and psychoanalytical perspective of Jacque Lacan provides a very effective approach for unravelling the structural cause of the absurdity of human life as captured by Pinter. From a Lacanian point of view, Pinter's work deals essentially with absurd human conditions in terms of the basic relationships between human subjects and language, that is, the ontological alienation of man as a signifier. Old Times deals with the birth and splitting of the human subject in the most basic part of Lacanian theory, in which a stable dichotomy is impossible. By contemplating the original relationship between the unconscious and language, Pinter shares psychoanalytic concerns about the human condition, and creates a new mode of drama, which is different from other contemporary plays. As Pinter forgrounded subtext, Lacan in his work wished to explore the unconsciousness of human desire and described the intrapsychic realms of the Imaginary, the Symbolic and the Real. Viewing Old Times through Lacan's desire theory, which exhibits Lacan's concept of “objet petit a”, that humans seek in others, this study examines the way in which the characters refuse the fixed gaze of the audience, critics, etc and seem to be reborn. One often reads about the Other, but here, the otherness is within ourselves.


로렌스의 시—동물적 삶의 찬가


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제23권 1호 2010.03 pp.71-98

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The poetry of Lawrence doesn't conceal the inferiority of men and culture to nature and the wilderness. Seemingly, this provocative inferiority has made the society and rather many readers uncomfortable and displeased. But readers' disagreement with Lawrence means that deep-rooted anthropocentric consciousness has been prevailing and Lawrence subversive inversion is concreted into ‘Hymn of an Animal Life' in his poems. Lawrence's hymn goes beyond ‘reductionism’ or ‘the recovery of the relationship between man and nature’ as it includes ‘the way of living in nature as a part of it.’ Nature in his hymns is ‘not for man’ or ‘an object to experience’ but ‘a place to live in.’ Lawrence believes that the ‘elan vital’ for man is secured only by nature. The major concern of ecological minds is the problem of ‘practice.’ Nowadays virtual reality is ever present, so many human experiences are undergone only by cognition. Therefore, there should be more direct and tangible eco-centrical tactics. In Lawrence's hymn, man is only an animal which can do nothing without nature. The outspoken frankness of Lawrence’s hymn can be a good eye-opener to the present crisis of nature.


자메이카 킨케이드의 『나의 어머니의 자서전』에서의 식민주의와 젠더


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제23권 1호 2010.03 pp.99-121

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Jamaica Kincaid's The Autobiography of My Mother explores the gendered subjectivities by the politics of power, unveiling deeply hidden truth about colonialism and its aftermath on the Caribbean women. This paper aims to examine connections between colonialism and gender relations through the postcolonial and the feminist perspectives in this text. The Autobiography unravels the many complex layers of the Caribbean women's experience. As a powerful instrument to interrogate the received notion of history, allegories with the gender concern in the text offers another dimension to the counter-discursive strategy. And the conscious focus on autobiography calls attention to the subversiveness of the act of self-writing. Xuela is the medium through which Kincaid gives an account of the effects of the imperial machine that extends back to Christopher columbus and the start of British colonialism and then joins up with the postcolonial present day. Through her mother, an Amerindian, one of the vanished people in Dominica. Xuela investigates the historial and cultural context of the isolation of the Caribbean women. This decentered, marginalized mother is conveyed through the ghost figure. What Kincaid depicts through allegory of the father and the mother in this novel is the society that grows out of the climate that colonization created. The masculine principle her father represents comes from the acquisitive nature of the European colonial patriarchy. Despite his own African heritage. Alfred, Xuela's father, is the colonial who has adopted the colonizer's tastes, his language, his religion, and his values, even the Manichean ideology that leads him. Xuela, however, subverts the familiar equation, replacing the mother with her counterpart and characterizing the fatherland by its oppressive patriarchal law. Thus, Kincaid succeeds in providing us with the women's question of the so-called ‘third world' which is intricately tied to anti-colonialism and the patriarchy. Unveiling the colonized history of her homeland as well as the diaspora history which has been effaced by dominated colonial patriarchal discourse, Kincaid makes a strong contribution to postcolonial feminism, by making a space to dis-place history. whose history have been misrepresented or erased.


타자 양크—오닐의 『털보 원숭이』


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제23권 1호 2010.03 pp.123-145

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In The Hairy Ape, Yank, a stoker on a cargo ship, believes, with a strong sense of pride and dignity, the firemen’s forecastle where he works is the center of the world and that it is himself who moves the world. But one day Mildred, who represents the bourgeois class, appears to Yank in the shape of a “white ghost” and gives him a great shock by calling him a “filthy beast!”. The sense of humiliation and anger Mildred triggers in him is the driving force which motivates Yank’s subsequent actions. He leaves the stokehole where he has belonged and goes out into the New York streets. But he soon realizes that he is an ‘other’ in this developed and industrialized world. He tries hard to communicate with the people of the bourgeois class whom he encounters in both positive and negative situations only in vain. He is expelled even from the labor organization that he has thought he belongs to. In such a process he discovers his true self and, in the end, to identify his own existence as an ‘other’ he offers his hand to a gorilla in the zoo and puts an end to his struggle to save himself in death. This is indeed a good example of the fate of the other not accepted to the materialistic capitalist society. This is a play about the struggle for a human dignity of a man as the other in the face of the ruthless power of the stratified society and the tyrannical of industrialization.


영어와 한국어 문장부호의 비교 연구—Colon(쌍점)과 Dash(줄표)를 중심으로


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제23권 1호 2010.03 pp.147-176

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Building upon previous research on punctuation, this paper aims to expand the current literature by exploring the functional concept of punctuation and comparing English and Korean “points.” Although punctuation allows for and must guarantee a certain degree of subjectivity, even arbitrariness in certain cases, it would still be useful to rebuild the concept of punctuation by exploring and accommodating the diverse perspectives and by reflecting the modern tendency. Based on a clearer notion, this paper then seeks to illustrate how individual “relationship-building” punctuation marks—English colon/dash, and their “form equivalent” marks, namely ssangjeom and julpyo, in Korean—take on the functional role as unique linguistic entities: they will be addressed in alphabetical order, with their functions and usage presented, followed by comparison and analysis. Although there are a number of punctuation marks in both English and Korean language systems, this paper limits its scope to colon, dash, and their equivalent marks in Korean, since more widely-used punctuation marks, such as comma and period, tend to be “fixed” in punctuation practices in rigid molds and the functions and usages of such marks share much similarity with the equivalent ones in Korean language. On the contrary, the punctuation marks that are dealt with herein often invite confusion and disagreement of interpretation, and the functions and usages are different.


창의연극—이야기를 들려주고 꾸며내는 영어교수법


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제23권 1호 2010.03 pp.177-199

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The thesis aims at investigating the educational potentialities of creative drama as an interdisciplinary realm between English teaching method and educational drama by surveying its learning effectiveness, and by exploring the reasons of extracting some of misunderstandings in the process of its expropriation to Korea as well. The misunderstandings have been made by the concepts that educational drama is to teach drama or theatre, and is to teach a kind of curriculum with dramatic techniques and role-play. Dewey W. Chambers in his book, Storytelling and Creative Drama, says that educational drama is not a performance for audience as well as it is not utilized by dramatic techniques and role-play, introducing an approaching method by twelve steps. This thesis also introduces the three classifications in the approaching process of education drama: first, Kase-Polisini classifies it into planning, playing and evaluation; second, Neelands into planning, drama-time and evaluation; third, Renard and Sockol into focus, introduction, preparation(warm-ups & cool downs), directions and activities, discussion, and summary. However, the twelve steps of Chambers' can be explained by Renard and Sockol's classification. According to Chambers' explanations, one can find the educational effectiveness in the followings: 1) Literacy Analysis 2) The Listening Skills 3) Oral Language 4) Creative Thinking 5) Planing: From Abstract to Concrete 6) The Skills of Effective Evaluation. Conclusively speaking, the educational effectiveness should be produced through the process of storytelling and storymaking in action as dramatic experience. That is, creative drama is a kind of teaching method through dramatization, having the educational effectiveness.


Search for the Impersonal ‘We’ in “Gerontion”: A Link toward The Waste Land

Kyung-Sim Chung

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제23권 1호 2010.03 pp.201-212

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“Gerontion” chronologically is the last poem in Poems, but Eliot placed it in the beginning of the volume. With the dramatic monologue as its form, the poem reminds of the earlier dramatic monologues in the Prufrock volume, but is bounded with satirical poems. Viewed from a century’s distance, dramatic monologue dominates the three major phases of Eliot’s early years: Prufrock (1917), Poems (1920), and The Waste Land (1922). While The Waste Land is definitely the most comprehensive and cumulative, “Gerontion,” originally meant to be a prelude to the longer poem, serves as an important link, binding the first two and predicting the third in form and technique. More importantly, “Gerontion” also links the phases in terms of subject matter. Since Eliot’s major reason for the technical shift in the quatrain poems is the more personal nature of his poetic subject toward the end of 1910s, his prime struggle was to find an impersonal ‘we’—the most comprehensive voice and point of view that both involves and transcends his own and others’ personal points of view and voices—with the help of impersonal techniques. “Gerontion,” as the result of this struggle, is a fusion of Prufrock and Poems both in technique and subject matter, restoring the dramatic monologue and developing the transformed I-You relation in the more comprehensive ‘we,’ though the poet is yet to explore its comprehensiveness further in The Waste Land.


The Baroque (G.W Leibniz) and the Neo-Baroque (Gilles Deleuze)

HyunJoo Yoo

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제23권 1호 2010.03 pp.215-235

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This paper aims at trying to understand the contemporary neo-Baroque era through the historical Baroque in association with the Baroque philosopher Lebniz and the neo-Baroque philosopher Deleuze. The seventeenth century is a so-called transition, since paradigm shifts were evidently demonstrated in economics, the science, philosophy, and the arts during this period. This seventeenth century Baroque nature has revealed and recurred itself, especially, during the contemporary era of technological advancement such as the invention of the cinematic apparatus, simulation rides, theatrical experiences, a wide-screen technology, and a more successful version of audio-visuality. Reigniting the Baroque identity, the Baroque's mutation and vibration has manifested itself as the ‘neo-Baroque.' Considering the neo-Baroque entertainments in late twentieth and early twenty-first century demonstrate various (neo-) Baroque forms of expression to the audience, the seventeenth century Baroque cannot be thought to be just confined to the past. However, the Baroque and neo-Baroque nature should be distinguished respectively in that they manifest themselves in technologically and culturally different ways. In a word, the neo-Baroque embraces the classical, yet integrating its features into its own complex system. Through looking into the Baroque world, we are expected to enhance our understanding of not only this high technology era itself but also ourselves.


Journal of a Novice ESL Teacher: An Introspective Analysis

Yousun Shin

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제23권 1호 2010.03 pp.237-261

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This study examines the journal of a novice ESL teacher’s reflections on self-perception as a teacher and on conflicts during teaching practice. Five main issues emerged out of the analysis of the teacher’s journal entries, and are grouped into five different categories: the novice teacher’s personal reactions, self-concept as an ESL teacher, teaching and learning approaches, moral issues of the teacher, and contextual and institutional issues. The first two issues are associated with the teacher’s self-concept as a novice language teacher and her personal reaction to teaching. The third issue concerns reflections on how her teaching methods were influenced by previous learning experience and had gradually improved to meet learners’ needs throughout the practicum. The fourth relates to the treatment of students in the classroom, personal judgment of students, and the dilemma that she encountered during the practicum. The final issue relates to coping with conflicts in maintaining a relationship with the supervisor. Overall, throughout the teaching practicum, the participant’s reflections on teaching practice shifted from the micro and separate control of the classroom milieu to the macro and integrated management of the class.

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