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영어영문학21 [English21]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
    학술지
  • 발행기관
    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
  • ISSN
    1738-4052
  • 간기
    계간
  • 수록기간
    1967~2018
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제26권 4호 (25건)
No
1

포스트콜로니얼 관점에서 본 『하얀 이빨』

김연정

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 4호 2013.12 pp.5-24

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

Zadie Smith’s White Teeth (2000) features characters from a variety of ethnicities, races and classes living in modern Britain who have emigrated primarily from former colonial countries. Smith demonstrates how these individuals mediate their identities according to tradition and the present, and highlights the cultural and racial hybridity of white Britons and other immigrants in an increasingly diverse world. This study uses Smith’s work as a backdrop to examine how first-generation immigrants are influenced by colonial history in post-colonial Britain, and reiterates that younger generations are a cultural and racial hybridity that transcend culture, class, and gender boundaries. Furthermore, this study reflects on the ideal existence for citizens of colonial descent in the everyday reality of a multi-cultural British society.

2

굴욕의 지점에서 찾는 자기담지와 이방인 수용의 문제 — 쿳시의 『슬로우 맨』

김현아

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 4호 2013.12 pp.25-47

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

Many critics have remarked upon J. M. Coetzee's novels from dichotomous perspectives, mostly using either political or apolitical analyses. This tendency reflects a deep-rooted notion that Coetzee's writings would be most properly analyzed from post-colonial perspectives, regardless of the writer's true intentions. This standardized criticism causes need for an original investigation differing from earlier studies. This paper, therefore, focuses how the themes of Coetzee's novels have changed, with Slow Man displaying the rhetoric of hospitality and self-recognition, realized through the effect of a disability. Coetzee's so-called “Australia novels”, Elizabeth Costello, Slow Man, and A Diary of a Bad Year are a watershed that should not be seen solely through historical and political perspectives, as the importance of the theme of an individual, not a political theme, is highlighted. Slow Man, among the three novels, depicts individual narratives about ageing, disability, and immigration. This novel is a means of magnifying various relationships such as moving to Australia, contact with strangers, and the nature of hospitality. Through these themes, Coetzee presents his readers with a new narrative, with a new subject, in a new space. Slow Man begins as Paul Rayment is knocked off his bike and has his legs amputated. Because of his disability, he hires a nurse to care for him. The woman, Marijana Jokic, is a married Croatian immigrant with children. Slowly, Rayment comes to love Marijana. However, his love isn’t confined to erotic love, but instead he develops his love in a paternal way, wanting to protect her and her family. Expanding his love into hospitality for an “Other”, Rayment contemplates self-reflection and acceptance for “the Other”. To emphasize this process, Coetzee introduces Elizabeth Costello, main character of his another novel Elizabeth Costello, who in Slow Man wants Rayment to hurry up and become someone for her latest novel. As Rayment realizes her aim, he first rejects her and feels repulsion at her appearance. But, confronted with an existential dilemma through his accident, he comes to accept his strange guest as a performer of “conditional hospitality” and “unconditional hospitality”, as defined by Jacques Derrida.

3

영국 식민지 경영의 두 얼굴 — 코난 도일의 탐정 소설에 나타난 귀환자들의 성격분석

문상화

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 4호 2013.12 pp.49-63

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

Characters in Sherlock Holmes series are connected with the British Empire that controlled the land and the people of uncivilized countries. The characters return to their homeland with dismally distorted figures, or with fame and riches acquired from the conquered. Conan Doyle shows his cool-headed attitude towards two distinctive groups. In the novels, any people included these two groups is not saved from their wicked acts in the uncivilized country, England. Doyle’s objective stance towards cases comes from his belief in British Empire. He believed that, though British Empire suffered from some difficulties coming from the management of the empire, the difficulties should not affect the tranquil lives of England. With the belief in the stability of British, two group’s characters, victims and murderers, should be removed in the world of Sherlock Holmes.

4

스토리텔링과 공감을 통한 언어 교육 및 정체성 형성 — 윌라 캐더의 『나의 안토니아』읽기

손정희, 김여진

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 4호 2013.12 pp.65-82

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This paper attempts to show that storytelling is important in language learning and identity formation for those who (im)migrated to the West in Willa Cather's My Ántonia. Jim Burden and Ántonia Shimerda share the same need to settle down in a totally new place, although they differ in nationality, language and culture. Experiencing the language barrier as a primary obstacle to overcome, Ántonia makes an effort to learn English. On the other hand, when Jim is isolated when other immigrants communicate with their own language, Ántonia translates their stories into English. Through many other examples, the novel shows that language serves as a necessary tool for communication and adaptation. Futhermore, storytelling plays a significant part in one's identity formation. Many characters with (im)migrant backgrounds gain an opportunity to establish their identities by telling stories about their present life and past memories. Throughout the novel, it is poignantly suggested that storytelling serves as an effective way for language learning and identity formation.

5

관계의 정치와 울스턴크래프트

유경훈

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 4호 2013.12 pp.83-120

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This article explores politics of relationship that Mary Wollstonecraft invents so as to struggle for the intersubjective recognition. Wollstonecraft, in a letter to George Dyson, expressed her concern that he failed to give Maria, a fictional character of her novel, due recognition. She tried to figure out the cause of his failure and found out a way to settle the issue. If there were discrepancies in recognizing the other, closing the gap requires a massive transformation of perception in such a way that demands equality and freedom between sexes and classes. Wollstonecraft realized that distinction, prevalent in society, forms a symbolic diving line producing a sensible web of inclusion or exclusion with which people recognize others. Thus, in order to change a normative framework of intersubjective recognition, she initiated a cultural and political revolution debating with Rousseau, Burke, Smith, and Aristotle who were the major sources of the contemporary recognition established in society. In doing so, she emphasized the importance of friendship as a symbol of politics of relationship that would be the base of establishing virtuous society.

6

카리브 노예여성의 구술서사와 문화적 정체성 — 『메리 프린스의 생애』

이경순

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 4호 2013.12 pp.121-141

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The History of Mary Prince is the first narrative of the life of an enslaved African- descended Caribbean woman in the British West Indian colonies. Published in England in 1831, this valuable autobiography has been read as the literary ancestor of much of Caribbean women's writing today. This paper aims to examine textual production of The History of Mary Prince, focussing on the multi-layered text, and the assertion of the cultural identity, in terms of the postcolonial and gender relations. Unable to purchase her freedom from her owner, Prince dictated her life story to Susanna Strickland, and Thomas Pringle edited her narrative for publication as an anti-slavery tract. This paper is to restore authorial agency to Prince as the primary voice and activist force in the narrative rather than assign that role to Pringle. The combination of oral and written forms and the number of voices operating in the narrative suggest the need for a multi- layed theory of reading. Therefore, firstly, this paper reads it against the grain of the colonial archive as a new form which reflects precisely the cultural limitations and contradictions inherent in a situation where oral and literate cultures meet. Secondly, from silence to a recognition of the power of the word and of the voice, the internal development of the narrative is analyzed. While Prince's original language, Creole, is partially lost in translation from an oral to a written text, the central focus of her narrative is slavery as a lived historical and cultural reality. Through her distinct voice, the slave narrative as evidence of victimization and document of legal history, is transformed into a triumphant narrative of emergent Caribbean cultural identity and the gendered subjectivity.

7

『로드 짐』의 서술전략

이만식

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 4호 2013.12 pp.143-163

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

Lord Jim is considered as one of the pioneers of British modernism due to its characteristic narrative strategy. However, the ethical implication of its narrative strategy has not been fully studied. The omniscient narrator is replaced by Marlow, character narrator, in chapter 5 in order to provide a language system suitable to the state of Jim's soul which could not be rendered by the Official Inquiry in the police court. Marlow's attitude to Jim is more important than Jim's action, because Jim is a simple character. Conrad used narrative techniques such as multiple narrative points of view and inversion of temporal chronology so as to emphasize the psychological development of Marlow towards Jim rather than the linear process of Jim's story. Marlow's attitude towards Jim had changed from curiosity to understanding, and then to sympathy, and then to trust, and then to pity until Jim became a symbolic figure to produce another story than that of other officers of the Patna. As Marlow tried to find a practical solution for Jim's case with a sense of responsibility, Stein offered a position of a trading-clerk in Patusan to Jim. Patusan became a second chance to Jim, who became a successful hero like one in the story book. In spite of Jim's brilliant achievement, Marlow could not get rid of the suspicion that the world outside the West could not be a place of destination for Jim. The intrusion of the imperial West as a person of Brown into Patusan made Jim to realize that he could not escape from the guilty past. The spoken language of Marlow is replaced by his written language in chapter 36. This narrative change indicates that the spoken language, upon which western metaphysics is based, has lost its power of public communication and that Jim's tragedy is not a personal failure but rather that of community, for which the practical remedy has not been found out yet and could not be expressed in a public language.

8

은유로서의 극 공간 — 마리아 아이린 포네즈의 초기극

정병언

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 4호 2013.12 pp.165-182

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This essay examines spatial division as a metaphor for class struggle and social inequality in Maria Irene Fornes's early plays—Tango Palace, Promenade, and Dr. Kheal. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's theory of symbolic violence, it analyzes how theatrical space is the product of social forces, observing that class difference influences the spatial arrangement on their stages. This gentle violence legitimizes domination by conveying the ideas of the ruling class, thus forcing the lower classes to remain trapped in their differentiated space. By spatializing the mechanism of this violence as an effective means of oppression, Fornes allows the audience to recognize the ways in which the lower classes have been illegitimately placed within the physical and imaginative frame of the ruling class. Instead of providing answers to these class discriminations, Fornes's early plays pave the way for metaphorically challenging the audience to act out against ruling class domination.

9

남성적 시적 전통의 극복 — 실비아 플라스의 시에 나타난 파편화된 신체

홍옥숙

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 4호 2013.12 pp.183-203

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

Sylvia Plath has been regarded as a woman poet who attempted to overcome the male- dominant literary tradition and to find her own poetic voice in the 1950's and early 1960's when feminism did not emerge yet. In order to identify the nature of the male-centered poetic tradition, this article pays attention to the Petrarchan love convention, in which the male poet idealizes his mistress and weakens her power at the same time. Plath, well-versed in the literary convention of the past as an English major, appropriates the technique of blazon, which was a staple of male poets. This technique of blazon, which seemingly idealizes the poet's mistress, actually fragments her body and catalogues her body parts, thus showing off the male poet's power over her. Plath's father, who has exerted influence on her as a powerful male muse, is in turn emasculated through the same technique. However, her poems also abound with images of fragmented and incapacitated female body parts. This fragmented female body represents the marginalized voice of Plath among the male-dominant literary tradition. Therefore the image of fragmented body of both men and women can be interpreted as the process in which a marginalized woman-poet symbolically overcomes her passive role through dissecting and breaking up the most potent male, that is her father.

10

<제거>의 이중 목적어 구조

박한기

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 4호 2013.12 pp.205-225

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This paper has collected, analyzed and classified double object constructions headed by verbs. Verbs of such as forgive, pardon, excuse and condone take two objects to form the double object construction {A v<α> H X}, where X is taken away from H. Thus {A forgive H X} means “A takes away the punishment for X from H.” Verbs of such as ask, charge, fine and envy construct the double object construction {A v<α> H X}, where A wants X from H. Thus {A charge H X} means “A asks to take X away from H who owes X to A.” Verbs of such as take and steal extend their meaning synecdochically to construct the double object construction {A v> H X}, where X is taken away from H. Thus {A steal H X} means “A takes X away from H by stealing X.” Verbs of such as kill, slay, lose and cost also extend their meaning to construct the double object construction {A v> H X}, where X is taken away from H. Thus {A lose H X} means “A takes X away from H by destroying X, which was useful to H.”

11

Heart+슬픔과 그 복합성

조영순

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 4호 2013.12 pp.227-247

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The purpose of this study is twofold: One is to present and characterize the English metaphors and metonymies of heart+sadness starting from the metonymy of heart-sickness and the metaphor of sadness in Kövecses (2000); The other is to show their various complexes based on Ruiz de Mendoza & Galera-Masegosa (2011). Heart+sadness metonymies are connected in terms of cause and effect. Most source domains of the sadness metaphor are found in heart+sadness except for coldness, darkness and insanity. Some heart+sadness, whose source domains are the opponent, the social superior, the fluid, the living organism, the captive animal, and natural force, are conceptually stable in that the conceptualization of [HEART] is definite and its relation with sadness is clear; Some others, whose source domains are physical force, sickness, and lack of life, are rather flexible in that the conceptualization of [HEART] is not definite, or its relation with sadness is not clear. Complexes of heart+sadness expressions are diverse with chained metonymy, metonymy within metaphor, chained metaphor, and metaphor amalgam.

12

대학생을 위한 관리형 집중 영어 프로그램의 만족도와 효과

강정혜, 오성록

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 4호 2013.12 pp.249-266

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This study is aimed at evaluating the Caring Intensive English Program for University students. This program was designed in 2012 to help university students achieve a high level of proficiency in a target language, specifically TOEIC scores. While staying in a dormitory, sixty students participated in the program for three weeks. The participants' English competence was measured by TOEIC both prior to and at the end of the program. Questionnaires were administered to sixty students to identify their satisfaction with the program. The result of the study indicated that the students were highly satisfied with the program. Furthermore, the average of students’ TOEIC score was greatly increased. The students were strongly motivated and had positive attitudes towards learning English thanks, in most part, to the program management.

13

초등학생 영어 성취도에 영향을 미치는 요인분석연구

김지영

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 4호 2013.12 pp.267-291

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the achievement level of young learners of English as a foreign language and factors, such as language learning intelligence, learning styles, learning strategies, and the starting age of learning English. The sample group for this study consisted of 684 EFL learners from four elementary schools located in Seoul and Kyung-ki Province. A background questionnaire, a language learning intelligence questionnaire, a learning style questionnaire, and a strategies inventory of language learning (SILL) were used to collect data. The collected data were used to provide a descriptive and correlational analysis to address the research questions. The results showed that the achievement levels of young learners are significantly correlated with learning strategies and intelligence. The students’ level of achievement had low correlation with the starting age of learning English. There was no correlation between the achievement level and learning styles. In addition, confirmatory factor analysis was run to perform a factor analysis of the data. The results revealed that there ware mediator effects of learning strategies in the relationship between the intelligences of language learning and students’ level of proficiency. This result showed that teaching learning strategies would be more important for students than learning English at an early age.

14

Abject Body and Ethics of Resistance in Salman Rushdie’s Shame, Rohinton Mistry’s Such a Long Journey

Sukjoo Sohn

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 4호 2013.12 pp.293-318

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This paper explores the ways in which subaltern characters in Salman Rushdie’s Shame and Rohinton Mistry’s Such a Long Journey respond to and counteract hegemonic control over their body to achieve human recognition and become subjects of their own experience. I contextualize the ideas and theories of Michel Foucault, Judith Butler, Gayatri Spivak, and Homi Bhabha in the postcolonial setting to discuss how the characters who are perceived to be abnormal, unfit, ‘perverts,’ or insane are never completely eliminated, ostracized, or silenced. Rather, they employ various strategies so that they can redefine what Butler calls bodies that matter as well as ways of living, instead of being expelled or banished to an abject zone. This comparative study also discusses the ethics of transgressors and authority figures, given that the politics of resistance operate in a relational manner. It demonstrates how the selective and careful use of norms or ethics is instrumental in transforming subaltern others into subjects with a voice.

15

Palimpsest Skin in John Edgar Wideman’s Sent for You Yesterday

Hyang-mi Lee

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 4호 2013.12 pp.319-338

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This paper illustrates the importance of John Edgar Wideman’s novel Sent for You Yesterday as a turning point in his career, in that it is in this novel that Wideman integrates Eurocentric traditions with his own personal experience and history as an African American. While this novel deals with his lifelong subjects, such as racial conflicts, tensions between individual and community, the ultimate affirmation of absorption to community, Wideman underscores particularly the persistence and significance of the past in the present. According to him, “to live our lives to the fullest,” we depend on the presence of past lives. To explore these issues, Wideman foregrounds an albino African American character in the novel. Through an albino African American’s white skin layered on a black body, the writer effectively interrogates culturally and historically charged meanings of skin color. Furthermore, the albino character functions as a liminal character who can serve to record and preserve the history of his community Homewood. His doubly-layered skin emblematizes the traces of the past persisting to the present and becomes a living parchment. Through this eminent character, Wideman shows that the unburied past can “open doors towards the future.”

16

Fostering Bilingualism in Korea

Seung-Man Kang

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 4호 2013.12 pp.339-353

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This paper suggests that there exist three types of bilingualism in Korea: Korean Plus, Plus Korean, and Korean Equal. The Korean Equal bilingual group are the children of immigrants into Korea. They are born in Korea and exposed to two languages from birth: Korean (L1) and their immigrant parent's native language (L2). I suggest that they are bilingual per se, who can have a native-like control of the two languages. Unfortunately, however, their L2 proficiency level is rather low. This is due to the fact that they have no ample opportunities to function in L2. Accordingly, this paper argues that their bilingual ability be fostered by letting their immigrant parents provide more L2 input to them. This can be done and will be more effective if their parents feel proud of their native language and culture. Most importantly, there should be followed appropriate language policies that foster Korean Equal bilingualism.

17

English Subject-Auxiliary Inversion and Split Projection

Se-Young Park

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 4호 2013.12 pp.355-370

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This paper studies the SAI(Subject Auxiliary Inversion) in English syntax through the analysis of split projections. The SAI is obligatory in the matrix clause of non-subject WH-question, but it doesn't take place in the subject WH-question. Futhermore, the SAI can be found in neither of the indirect WH-questions and the indirect Y/N questions. However, the SAI is found in both the matrix and the embedded clauses of negative inversion sentences. To solve these tricky problems, I introduce Park(1996)'s OSHA based upon split projection. This new approach will become an alternative on the analysis of English subject-auxiliary inversion. If we assume Park(1996)'s OSHA as the available theory, we can have more explanatory power to analyze the SAI constructions consistently.

18

Argument Linking in Synthetic Compounds

Keun Young Shin

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 4호 2013.12 pp.371-388

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

It is a well-known fact that a non-head N is interpreted as an argument of the head V in a synthetic compound such as truck driver or cake eating. This paper proposes that the nominalizing suffix can also satisfy an argument of the head. A close examination of Korean synthetic compounds with the structure [N+V+i] reveals that the argument structure of the head plays an important role in determining the interpretations of both the non-head N and the nominalizing suffix -i. In other words, -i is not only a category-changing suffix but also fulfills a semantic argument of the head when a synthetic compound is interpreted as a concrete nominal expressing an entity. Furthermore, it is argued that the synthetic compounding process is regulated by the Theta Criterion and the Projection Principle relevant to syntax. The proposed analysis can account for why an entity reading is not available with a synthetic compound headed by an intransitive verb and how the non-head N affects the interpretation of the suffix in a synthetic compound headed by a transitive or ditransitive verb. It is suggested that a generalization can be drawn about the range of interpretations found inside synthetic compounds. This paper also discusses difficulties in using tensification and the morphological independence of [V+affix] as diagnostics to identify the internal structure of the synthetic compound [N+V+i].

19

Some Notes on Predicative Copular Constructions in Predicate Contrastive Topic

Jung-Min Jo

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 4호 2013.12 pp.389-405

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This paper re-examines Jo (2013)'s phrasal movement approach to predicate contrastive topic constructions in Korean and applies his analysis to predicative copular constructions with regard to forming predicate contrastive topic. Jo (2013) proposed a unified analysis of two kinds of predicate contrastive topic constructions, so-called Ha- and R-constructions, and claimed that the two constructions arise as a result of morphophonological variation at the PF/Morphological component via selective PF-deletion process in the lower copy of the moved constituent. By extending his analysis to predicative copular constructions, this paper strongly confirms the validity of his analysis and claim. The analysis of the affix ‘-ki' as a rescue affix along with the dummy verb ‘-ha' is further supported by its morphological distribution in predicative copular constructions. Also the phrasal movement approach to predicative copular constructions makes it viable to assume that the copula is a syntactic head selecting a Small Clause.

20

The Potentiality for Actuality Metonymy in English and Korean

Youngju Choi

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 4호 2013.12 pp.407-429

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Based on the observation Panther and Thornburg (1997) make regarding the exploitation of the POTENTIALITY FOR ACTUALITY metonymy in English and Hungarian, the paper has observed the same metonymy in predicational and illuocutionary domains focusing on Korean data. The result demonstrates that Korean exploits the metonymy systematically in various domains including sense perception, mental process, speech act, action, character disposition, and acquired skills. The prevalence of the metonymy in Korean, which is typologically and genetically unrelated from English and Hungarian, lends support to the idea of universality of the POTENTIALITY FOR ACTUALITY metonymy.

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Apology Strategies for Junior College Learners of English : Perceptions and Syntactic Patterns

Jaehwang Shim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 4호 2013.12 pp.431-455

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This study investigates the understanding or degree of apology strategies for junior college learners of English in different situations. 132 junior college students who studied English Conversation course responded to the apology questionnaires of ten items. First, the self-assessment questionnaire (SAQ) which was modified from the previous study displayed students’ perception of apology responses. The SAQ test showed the dependent variables in six items: closeness, social distance, seriousness, need of apology, likeness accepting apology, gaining or losing face. The items 1 and 2 indicate that the participants feel strong closeness between the interlocutors, and their social distances are close regardless of different apology situations. In items 3 to 6, all apology situations are somewhat serious regardless of strong or weak degree of apology. The possibility is relatively high in likeness of accepting apology for a speaker, and the interlocutors feel gaining or losing face after exchanging of telling mistakes in all apology situations. Second, In the DCT items, there are five types of syntactic pattern that are mostly dominated for the use of apology in five situations: “S+V+C,” “intensifiers,” “infinitive,” “for phrase,” “that clause.”

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Korean Adult Learners’ Perception and Attitude toward English as a World Language

Kyong Hwan Ahn, Isabel Lee

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 4호 2013.12 pp.457-476

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The purpose of this study is to examine Korean adult learners' understanding about English as a world language and their attitudes towards English variation. As the world has become globalized, English is being used in many parts of the world as a tool of communication. In this context, the present study is aimed at investigating how Korean adults learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) understand English as a world language. The data for this study were collected from 176 Korean EFL adults learners in Gwangju and analyzed by SPSS Window 14.0 Version. A survey questionnaire was used to examine the perception and attitudes of adults learners. This findings suggest that English instructors should introduce the World English perspectives and help their students to be exposed to the varieties of English in their classes in order to raise students' awareness of these varieties and to enhance their self-confidence.

23

Students’ Perceptions of Effective English Teachers : A Study of Intermediate-low Level University Students in Korea

Sun Young Chun, Ju-young Chun

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 4호 2013.12 pp.477-497

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The purpose of this paper is to investigate Korean intermediate-low level university students’ perceptions of the attributes of effective Korean English teachers. Data were collected through a 43-item Likert-scale questionnaire covering five categories: personal characteristics, rapport, delivery, knowledge and credibility, and preparation and organization. The findings of the study provided a close look at what attributes intermediate-low level Korean university students consider to be important in order to be an effective English teacher. The participants placed high importance on how English teachers delivered instruction in class. Teachers’ strong professional knowledge and skills particularly about grammar and vocabulary were, also considered important. Finally, those who showed interest in fostering relationships with their students and those with positive attitudes, friendliness, and patience were also regarded as effective English teachers. Based on the findings, implications for teachers are provided.

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Korean EFL Learners’ Curious Usage of Double Salutations in English Letter Writing

Jocelyn Wright

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 4호 2013.12 pp.499-520

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English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students at a Korean university have been observed to overuse salutations in personal letters. This is interesting in light of the English as an International Language (EIL) paradigm. As previous research on the specific topic of Korean writers' use of salutations was not found, this study comprising ten focused, metapragmatic interviews about student production, therefore, attempts an initial exploration of the issue. The curious usage of double salutations is considered in light of Thomas’ (1983) distinction between pragmalinguistic and sociopragmatic failure and the degree of language control attributed to the learner. Although transfer appears to be the main cause of pragmatic failure, incomplete understanding of salutation meaning and function (resulting in an inappropriate assignment of pragmatic force), as well as a declared preoccupation with relational considerations aimed at achieving comity (resulting in sociopragmatically inappropriate moves), also come into play. Limited by the number of participants available, this study only purports to make a modest contribution. However, the pedagogical implications that students may need to acquire a deeper awareness of salutation use in both their native and the target languages and also reassurance of the relational effectiveness of new conventions in order to take ownership of the speech act is noteworthy.

25

The Influence of Word-focused Activities on L2 Learners’ Vocabulary Retention

Young Ah Cho

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 4호 2013.12 pp.521-538

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This study aimed to explore the effects of tasks with an identical amount of involvement under the same level of involvement index on L2 college students’ vocabulary learning phase. The results revealed that a summary writing task was significantly more effective than a filling-in-blanks task on the immediate word retention. On the other hand, difference between the two tasks was not observed in the long-term perspective. As for the four levels of word knowledge types, in contrast to the lasting effects of a filling-in-blanks task on long- as well as short-term word retention, active and passive word knowledge was not held steady over time except for active recall word knowledge gains in the summary writing task. Based on the findings, pedagogical implications and suggestions were made.

 
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