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영어영문학21 [English21]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
    학술지
  • 발행기관
    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
  • ISSN
    1738-4052
  • 간기
    계간
  • 수록기간
    1967~2018
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제29권 3호 (17건)
No
1

헤밍웨이의 ‘세 단편’에서 모호한 서사와 그 문화적 함의

강용기

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 3호 2016.09 pp.5-23

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

“Up in Michigan,” “My Old Man” and “Out of Season” are three short stories included in Three Stories and Ten Poems that Ernest Hemingway originally published in 1923. Even if the three stories have been neglected by Hemingway critics, as Susan Beegel notices, each of the stories strengthens its thematic complexity by employing ambiguous narrative. Its narrative ambiguity respectively contests the value of romantic or platonic love in “Up in Michigan,” justice in “My Old Man,” and universal truth in “Out of Season.” Creating unreliable character-narrators, juxtaposing two opposing-characters, or allowing the narrator’s agnoticism, the author seemingly invites the reader’s non-fundamentalist view of love, justice and truth. However, his narrative never quits the modernist nostalgia for those universal values that the west believes transcends cultural particularity. Viewed in the perspective of the Foucauldian truth-power relation, the author does not accept his logical/cultural fallacy enough because he is never aware of subjectivity involving the birth of truth or value when reexamining those universal values in his three stories. He also remains a high modernist writer even in these early stories.

2

『미국인』의 주인공 뉴먼의 의식변화

곽승엽

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 3호 2016.09 pp.25-45

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The international motif is Henry James’s main interest. He usually tries to deal with the problems of Americans living in Europe. The purpose of this study is to discuss why the leading character Newman takes all things too easy. To this end, the relationships between Newman and the Europeanized Americans and the Bellegardes must be examined. Through studying those relationships in Europe, we can infer that Newman’s optimistic resignation originates from his free will and commercialism and success in business. Even if Newman lacks the serious attitude of living and intensive assessment of any situation when he lives in Europe at first, he gradually tries to make an effort to change his existing consciousness to understand the European culture and customs to live in the society peacefully and harmoniously. Newman can finally cure the scars on his mind and body by himself through his generosity and changed and matured consciousness. Thus, it is suggested that making a compromise and concession instead of retaliation is an important point for living in the multi-cultural and international society without conflict.

3

쇼펜하우어 성의지의 슬픈 사연들에 대하여

김은진, 이건근

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 3호 2016.09 pp.47-67

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A pessimistic philosopher, Schopenhauer is known to have opposed the optimistic ideas emphasized by the German idealists of the 19th century such as Fichte, Shelling, and Hegel. His approach was different from the tradition of the metaphysics of reason that had been more prevalent since Kant’s The Critique of Pure Reason because he suggested that the will-to-live should be substituted for reason, corresponding to Kant’s thing-in-itself or Plato’s form. Especially sexual will, to his eyes, reveals the innermost essence of everything in nature as one of the most strengthened instincts, whose causal nature is not etiologically explicable, creating not a little hostility among intellectuals. Given this, we draw a distinction between reason and sexual will by referring to Schopenhauer’s philosophical theory and illuminate what aspects sexual will shows to reason by observing Robinson Jeffers’s “Roan Stallion” and John Steinbeck’s four short stories “The Snake,” “The Chrysanthemums,” “The White Quail,” and “The Harness.” This analysis shows how, in “Roan Stallion,” the heroine California experiences an initiation process where she finds her real sexual will by an act of bestiality. Meanwhile, “The Snake” and “The Chrysanthemums” depict situations where sexual will bursts forth in the space controlled by reason in the name of cold practicality and science. Also, “The White Quail” and “The Harness” show the appearance that sexual will repressed by the power of reason gives the characters suffering and agony. Lastly, Schopenhauer’s theory of sexual will is found to account for irrational human acts behind reason and to emphasize a sort of asceticism by acknowledging and looking to its destructive power.

4

윌리엄 카를로스 윌리엄즈 — 문화전선과 현대시

김홍기

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 3호 2016.09 pp.69-92

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In the 1930s the United States was beginning to slide into the worst depression in its history. During the period, many U.S. citizens had lost faith in their business leaders and politicians. Some had begun to question the American economic system and even democracy itself. The Depression compelled artists and intellectuals to choose sides in political battles between Capitalists and Communists and clarify the politics in relation to their own work. Williams avoided making political commitments to the Communist Party, though he fully understood the ill consequences of the capitalist system. His Depression poetry and prose demonstrate drastic changes in his career as a poet including his increased recognition of class conflict and his professed devotion to a realistic portrayal of the lower-class people marginalized in the American society. He renounced the bourgeois and high modernist rhetoric that dominated so much of the literary scene of the day. His most poignant writing of the period turned to those people and things less discussed in American literature. Poor old people, garbage, junk yards, immigrants, African-Americans, Latinos, and proletarian women—all of these become in Williams's poetry metonymical expressions for “the low”, an actual America that had been underrepresented in previous poetries.

5

가상현실에서 실재를 재현하기 — 리차드 파워스의 『어둠을 헤치며』

송태정

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 3호 2016.09 pp.93-113

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This article examines how the real is represented in Richard Powers' novel Plowing the Dark (2000). I focus on Richard Powers' discursive writing to employ such interdisciplinary fields as: informatics, cybernetics, linguistics, and art with the development of artificial intelligence. I also explain the self-reflexive and anti-representational aesthetic in the virtual reality where a significant paradigm shift takes place in the cognitive science. Plowing the Dark consists of two narrative stories which exist at exact opposites. One of them is a story about a kidnaped American teacher Taimur Martin, turned a Lebanese prisoner of war who spends five years imprisoned in a single room. The other narrative is a story about the “Cavern,” a high tech virtual reality simulator which is being built by a research team including the main character, Adie Klarpol in the Realization Laboratory of a conglomerate known as TeraSys. Plowing the Dark suggests the methods by which virtual reality challenges traditional ideas of reality and virtuality, as in Taylor’s remark: “The dream inspiring the virtual reality technology is to render the virtual real and the real virtual by erasing the interface separating mind and matter.” In this view, Powers describes how the real is representative in the computational universe in Plowing the Dark. Nevertheless, this novel raises a question whether reality can exemplify the several kinds of rooms such as a painting, a jungle, or a cathedral by employing poetic, linguistic and nonlinguistic metaphors, and computer languages. That is why the real is reproduced; thus, it is a hyperreal, a simulation.

6

헨리 제임스의 『보스턴 사람들』에 나타난 대중문화의 등장과 그 성격

이명하

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 3호 2016.09 pp.115-134

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The Bostonians is a serious work of social criticism by Henry James portraying the American social landscape of the late nineteenth century with realistic touches. On the surface, The Bostonians deals very satirically with the feminist movement in Boston in the 1870s. However, the movement is not used as a main theme but instead as a background to suggest a larger commentary on America. The point of this novel does not lie simply in James's hostility to the movement itself. Rather, he invites readers to critically observe how American mass culture is peculiarly feminized and vulgarized as a result of the sudden and unprecedented changes and reforms during this period. The changing social scene is presented as a cultural clash through the consciousness of a conservative Southerner named Basil Ransom, whose political perspective is as equally one-sided and self-centered as that of the radical feminists. In this sense, this paper aims to take a closer look at how the feminist movement develops increasingly into a cultural phenomenon, which results in the feminization and vulgarization of American mass culture as a whole.

7

자메이카 킨케이드의 『어느 작은 섬』에 나타난 (탈)식민담론 읽기

이성진

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 3호 2016.09 pp.135-154

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Jamaica Kincaid's A Small Place has very unique style and form. The text is a combination of prose and poetry. Its style has a lot of irony, metaphors, and symbolism based on post-colonial history and neocolonial conditions. Its form is classified as autobiography, travel literature, fiction, and essay. In A Small Place, Kincaid expresses discontent and anger against the white tourist, symbolized as a neocolonialist. However, in fact, she interrogates the past colonial history and the present neocolonial conditions. Despite using simple and easy words, A Small Place can be difficult to analyze. The text has multi-layered meanings-based on irony, metaphor, and symbolism, which are combined with post-colonial discourse or neocolonial conditions in Antigua's history and present life. Therefore, we should read for both superficial and internal meaning to better understand the text. In this essay I will investigate Caribbean post-colonial conditions, focusing on the library in Antigua. The library is a very important symbol for post-colonial conditions-because it has multi-layered meanings and connections with post-colonial rulers such as the Condrington family, Barclay brothers, Mill Reef Club people, a Czechoslovakian doctor, a Northern Irish headmistress, and Syrian merchants. Through this investigation, I will show a post-colonial vision as a conclusion. That is an easy and ideal human relationship that breaks the power structure. Through masters not demanding obedience from slaves, and slaves refusing to obey their masters, they can be “just human beings.”

8

이질의 문화에서 뿌리 내리기 — 『천국으로부터 한 걸음』과 『미국출생 중국인』

이수진

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 3호 2016.09 pp.155-175

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This study focuses on the lives of immigrants, especially the lives of children and young adults who are members of diaspora. A family’s decision to leave its native country is usually made by adults, so children and young adults are forced to accept the decision without an active role in making it. Cultural differences, difficulties with communication, sometimes discomfort at home and in their social life can lead to negative effects and shock for children and young adults. Youngju, the main character in An Na’s A Step from Heaven and, Jin, the main character in Gene Luen Yang’s American Born Chinese, show the discomfort and the harsh lives of immigrants, and the tough lives of children and young adults in American society. Domestic violence, isolation, and difficulties accepting a different culture make them feel terrible, but ironically help them grow up. Through painful experiences, they come to realize their true identity and also gain knowledge of how to live and survive in unfamiliar surroundings.

9

고통과 상처의 치유자로서 토니 모리슨의 아프리카 사제들 — 기독교적 규범과 관습을 넘어

이영철

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 3호 2016.09 pp.177-198

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This study aims to discuss Toni Morrison’s characters Soaphead Church, Baby Suggs, and Consolata Sosa from the perspective of being African priests as healers. Morrison introduces us to the shortcomings of the Western model of God, namely the problem of how a supposedly omnipotent and loving God can allow the existence of evil and suffering. She then introduces us to African priests whose religious backgrounds are rooted in the traditional African religions, Voodoo and Candomblé which are inextricably linked to African religiosity. Her priests, who are subversive to the Christian taboos, are healers, diviners, spiritual communicators, and herbalists who regard evil as the fourth face of God and cross the boundary between the physical world and the spiritual world. In The Bluest Eye, Morrison features Soaphead Church as a priest-healer who eases Pecola Breedlove of pain by driving her to the border between reality and a reality-induced fantasy. In Beloved, she features Baby Suggs as a priest-healer who encourages African Americans to value their own racial selves and eases them of their suffering from slavery. In Paradise, she features Consolata as a priest and spiritual healer who leads racial-sexual-patriarchal victims to heal their pains of the past and create a new momentum for the future.

10

안젤라 카터의 「피로 물든 방」과 『사드적 여성』에 재현된 여성 섹슈얼리티의 탈신화화

이현주

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 3호 2016.09 pp.199-220

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Angela Carter deconstructs the boundaries between high and low culture, makes anything authorized, righteous and divine, agitated and unstable through citation, allusion, and de/remythologization of past literary texts. Therefore, Carter regards the literary texts as a kind of literary criticism and bricolage. Carter uses various canons, folk tales, myths, and pop cultures to expose how feminine mythologies such as motherhood, female sexuality and morality works in phallocentric cultures. Carter’s “The Bloody Chamber,” one of her revised fairy tales might be read as a rebuttal against Marquis de Sade. This literary text reconstructs fairy tales, transforming the original tale’s passive and helpless female character into an active and autonomous sexual subject. Carter takes Charles Perrault’s “Bluebeard,” which appeared in the late seventeenth century, and renames and rewrites as “The Bloody Chamber.” Also, Carter tries to trace Sade’s perspective—about the culturally determined nature of women and the relations between men and women in an authoritative and patriarchal society—in her non-fiction book The Sadeian Woman. What Carter admires in Sade’s text is his unlimited disclosure of sexual power dynamics and all the mythic versions of women. Carter points out Justine as the “holy virgin” and Juliette as the “profane whore” in The Sadeian Woman. Defying objectification, Carter calls the latter a “blasphemous guerilla of demystification,” who becomes a new autonomous sexual subject. Therefore, this paper aims to demythologize feminine sexuality through rereading feminine mythologies, fairy tales, and pornography in Angela Carter’s “The Bloody Chamber” and The Sadeian Woman.

11

주요소와 수식요소를 이용한 독해력 향상에 관한 연구

박현석

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 3호 2016.09 pp.221-241

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The purpose of this paper is to consider a satisfactory method to improve reading ability by using Main Element & Modifier. Chomsky (1957, 1965) tried to analyze English sentence as not as set of words but phrase categories, that is, NP, VP, and so on. First, I have suggested several revised ph-rules including Main Element & Modifier on Chomsky's theory as follows: (1) a. S→ N P+ VP b. NP→(Det) (Adj) N {(ADJP) (PP) (S')} c. VP→(Adv) V ({NP/S}) (AdvP) (PP) d. AUX→ AGR + Tense + (Mod) + (Perf) + (Prog) Second, I have made ‘5 sentential forms of sentence' in school English grammar using ps-rules in (2). (2) a. Form 1: S→ NP + AUX+V (=9a) b. Form 2: S→ NP + AUX+Be + ({NP, Adj}) (=9b) c. Form 3: S→ NP + AUX+V + NP (=9c) d. Form 4: S→ NP + AUX+V + NP + NP (=9d) e. Form 5: S→ NP + AUX+V + NP + ({NP, Adj}) (=9e) Third, I have found one method to improve reading ability, that is, ① confirm Main verb of the sentence. ② distinguish Main Element from Modifier of the sentence. ③ translate the sentence after confirming the ‘5 sentential forms of sentence'. Students were taught with this method and it has helped them to increase their reading ability considerably.

12

초등영어 학습자를 위한 학습유형 검사지 개발

김재혁

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 3호 2016.09 pp.243-272

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

Different learning styles of children are known to play an important role in elementary English classrooms, yet little research has been conducted into developing survey questionnaires on the learning styles of EFL children. The purpose of this study was to develop a survey questionnaire on the learning styles of elementary EFL children. To achieve this outcome, the survey questionnaire was developed through the process of three stages. First, several existing survey questionnaires on learning styles were examined and preliminary survey questions were selected. Second, using the content validity test in which twenty EFL teachers were asked to assess whether the survey questions made sense to them, 63 questions were selected to write a new survey questionnaire. Third, the pilot survey questionnaire was administered to 413 elementary students, and using reliability analysis and factor analysis, a total of 36 items covering 8 categories of learning styles were designed to develop a final survey questionnaire on learning styles. Analysis of the data collected from the survey revealed that the questions in existing surveys touch on both the learning characteristics and the general characteristics of children, with some learning styles being integrated into the same category. It was also found that Korean EFL children are generally seen to show cooperative-competitive and audio-visual styles more clearly than other styles, perhaps in the elementary English classrooms in which much emphasis is placed on games, songs and group activities.

13

형태중심과 형태초점의 어휘 지도 방법이 우연적인 문법 습득에 미치는 영향

김혜영, 구재명

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 3호 2016.09 pp.273-296

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This study, as a conceptual replication of Shintani (2015), examined the effectiveness of teaching vocabulary through focus on forms and focus on form instruction on the incidental acquisition of two grammatical features by primary school EFL learners. Two third-grade classes with a total of 43 students were randomly selected and assigned to two treatment conditions: either focus on forms condition or focus on form condition. Each group received four 40-minute lessons designed to teach 24 lexical items and expose the learners to the two target grammatical features: the plural morpheme ~s and the definite article the. Results showed a statistically significant within-subjects improvement in terms of the English plural ~s for both treatment conditions, whereas focus on form instruction was found to be slightly more effective, albeit statistically nonsignificant, than focus on forms instruction in the acquisition of the definite article the. Potential mediating factors leading to differential effects are discussed in addition to relevant experimental issues and directions for future research.

14

인터넷 활용 학습이 대학생들의 영어 어휘 습득에 미치는 영향 — 어휘 연습 프로그램을 중심으로

김혜정

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 3호 2016.09 pp.297-313

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As more and more instructors acknowledge the pedagogical value of online learning activities, that concept has evolved into richer forms of learning that encompass various different environments and learning styles. In keeping with current educational trends, this study uses a vocabulary practice program, Quizlet, to examine the effect of online learning on the acquisition of vocabulary in a reading classroom. To consider the efficacy of using this program on the acquisition of vocabulary, experimental and control groups are set: the former making use of Quizlet and the latter following a traditional reading classroom procedure. Assessment is performed using two achievement tests and an open-ended questionnaire. Results show that online learning has a more positive effect on the acquisition of vocabulary than the conventional classroom approach based on student presentations and instructor lectures. The results of the open-ended questionnaire show that factors such as interest, motivation, and autonomy are effective in increasing students’ responsibility for their own learning.

15

EFL 대학생 학습자들의 영어능력과 탈동기요인들의 관계 — 경로분석

이재근, 김현정, 배은실

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 3호 2016.09 pp.315-340

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This study explored demotivating factors and their causal relationships in relation to Korean EFL learners. With 208 college students participating in the research, this study performed Exploratory Factor Analysis(EFA) to extract demotivating factors. Moreover, this study is to look into the causal relationships among the different factors. According to the results, first, the demotivating factors were defined by five different factors: learners, instructors, learning environment, negative attitude toward the L2 and L2 culture, and parents. Second, the results of the path analysis showed a path of causal relationship amongst the five factors. The parents factor showed the critical value (.49), influencing negative attitude toward L2 learning. Statistically significant influences are defined by the following factors: from instructors to negative attitude toward L2 (.27), from environment to learner factor (.43), from negative attitude toward L2 learning to learner (.38), from the learner to English language proficiency (.57), and from negative attitude toward English language proficiency (-.39). Specifically, this study found that parents factor is one of the crucially demotivating factors affecting EFL learners. Parents could make effective learning experiences for the targeted learners if they put their efforts into L2 learning not as a learning supervisor but as a learning facilitator. Pedagogical implications are presented in detail.

16

Analysis of Learner Autonomy from the English Language Teachers’ Perspective

Hee-Jung Jung

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 3호 2016.09 pp.341-359

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This study investigated teachers’ understanding about learner autonomy and their practices in English classrooms. The participants for this study consisted of 85 English teachers in two local Korean cities who were teaching English in middle and high schools. The data for this study were collected for 7weeks during the fall semester of 2015. Two strategies for data collection were used: a questionnaire and interview. According to the data, teachers’ definitions of learner autonomy reflected those prevalent in the literature, with recurring support for concepts such as independence, control, responsibility, and choice. Their descriptions of how they did highlighted their role as facilitators and counselors. Also, the teachers indicated that learners did not understand the importance of developing autonomy, lacked the skills to learn independently, and were not accustomed to being asked to take responsibility for their learning. Finally, some implications based on the study results are discussed.

17

A Study of Teacher Perspectives on Picture Book Reading in Korean Elementary English Classrooms

Jae-Young Choi

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 3호 2016.09 pp.361-386

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This study explores Korean elementary school teachers’ perspectives on implementing English picture book reading in their classrooms under the current state of elementary English education. Eleven teachers with English teaching experience were interviewed, and recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed for underlying themes. The results suggested two themes: incompatibility and insufficiency. The teachers view picture book reading as not compatible with their current English classes for the differences in needed classwork, for disparity in the English learners’ competence, and for problems inherent in English education in Korea. Also, the teachers regard the present state of elementary English as insufficient for contemplating picture book reading. As factors, the teachers’ lack of knowledge, training, and experience concerning picture book reading and the education system’s and school administrations’ lack of awareness are identified. The incompatibility and insufficiency appear to cause teachers with more knowledge and training on the subject to dismiss the idea of employing picture books in the classroom. Based on the result, the study suggests changes of perspective in the curriculum and the administration regarding children’s literature and its reading in the elementary English classroom.

 
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