영어영문학21 [English21]

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  • 자료유형
  • 발행기관
    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
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  • 간기
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  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
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    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제26권 3호 (16건)

『가엾게도 그녀가 창녀라니』에 나타난 탈도덕적 실험


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 3호 2013.09 pp.5-32

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The ambiguous and ironical duality embodied in John Ford’s 'Tis Pity She’s a Whore emerges from the different view points toward the religious taboo of incest. From the point of Christian moral view, Jiovanni and Annabella are the cursed sibling filled with lust who leads social order to confusion and other people to misfortune. But from the critical view point against the contradictions of religious doctrine, they are the victims of oppressive and corrupted society. It is remarkable that the tragic structure of the play is different from those of other traditional tragedies. Although Jiovanni and Annabella are the main characters, they play the main roles only in the beginning and end of the play. From Act II to Act IV, the main parts of the play are covered with other characters’ hypocrisy, foolery, covetousness, and wickedness. Their evil deeds are compared with Jiovanni and Annabella ’s incest. Their corruption shows an ironical effect that brings the sibling’s incest into true love. Therefore, Jiovanni and Annabella’s incest makes the existing moral order skeptical and makes the audience question of the true justice. In this way, the incest of Jiovanni and Annabella produces a complicated meaning of political standard contradicting moral order. It is shocking that Ford made Jiovanni and Annabella tragic protagonists, but it is certain that their distorted love becomes the dramatic means to figuratively express the confused and corrupted society. Larry S. Champion indicates that this play is not only a tragedy of individual but a tragedy of society. The society forcing the moral order that Jiovanni and Annabella are violating is the place filled with betrayal, covetousness, lust, and revenge. The subversive desire in this play is embodied in the fact that the love of Jiovanni and Annabella is portrayed not as a dirty lust and unforgivable sin but as a natural love from inevitable attraction. In conclusion, Ford developed a critical situation that makes any moral judgement difficult, and it results in the distrust and questioning of the traditional social moral standard itself.


포크너의 『곰』에 나타난 생태의식

박양근, 배영주

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 3호 2013.09 pp.33-51

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The purpose of this study is to examine the ecological consciousness in “The Bear”, one of the works by William Faulkner that shows his conspicuous interest in nature. Faulkner's ecological consciousness began to manifest the local environment of the Southern America where he lived. In the work, the author places a higher value than a mere geological setting on the Southern region, his hometown. Moreover, he is exploring the conditions of historical and social life in the Southern region as a specific place, where agriculture was the major industry. And the natural environment of the dense forest, one of the main features of the area, which arouses ecological consciousness, has an important meaning in his work. “The Bear” reveals Faulkner’s ecological vision in three phases. Firstly, Faulkner depicts Ike as a character who shows the deepest introspection about the relationship with the nature, and as an ecological character who tries to put into action a sense of responsibility for the land and others, which he realized as he lived in the nature. Secondly, considering that Ike, who realized his grandfather's guilt, gave up inheritance owing to his experiences of the woods and bear-hunting, Faulkner's ecological consciousness reveals itself more effectively in the relationship between Old Ben and the forest. Therefore, the relationship suggests that relations in Mother Nature are not antagonistic but circular. Lastly, the natural world forms a system with everything interconnected, not disconnected. Thus, for Faulkner the nature is not a closed system to which nobody has access but a fully open communication space. In conclusion, “The Bear” stresses that the nature and human beings harmonize with each other in circular relation, not in confrontational relation. Above all, it can be said that the author's true insight into the nature shown in the work is the base on which the author's ecological consciousness can be discovered.


포스트휴먼 진화—사이언스 픽션을 통해 본 인간과 인공 피조물과의 진화적 관계


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 3호 2013.09 pp.53-74

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aking advantage of selective science fiction texts, this essay attempts to establish a genealogical link of artificial creatures that have made human beings anxious about a future with them and show how the posthuman view of co-evolution with the creatures can be articulated in such a genealogical flow. The essay assumes that human beings desire for God’s capability of creating intelligent creatures and also worry about God’s punishment for the desire. Yet in the posthuman genealogy of artificial creatures, it is the artificial creatures, not the God, who punish the human desire for creation. This thought reflects human beings come to face a new stage of evolution, symbiotic evolution with artificial beings. The golem in Jewish legends and Frankenstein’s monster have contributed to spreading the idea that artificial creatures would be a competitor of humans in their evolution. Science fictions since the two creatures have striven to configure the direction of human evolution in terms of the competition, which would get more serious as technoscience blurs the boundary between humans and non-humans: science fictions stage the question of “what it means to be human” by foregrounding humanized machines and machinized humans. Some texts anxiously depict artificial creatures’ win over humans in the evolutionary competition to warn humans against the thoughtless development of technoscience, and others suggest the co-evolution of the human and machine to affirm the impossibility of changing the evolutionary direction in our technoscience. The essay argues that the claims of superhuman witnessed in recent science fictions and cultural studies are the affirmation of the co- evolution of humans and artificial beings—or, technoscience in general. Indeed, it is the posthuman attitude toward evolution.


『헨리 5세』에 나타난 왕권의 탈신비화 양상


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 3호 2013.09 pp.75-100

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The terms ‘subversion' and ‘containment' are crucial key words in New Historicism, and they are very useful in understanding Shakespeare's histories. In his historical plays, Shakespeare dramatized the real historical events during medieval England, and illustrated the relationship between subversion and containment by showing how the ruling class maintained and enforced its power against subversion, and that the class failed to remain in power if it did not overthrow the opposing groups. In his historical plays, Shakespeare used political conflict, rebellion, and war, to demonstrate a variety of ways in which the King's reign of power is constantly colliding with opposing groups or sometimes challenged by them. Especially, Shakespeare's histories are very unique in that the subversive consist of the resistive ruled class, and the hostile people inside the ruling class, as well as the opposing groups plotting a rebellion, which all threaten the dominant ideology. Outwardly, in King Henry V, Henry V is depicted as a successful ruler who won the war against France. But he relentlessly conflicts with the opposing groups. Therefore, King Henry V reveals the contradictory aspects of the dominant ideology inherent in powerful sovereign power. In King Henry V, the ruling class does not merely suppress the oppressive, but also absorbs the forces of subversion to be integrated into the dominant ideology. In King Henry V, Henry V exercises his power to fight against the possibility of a number of subversions schemed by the opposing groups. He manages to strengthen the dominant power with a successful containment strategy. But in the process of strengthening the ideology, his Machiavellian tactics and his anti-heroic aspects come to demystify the sanctity of sovereign power. Eventually, the image of Henry V as an ideal monarch is reduced to just an illusionary one made to conform to the dominant ideology. In Shakespeare's histories, the dominant ideology comes to strengthen itself in the face of possibility of endless subversion by absorbing or suppressing all forms of subversive forces, and the existing order can be maintained through the succession of subversion and containment. On one hand, subversion enforces the existing power structure, acting as an inevitable element in the formation of power. On the other hand, since subversive ideologies themselves not only fight against the existing power, but also modify the prevailing order, they lay the foundation for materialistically analyzing power and ideology. In conclusion, the New Historicist and Cultural Materialist approaches have been criticized for concentrating on analyzing the power structure in study of Shakespeare's histories. But they have great academic significance in that they attempt to restore the surrounding culture which has been neglected so far.


오닐의 분열된 흑인 타자—인종의 파행적 변주


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 3호 2013.09 pp.101-123

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The Emperor Jones tells of an American negro, a Pullman porter, who, by some chance or other, comes to an island in the West Indies, not yet self-determined by white marines. In two years Jones has made himself emperor. When the play begins he has been emperor long enough to amass a fortune by imposing heavy taxes on the islanders and carrying on all sorts of large-scale graft. Rebellion is brewing. The palace is deserted, but from deep in the jungle there comes the sound of the steady beat of a big drum. The islanders are whipping up their courage to the fighting point by calling on the local gods and demons of the forest. Jones, realizing that his reign is over, starts to make his escape to the coast where a French gunboat is anchored. First it is necessary for him to travel through the jungle and as time presses he must go through at night. Emperor Jones either throws off, or loses the trappings of white civilization as he moves through eight scenes back to his African origins, making a personal journey of internal discovery, reliving in reverse his own life and the Black Experience. All God’s Chillun Got Wings is a play about the marriage of a black man to a white woman. The conflict in the play has profound meaning from social and tragic viewpoints. In a society where a man's value is decided not by his inner worth but by his outer appearance human understanding is made and distorted by the color of his skin. In this play by the marriage to Ella a white woman Jim the black hero wants to be compensated to some degree for the humiliation to which his society has subjected him as a member of the so-called “lower” race. He despises any sign of the slave mentality which rises from his racial origin. For him whiteness is the symbol of human dignity. Ella, on her part, is branded as black by the society because of her fallen sexual behaviors. For her the marriage is intended as an attempt to get out of the bondage of her personal past, as for Jim of his racial past. The play dramatizes the tragic failure of Jim to belong either to his white wife or to the white society. It emphasizes the devious ways in which this social prejudices and psychological complexes prevent the true union of black and white persons. The hero and heroine of the play are only pure victims whose tragic catastrophe results mainly from the difference of color and its social and personal oppression in spite of their characteristic flaws.


도덕성과 감상성의 경계—파커의 『멋쟁이의 책략』과 왕정복고기 희극의 모럴 코드


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 3호 2013.09 pp.125-144

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This essay explores moral consensus between morality and sentimentalism at the Restoration comedies and eighteenth-century ones analysing George Farquhar's The Beaux' Stratagem in relation to the social and political changes during the periods. These changes have to be explained in the context of the Bloodless Revolution influencing the emergence of Sentimental comedy for middle class. As a reference group of the late seventeenth-century English society, they tend to regard sentimentalism as moral standpoint. Contrary to the condemnation of the immorality in the Restoration plays, the ending of Farquhar's The Beaux' Stratagem shows morally different attitudes though the plot of the play is still immoral. It seems true that The Beaux' Stratagem is Farquhar's greatest work and typical work as well at the late Restoration period. As a representative dramatist during the period, Farquhar developed typical Restoration plays to more sentimental forms of comedy reflecting the moral consensus of his society both of early eighteenth-century and late seventeenth-century.


영어 have got의 운율적 분석과 분산형태론에 대한 시사점


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 3호 2013.09 pp.145-171

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This paper concerns the optional and obligatory occurrences of got along with a lexical or a (semi-) auxiliary have. It identifies the distribution of the dummy got precisely and shows that its occurrence is governed by semantic and prosodic conditions. Theses semantic and prosodic conditions are implemented in the framework of Distributed Morphology (Halle & Marantz 1993, 1994), a Minimalist Theory version of grammar. Finally, based on the generalizations and restrictions, a few implications and consequences of Distributed Morphology are discussed.


문화와 영어교육—인식조사와 교과서분석을 중심으로

민이선, 정희정

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 3호 2013.09 pp.173-189

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The purpose of this study is to understand the cultural perceptions of students and teachers and to investigate the cultural contexts in secondary English textbooks based on the guideline of the revised Seventh National Curriculum. Fifteen English textbooks for middles school students are analyzed, and two types of questionnaires are used for teachers and students. The result shows that teachers and students do not value the culture as we expected and have difficulties in integrating culture into their English teaching and learning. Furthermore, the findings support that various cultural contexts should be extended in the English textbooks. the limited topics (e.g., school and family) are included in the textbook, but other contents such as laws and historical events are insufficient.


L2 능동적ㆍ수동적 어휘습득요인에 관한 구조방정식 모형

백승현, 지문건

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 3호 2013.09 pp.191-218

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The purpose of the present study was to identify the potential components influencing second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition and their structural process to L2 vocabulary knowledge. For the current study, 129 4th–grade students in an EFL context were invited, and they were assessed in productive/receptive vocabulary tasks and responded to questionnaire survey on L2 vocabulary acquisition strategies. The vocabulary test consisted of synonyms, antonyms, and analogies adopted from Woodcock-Johnson Ⅲ Diagnostic Reading Battery (Woodcock, Mather, and Schrank 2004) and the questionnaire was composed of 24 items concerning L2 vocabulary learning strategies. According to factor analysis, four factors of L2 vocabulary acquisition were found: vocabulary learning strategy, extra-curricular activities, parents’ interest on their children’s English learning, and first language (L1) proficiency. Regression analysis unveiled that L2 vocabulary learning strategy and extra-curricular activities were significant indicators of L2 vocabulary knowledge. In addition, based on structural equation modeling (SEM), L2 vocabulary learning strategy made a significant direct effect on L2 vocabulary performance. These findings suggest that L2 vocabulary learning strategy plays a critical role in progressing L2 vocabulary achievement, as proposed in Involvement Load Hypothesis (ILH: Laufer and Hulstijn 2001) as well as extra-curricular activities positively impact on L2 vocabulary improvement. Moreover not only L1 vocabulary knowledge but also parents’ interest in their children’s English learning cannot be excluded for successful L2 vocabulary acquisition.


좌우뇌 편중 유형 및 영어 학습 불안과 영어성취도 관계 연구


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 3호 2013.09 pp.219-238

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between brain hemispheric preferences, English learning anxiety and English as a foreign language listening and reading ability. The FLCAS for anxiety levels, the BPI for brain preferences, and the TOEIC for listening and reading ability were used. The participants in this study consisted of 88 college students. The study found a low correlation between the brain preferences and English learning anxiety. Likewise, the left-brain preference group was found to have a higher reading ability than the right-brain preference group. It is suggested that alternative teaching methods for right-brain preference students should be explored. A negative correlation was found between anxiety and English proficiency. Therefore, it is advisable that teachers should reduce the English anxiety of students through activities such as waiting for the students to be ready to answer questions, not making too strict rules in class, or correcting students' errors in an unobtrusive manner, if necessary.


The Circulation and Variation of the Life in Richard Powers’ The Gold Bug Variations

Taejeong Song

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 3호 2013.09 pp.239-257

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This essay illustrates how Richard Powers' Gold Bug Variations (1991) recreates the discourse of the “genome,” and connects this to other fragmentary objects to create new ideas through circulation and variation of the “language of life.” While others have examined the novel's relationship to aesthetics, I focus on the author's use of “information theory and scientific systems” to explain the development of genomic research as an interdisciplinary phenomenon. I address how scientific theories and their modes of articulation have evolved so that one scientist's theory or hypothesis will be decoded by the next generation. This causes a consistent movement at the center of scientific focus when each new discovery is made. Powers wants to explore the genome and history of the genomic study from the archaeological standpoint of knowledge, and more importantly, the current historical moment, in which the infinity of the genome is articulated through the cybernetic metaphor. By weaving multiple discourses on linguistic and non-linguistic fields with Bach's Goldberg Variations, Herri's art, biology, and computer science, he shows the development of biology from modern to post-modern through cybernetic metaphors and advanced technologies.


Arthur Sze’s Taoist Poetic

Robert Grotjohn

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 3호 2013.09 pp.259-279

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Arthur Sze is a prolific, award-winning, but under-studied Asian American poet whose work does not fit comfortably into any of the past or current paradigms of Asian American aesthetics. This essay examines the ways in which Sze translates Asian influences into his own Asian American aesthetic. He performs that translation through actual translation of Tang Dynasty poets, through building into his own poetry connections between the great and the small, the distant and the near that parallel those connections in the Tang poets, and through a blending of his American poetry into a Taoistic poetic. With a focus on the poetic sequence “The Redshifting Web,” this essay illuminates ways to read Sze’s poetry through those influences, the ways his poems create an Asian ancestral container for his American poetic. The essay finishes by offering possibilities for future study of Sze’s ways of gathering his American poetic forbears into his Asian-influenced aesthetic.


Double Relative Clauses through Multiple Nominative Constructions

Jaemyung Goo, Jung-Min Jo

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 3호 2013.09 pp.281-296

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This study examines Han and Kim’s (2004) proposal that the source sentences of double relative clauses in Korean are those contained in multiple nominative constructions (MNCs). We revisit their MNC-based analysis and discuss their claims with respect to the main features of MNCs: the characteristic property condition, coindexation, case-stacking, and Subject-to-Object raising, all of which are required to form legitimate MNCs. We first summarize Han and Kim’s study, describe the above-mentioned four fundamental characteristics of MNCs, and discuss how valid their MNC-based analysis of Korean double relative clauses is. Although further research likely sheds more light on this topic and other relevant issues, their MNC-based claim regarding what seems to be a double relative clause structure, as our discussion illustrates, appears to be quite tenable.


What Makes Korean High School Students Demotivated in Learning English?

Youngsu Kim, Jee Hyun Ma

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 3호 2013.09 pp.297-318

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This study examined what the demotivating factors of Korean high school students are in learning English, and whether there exist any differences in demotivating factors by proficiency and gender. The results revealed that the participants’ demotivation mainly came from the difficulty of learning English, followed by grades and test scores. All the demotivating factors showed significant differences when considering the L2 proficiency, suggesting the need of level-based instruction. Furthermore, the differences between the high and the low proficiency groups were very large considering the calculated effect size. On the other hand, the differences between the boys and the girls were not that evident. Other demotivating factors the participants pointed out were non-practicality, lack of knowledge, school system, and teachers’ overexpectation and overestimation of learners. Pedagogical implications and suggestions are also made based on the findings.


Comparison of English kill and Korean cwukita from the Perspective of Cognitive Semantics

Ji Ae Kim, Youngju Choi

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 3호 2013.09 pp.319-338

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Seemingly synonymous pairs in different languages are exchangeable in their core senses but not in their extended meanings, especially in abstract domains. The purpose of the paper is to reveal how and why this is so, from the perspective of cognitive semantics, with the comparison of English kill and Korean cwukita. It has been found that perspectivization is the main factor which causes the meaning distinction between the verbs, disallowing direct translation. The process of killing includes the force exertion stage, the pain stage, the weakening stage, the worsening stage, the death stage, and afterwards, the disappearance stage. Among them, English kill perspectivizes the pain, worsening, death, and disappearance stages and Korean cwukita perspectivizes the weakening stage as well. Furthermore, with the complements sound and speed, the two languages perspectivize different stages. English kill perspectivizes the disappearance stage and Korean cwukita, the weakening stage.


An Exploration of Dimensions of Learning Motivation

Hee Chul Lee, Jae Woo Shim, Na Yu Kim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 3호 2013.09 pp.339-357

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The main objective of this study was to find a range of dimensions of motivation structures that are manifest in highschool students and are independent of traditional structures of intrinsic, extrinsic, instrumental, and integrative motivations. For this study, 191 students responded to statements related to their English learning motivation in a Likert type scale. The statements were derived from personal observations of secondary school students by one of the researchers who categorized actions or attitudes towards their English learning. The subjects' responses to the questionnaire were submitted to SPSS version 17 for principal component factor analysis to understand the salient dimensions of motivation. The statistical results of the factor analysis revealed five dimensions: expectancy, compensation, interest, achievement, and goal congruency. The contribution of the five dimensions to reading proficiency scores was analyzed through logistic regression analysis. The findings of this study indicated that learning motivation held by students should be explored on the basis of students' perceptions of their own classroom realities.

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