영어영문학21 [English21]

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  • 자료유형
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    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
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  • 간기
  • 수록기간
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
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    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제27권 1호 (16건)

에드워드 애비의 이중서사와 그 정치학 — 『몽키 렌치 갱』 다시 읽기


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 1호 2014.03 pp.5-23

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By presenting unreliable characters such as Sarvis, Hayduke, Smith, Abbzug and others in The Monkey Wrench Gang, Edward Abbey attempts to deconstruct the coercive view of nature. Sarvis who leads their ecotage never abandons love for humans, which deconstructs his position as a radical naturalist while Smith's patriarchal mindset and his marital practice, viewed upon the ecofeminist standpoint, belies his authenticity as an ecological saboteur. Along with double characterization, Abbey reinforces deconstructive naturalism as he diversifies the characters in terms of their intensity of ecotage practice; Hayduke's radicality is well-contrasted with Sarvis' moderate and even playful environmental activism. Abbey's deconstructive environmentalism might result in inviting a politically efficient environmentalism and its practical activism which our own contemporary community can afford. The author of MWG paves the way to an organic environmental practice that articulates individual and sociocultural insight, desire and interests, thus, even if he does not propose any alternative naturism within his literary text.


아감벤의 ‘목적 없는 수단’과 벤야민의 이미지로서의 역사철학 그리고 드보르 영화의 몽타주 기법

윤교찬, 강문순

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 1호 2014.03 pp.25-44

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The main aim of this paper is to examine the interconnected worlds of poetics of the three theorists, Agamben, Debord and Benjamin, and to see what they commonly aim at. Agamben’s ‘Means without End’ reflects Debord’s cinema poetics. In Debord's cinema poetics montage image functions as ‘a prolonged hesitation between image and meaning' just as Agamben's pure means does as “uneasy hesitation” before the separation of the sacred and the profane. Debord's montage poetics, which aims not the return of the identical but that of the possibility of what was, perfectly matches with Benjamin’s notion of history as image. Just as Debord's montage image aims at the decreation of what was, Benjamin's view of history as image aims at a history of salvation. Each image, according to Benjamin, is charged with history and it is the door through which the Messiah enters. We also see Debord’s notion of spectacle helps us understand not only Agamben’s notion of profanation but also Benjamin's notion of secularization.


생태적 회복을 향한 실천으로서의 불복종 — 소로, 애비, 스나이더의 경우


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 1호 2014.03 pp.45-68

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The point of view in this paper is finding and confirming the different types of ecological disobedience in Thoreau, Edward Abbey, an American writer called as American anarchist, and Gary Snyder, the poet and ecological thinker, exploring their works and lifestyles in terms of practical examples in Deep Ecology. Thoreau left his one-day-experience on his well-known essay, Civil Disobedience, and now it becomes a famous work with his Walden acknowledged even as a canon in Transcendentalism. Civil Disobedience could be included as an another chapter of Walden working as an practice for environmentalism. Abbey’s The Monkey Wrench Gang and Desert Solitaire are based on facts with fiction, to a certain extent, and he used straight ways in styles, plots and characterization to illustrate the environmental problems directly and provocatively, which also could be regarded as an organic environmental practice. No Nature and Turtle Island are two main symbols of Snyder who lives in the wilderness of Nevada pursues. Snyder shows us his suggestion for coexistence of rehabilitation in this ecological crisis, using another way of resistance throughout his whole lifetime. With their similarities, those three types of ecological practice can be considered as significant examples for seeking awareness of individuals. Also, differently, we observe the development of ecological disobediences in works, lifestyles of Thoreau, Abbey and Snyder.


형식문체소의 번역 — 제임스 조이스의 『젊은 예술가의 초상』을 중심으로


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 1호 2014.03 pp.69-91

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Style markers in literary writing create various effects—scene change, slide effect, tempo, rhythm, etc. In most cases, they are intentional devices employed and planned by the writer; nevertheless, such literary devices are often neglected in translation practice and research, as meaning is considered to be the central element to be delivered even at the cost of style. In order to raise recognition of style in literary translation, this research explores the elements of style, types and roles of style markers, and translation of form style markers. First, this paper defines the concept of style and style markers, and classifies style markers into two categories: content and form. Second, it discusses in detail the relationship between form style markers and translation. Third, it compares James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and its Korean translations (4 target texts) to examine how stylistic effects are maintained or distorted in the course of translation. The author hopes this study will contribute to triggering further discussion on the translation of style and to presenting guidelines for those in the translation profession.


The Masculine and the Abject : Defiance of the Stereotypical Orient in M. Butterfly

Luisa Hyojin Koo

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 1호 2014.03 pp.93-109

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Scholars have various approaches to David Henry Hwang’s play M. Butterfly. Some focus on the stereotypical racial images or the reversal of such images within the play (Moy 1990; San Juan 2002; Skloot 1990; Wen 2013). Others analyze the text or its characters using critical or psychoanalytical theories (Deeney 1993; Remen 1994). Still others such as Karen Shimakawa attempt to incorporate critical theory to analyze the cultural aspect of the play, claiming that Song, as national abject, possesses constructed femininity and equally constructed masculinity that is imposed upon him (Shimakawa 2002). While I agree with Shimakawa that M. Butterfly is a story of the masculine power struggle between men on individual and national levels, I do not see Song’s masculinity as untrue and forced upon him. Gallimard’s and Western power domination fantasy ultimately fails when Song threatens the realm of the Western man through his masculine attitude and actual gender. In this paper, I examine the femininity that Song Liling as a cultural abject mimics in order to consciously deconstruct the myth of Western masculinity re-establishment, and question the white norm that Otherizes races that are not white-American.


Domestic Ideology in Kate Chopin’s The Awakening

Dong-Wook Noh

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 1호 2014.03 pp.111-133

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Kate Chopin’s The Awakening was once badly criticized that it portrayed the bold and broad sexual behavior of a woman in such an extreme fashion that it was unacceptable in her age. It was also a leading attempt in that the repressed sexual desire and passion of a woman regarded as taboos in her time were openly dealt with. Besides, this novel can be considered an unprecedented one inasmuch as such themes as the will for independence, and a woman's pursuit of the self, or the very subjects that had been perceived as exclusive properties of men of the age, were brought into relief. However, this study aims at warning against the following practice: the leading accomplishment of The Awakening is recognized, but at the same time, Edna’s awakening is merely defined by abstract words such as ‘feminist success’ or ‘the mental maturity of a woman.’ This study does not aim to disparage the meaning of the text itself, but to have a full understanding of the meaning of Edna’s awakening in light of the situations in which women of the time were placed. Edna, the heroine of The Awakening, is different from the typical patterns of the main characters in the 19th century American feminist novels: she is a married woman. The reasons why this study focuses on such differences are as follows: first, problems with the domesticity of a married woman in her contemporary society can be examined in depth in The Awakening, since Edna is a married woman unlike in other feminist novels; second, the female protagonists of many feminist novels mature by becoming aware of the problems with social structures disadvantageous to women, such as the marriage system of the time while finding their marriage partners. Edna not only recognizes problems with the irrational marriage system or social structure but also suddenly experiences an awakening akin to epiphany, while entering into and sustaining marriage without any serious reflection, leading to nothing but miserable consequences. In this context, this study will take a close look at the problems of domesticity and the ideal images of femininity related to 19th century married women, which is manifest in The Awakening, based on John Ruskin’s and John Stuart Mill’s arguments on this matter. Besides, it will examine how Edna ascertains her position in her family and how her deviation attributable to her belated awakening are expressed. Lastly, this research will discuss the meaning and the limitations of Edna’s establishment of her own independent home.


A Rereading Eliot’s Speculation of Massinger

Cheol Hee Lee

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 1호 2014.03 pp.135-149

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Massinger is a contemporary writer of Shakespeare but he has not received as much attention as Shakespeare has. But Eliot, one of the most prominent modernists in the 20th century, evaluates Massinger in his essay, “Philip Massinger” written in 1921. Above all, he points out that English criticism mainly focused on critic's own thoughts or opinions, and demands that it should have objective eyes or attitudes. About Massinger, Eliot points lack of a suitable image and a concise simile. He suggests that a poet or an artist choose a suitable or an exact image, in other words, harmony between a feeling and an object. Thus he tells that a poet's emotion or feeling shouldn't be revealed in his or her works. Certainly Massinger doesn't reveal his own personality in his works. Eliot praises Massinger's precise and hard syntax. Especially Massinger's works are compared with those of Marvel and Johnson. Based on this, Eliot finally diagnoses that if Massinger had had more intellectual courage, the current of English literature immediately after him might have taken a different courses.


John Keats’s Echo in Twentieth-Century Sonnets

Chulmin Chung

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 1호 2014.03 pp.151-169

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Why was the sonnet attractive to the poets of the twentieth century such as Wilfred Owen, Robert Frost, W. H. Auden and Seamus Heaney? Why is it that they cared about the form in a period often dominated by unrhymed free verse? This paper quests for the answers to those questions by analyzing stylistic features of the modern sonnets of W. H. Auden and Robert Frost, and by revealing similarity between those modern poets' and John Keats's sonnets. Keats established a coherent maturity of his sonnets that highlights man's existential ability to stay in uncertainties and doubts in reality. The sonnet became for the poet a place to reify and reconcile a conflict between the poetic ideal and his reality. That was an unprecedented thematic mode throughout the entire sonnet tradition. As Keats had discerned, the modern poets valued the sonnet's capability to reify opposites and to represent a sonnet persona battling its way through the problems of self and reality. Eventually, this paper reveals the vast potential of Keats's sonnets for the twentieth- century sonnets. It intends to draw fresh attention not only to the modern sonnets but also to the modernity of Keats's sonnets.


Liberty from or Property of the Text : Gulliver, a Compulsive Writer, in Gulliver’s Travels

Seongeun Jin

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 1호 2014.03 pp.171-188

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This essay explores the multiple layers of textuality that Jonathan Swift utilizes in Gulliver’s Travels (1726). Swift oscillates his position toward the text by illustrating Gulliver’s incommensurable identity in the book. Throughout Gulliver’s Travels, Swift presents Gulliver in ways which demonstrate his own dual positions. One position shows his voice, while the other ridicules Gulliver’s behaviors and values. Swift’s portrayal of Gulliver’s changing identity and compulsive writing is essential to understanding the significance of Swift’s satiric writing. Thus, Gulliver’s duality portrays him as a sign in Swift’s text. Juxtaposed with Swift’s ambiguous attitude toward the text, his position toward his contemporary philosophy which produces the proliferation of text is revealed in the book. Swift contends that the expansion of the text does not guarantee the systematic advancement in knowledge that is supported by deduction and induction among his contemporaries, nor does it facilitate effective communication. Moreover, Swift compares the unconstrained production of text with the orality in Houyhnhnmland. Swift ridicules Gulliver’s compulsive writing, even though Gulliver admires the state of nature which does not contain text. In Gulliver’s Travels, Swift reveals his satirist’s fantasy for nostalgia toward a world without culture that is corrupted by the overflow of the text and, at the same time, acknowledges the situation in which humankind has already accepted writing and thus cannot return to nature.


The Definiteness Effect as a Scalar Implicature

Yoon-kyoung Joh

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 1호 2014.03 pp.189-207

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This paper supports the view that the distinction between strong NPs and weak NPs rests on the presence or the absence of the uniqueness component. When a uniquely identifiable set is presupposed, the NP is perceived as strong, producing the proportional reading which indicates a certain proportion out of a unique set, but, when such a presupposition is absent, the NP is received as weak, yielding the cardinal reading that refers to some quantity that is not based on a unique set. Drawing the distinction between strong/weak NPs on the basis of a uniquely identifiable set, we can naturally address why the existential there-be construction refuses strong NPs. The cognitive status related to the existential there-be construction is type identifiability which is placed much lower than unique identifiability, the status of which strong NPs must satisfy. In terms of the maxim of quantity, type identifiability that is weaker in scale of the givenness hierarchy than unique identifiability implies that it is not uniquely identifiable and this implicature of the existential there-be construction causes incompatibility with strong NPs.


L2 Learner Corpus Analysis of Modal Expressions in Written Text

Sungran Koh, Bonggyu Kim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 1호 2014.03 pp.209-229

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This study aims to compare different uses of epistemic modality used in both non- native texts (NNT) and native texts (NT) of writers based on the frequency of epistemic modality. In addition, there is an insightful exploration of how these different usage of modality should be tackled in order to foster the pragmatic competence of L2 learners in second language teaching and learning environment since the use of epistemic modality is a crucial area of pragmatic failure in the work of L2 learners. In order to answer the research questions, the range and frequency corpus program was used to show the total frequency of word usage including different types of epistemic modality. 180 NNT and 152 NT were collected and analyzed based on the categorization of epistemic modality. The study shows that can and should are prominent features, taking a higher frequency in NNT of writers among other modal expressions used. On the other hand, would and might are the ones much less used in comparison to ones in NT. In addition, NNT of writers tend to overuse a number of epistemic modality such as think, know, always, and a lot of, indicating the lack of awareness of using various types of epistemic modality particularly used by NT of writers such as would, might, seem, perhaps, likely and so on. This study also demonstrates a number of misused examples of epistemic modality which are corrected by native writers. These cases indicate the possibility of first language transfer and weak pragmatic competence of learners in second language learning environment.


Corrective Feedback and Phonological Short-Term Memory in the Acquisition of the English That-Trace Filter : A Conceptual Replication of Goo (2012)

Jaemyung Goo

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 1호 2014.03 pp.231-257

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Recent interaction research has shown that corrective feedback may benefit L2 learners to varying degrees, and that certain types of feedback may be more beneficial than others, engendering much discussion and research attempts to investigate the issue. Goo’s (2012) study is one of those empirical attempts conducted in this line of research paradigm. The present study, as a conceptual replication of Goo’s original study, explores this on-going area of feedback research, the relative efficacy of different forms of corrective feedback, and whether/how phonological short-term memory (PSTM) mediates the impact of different feedback moves on the acquisition of the English that-trace filter. Twenty-nine adult high-intermediate Korean EFL learners were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a recast, metalinguistic feedback, and comparison groups. The study employed a pretest-posttest design. One intensive treatment session was implemented. Two dependent variable measures were developed/administered to assess learner performance: a timed grammaticality judgment test and a timed oral production test. Overall results showed that metalinguistic feedback was more effective than recasts at facilitating the acquisition of the target construction. PSTM was not found to be correlated with the effectiveness of recasts and metalinguistic feedback. Different patterns of learner performance were also observed depending upon the mode of dependent variable measure.


The Effects of Dictation and Dictogloss in the High School English Class : Focusing on English Collocation

Sujin Kim, Jee Hyun Ma

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 1호 2014.03 pp.259-278

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This study examined whether dictation or dictogloss is more efficient on improving Korean high school students’ English collocation knowledge. The 60 Korean high school students participated in the study and they were assigned to either the dictation or dictogloss group. The participants’ English collocation knowledge was measured through pre-, immediate post-, and delayed post-tests over the experimental period. The results showed that the students in the dictogloss group displayed better immediate learning outcomes than those in the dictation group, implying the immediate help from the use of dictogloss tasks in acquiring collocations. However, as to the retention of collocations, both of the dictation and dictogloss tasks were effective, showing no sustained initial advantage of dictogloss. Based on the findings of this study, implications and suggestions on how to teach L2 collocation more effectively in instructional settings were made.


Motivating EFL Students to Engage in Free Voluntary Reading : Does the Format Make a Difference?

Bokyung Murray

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 1호 2014.03 pp.279-299

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Several studies have suggested that free voluntary reading (FVR) is a very useful pedagogical resource to enhance student proficiency in learning English. However, a persistent problem has existed on how best to motivate students to engage in this activity. This was a qualitative study to explore the possibility that reading format, either digital or print, may make a difference in encouraging students to participate more willingly in this activity. Four students in an English reading comprehension class volunteered to be involved in this study. All students in the class were allowed to select reading materials, both in digital and print formats, during the course of the semester. The four study participants were subjected to interviews, observations, and provided diary entries to describe their reactions to reading in these different formats. Charts were developed to present data from observations. Findings indicated that materials in both formats had a generally positive effect on encouraging these students to read, however, their preferences were somewhat inconclusive, with two students favoring digital and two preferred print materials. Data from observations was more definitive and indicated that the digital format was the preferred method for FVR. The study concluded with a discussion of limitations, and some possible implications for the classroom.


College Instructors’ Perceptions of Student Course Evaluations in On-Line Learning

Do-Hyun Yun

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 1호 2014.03 pp.301-317

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The purpose of this study was to explore whether or not those who teach on-line courses perceive their current method of student course evaluations as an effective tool. From 20 significant statements, 5 themes emerged. Five instructors who work in 3 on-line universities participated in a focus group and completed a focus group questionnaire. From the focus group participants, 5 participants were invited to participate in in-depth interviews. The results of this study indicated that 3 on-line universities use the same course evaluation as that of off-line ones. It offers the conclusion that this type of student course evaluation tool does give the type of feedback necessary for the on-line environment. It also gives the educational implication that the more instructors receive information that is pertinent to the on-line environment and the dynamics that take place within such an environment, the more effectively they will be able to make their on-line courses.


A Review of Research on Anxiety in Language Learning : Debates, Limitations, and Current Research Needs

Sun Young Chun

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 1호 2014.03 pp.319-339

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Although extensive research has been conducted in the area of foreign language anxiety, little effort has been made to synthesize past research on anxiety, particularly on divided views among researchers. Scant attention also has been paid to finding the limitations and current research needs on the topic. Thus, this paper summarizes past and current major research findings on anxiety and language learning--the relationship between foreign language anxiety and the four language skills, non-linguistic factors, and classroom practice. The paper also reviews and discusses the divided views of two groups of researchers over whether foreign language anxiety is a cause or a result of poor performance, as well as their positions behind the debates. Next, this paper discusses the limitations of previous anxiety research and also recounts current research needs. Finally, implications for practitioners are presented.

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