영어영문학21 [English21]

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    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
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  • 간기
  • 수록기간
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
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    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제26권 1호 (14건)

사적풍자와 일반풍자 — 드라이든과 애디슨의 풍자론


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 1호 2013.03 pp.5-29

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The legality of satire was the key issue confronted by the Augustan theorists of satire. The issued originated in the debate about the merits of general and personal satire: is personal satire more libellous than general satire? Critics divide the Augustan satirists into groups according to their preferences for particular types of satire they wrote. Addison favors general satire and Dryden, who is equivocal, seems to favor both general and personal satire. While Dryden defends personal satire on legal grounds, he also acknowledges that personal satire violates the principle of Christian charity, a higher law. These two satirists develop those terms which dominate the study of satire, one of which is “libel.” with its source from Rome.


제1차 세계대전과 오언의 반전시


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 1호 2013.03 pp.31-51

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This essay is designed to view Owen's antiwar poetry in relation to the First World War. At the beginning of the First World War the characteristic response to it was that to serve in the war was a matter of duty. Rupert Brooke's “The Soldier” is a typical example of this attitude. The poem celebrates the glories of war and patriotism of soldiers. Owen joined the army because patriotism and nationalism affected him. At first Owen portrayed the war as glorious. After he was sent to the front and experienced the Somme offensive that destroyed too many young good soldiers, he realized that the war was the most lamentable tragedy of fine young men lost in the battle. He was diagnosed as suffering from shell shock and sent to hospital. There he met Sassoon who put emphasis on realism and satire. Sassoon had a profound influence on Owen's poetic style, and Owen decided to write poetry devoted to portraying the horrors of trench and gas warfare. Now he said that his subject was war, and the pity of war. In his poems he started to describe the horrors of a gas attack while commenting ironically on the limits of patriotism. Owen came to see it as a duty to warn the horrors of war and to ask why political leaders allowed such mass destruction to continue for so long. For example, in his “Dulce et Decorum Est,” he described the nightmarish atmosphere of the battle and went on to portray the absolute values of nationalism such as honour or patriotism as an old lie and questioned the values. He also questioned the necessity of war, stressed the common humanity of both sides in war, and linked the futility of the deaths of individual soldiers to the cosmic indifference of a world from which God was absent. Owen's poetry also shows a major technical innovation which influenced Modernism a lot. Owen's innovative use of half-rhyme is a pervasive feature of his poetry. While full rhyme tends to put stress on completeness, half-rhyme suggests that things are incomplete. Owen's use of half-rhyme functions as strengthening the bleak landscape surrounding the war.


메타드라마적 관점에서 본 사무엘 베켓과 이윤택의 극


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 1호 2013.03 pp.53-72

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This study examines how metadramatic traditions are revived in the works of Samuel Beckett and Lee Yun Taek, two modern dramatists representing English and Korean literature. Beckett's Waiting for Godot explores the fundamental role of stage, actors and audience through metadramatic features, eventually invalidating the boundary between stage and auditorium. In Citizen K and Oku, Lee Yun Taek also makes significant use of metadramatic devices such as play-within-a-play as well as co-existence of stage and auditorium. In order to gain these effects, he especially deconstructs and reconstructs gut, a traditional Korean ritual in which life and death interacts. In this respect, the two dramatists, transcending the space and time of their activities, successfully achieve the reconstruction of the inherent dramatic tradition and extend literary horizon, thus satisfying the metadramatic premise that life is a dream and that the world is a stage.


부정과 중단의 미학 — 아감벤의 바틀비론


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 1호 2013.03 pp.73-94

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The main aim of this paper is to examine the concept of Bartleby’s negative potentiality, which characterizes Bartleby’s formula, “I’d prefer not to∼” and to explore how this concept is closely related to Agamben’s main concepts such as pure means or means without end; divine violence, which he borrowed from Walter Benjamin; state of exception; and profanation. This paper also aims at how the aesthetics of interruption is working behind all of these concepts. Agamben mentions that Bartleby’s formula of negative potentiality opens a zone of indistinction between yes and no. Bartleby’s formula, he says, works as a redemptive means to fight against the principle of the sovereign power, which creates bare life. First, we will focus on the concept of the aesthetics of interruption. Then, on how Bartleby’s formula works against producing Homo Sacer and bare life. Then we will discuss how Bartleby’s formula works with Benjamin’s concept of messianic history and how it develops into the concept of decreation. Lastly, we will focus on how the aesthetics of interruption is working on Agamben’s idea of pure means and profanation.


헤밍웨이와 피츠제럴드 작품 속 주인공 연구


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 1호 2013.03 pp.95-114

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This paper aims to identify the characters in Hemingway's and Fitzgerald's works. Their novels have often been treated as the love affairs and the fall or decline of the American Dream in the 1920s∼1940s. Though they have led to some stimulating plots, it seems to be a little bad. They reduced their novels to a variety of simplified version. Therefore, this thesis shows that they also offer a strong moral sense against material society of 1920s∼1940s. Nick tried to take moral sense opposed to the dominant values of materialism. Although the terminal of these novels is ambiguous, I read Nick's leaving the reality for the Rich and the True as a moral gesture in The Great Gatsby and In Our Time. His return to the Truth shows us that Fitzgerald criticized the corrupted materialism embodied in The Great Gatsby. In Conclusion, I claim that though Nick Adams and Nick Carraway does not propose an alternative to materialistic society, they showed a struggling will against real world.


카리브 디아스포라들의 인종적 갈등과 화해 — 『광활한 사르가소 바다』와 『내 어머니의 자서전』을 중심으로


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 1호 2013.03 pp.115-141

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The Caribbean region is a place of diasporas who were came from their nations in Europe, Africa, and Asia by European colonial/imperial history, and had undergone the racial conflicts. This thesis aims at studying for racial conflict and reconciliation among Caribbean diasporas in Jean Rhys's Wide Sargasso Sea and Jamaica Kincaid's The Autobiography of My Mother. I will analyze the racial conflict between Antoinett, a white creole, and Tia, a black girl, and then research the possibility of reconciliation with regaining Antoinett's identity as a Caribbean diaspora. In Kincaid's The Autobiography of My Mother, I will analyze the racial conflicts among the African, the European and the Caribbean descendants and then research a solution to the conflict. In Wide Sargasso Sea, Antoinette percepts her real identity as a Caribbean diaspora through exclusion by her husband/white colonizer and then gets a reconciliation with Tia. Xuela, in The Autobiography of My Mother, percepts her real identity as a Caribbean diaspora through abortion Mr. LaBatte's baby as a colonial successor and then solves the racial conflict through accepting the inevitable death.


엘리엇의 포우론 — 시창작법을 중심으로 —


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 1호 2013.03 pp.143-164

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Eliot, in his lecture on “From Poe to Valéry” in 1948, speculates on Poe, Baudelaire, Mallarmé, and Valéry. Of them, Eliot pays special attention to Poe and his writings. He points to Poe’s inaccurate and careless choice of words. Eliot compares Poe’s writing with Tennyson’s: Tennyson’s use of words is accurate while Poe’s is not. As to a long poem, Eliot claims that Poe is incapable of writing long poems, as we see all his poems have a single mood. But there is one thing both agree to: 1) A writer must be faithful to his work, and the words he uses in his work should be the very words he would use in real life; 2) a writer’s personality and his work do not have any connection at all.


베케트 극의 침묵이라는 연극장치


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 1호 2013.03 pp.165-181

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This essay examines the ways in which silence in John Cage's “chance operations” functions as a theatrical device for revealing noises on the stage in Samuel Beckett's plays. His silent piece 4'33" uses silence as both a space and a period of time for various noises in order to give our absurd life the opportunity to be represented irrespective of the author's intention. As this piece implies, our world is not a place for silence, but it is filled with unfamiliar noises. Just as Cage considers these noises to be important musical or theatrical elements, Beckett has utilized “chance operations” for the staging of noises in Waiting for Godot, Endgame, “Act Without Words I,” “Act Without Words II,” and “Breath.” On such theatrical stages for silence as an isolated place, a claustrophobic empty chamber, or a desert, various noises are incessantly inscribed as metaphors for representing the existential situation of human beings. By diminishing the role of an artist for his faithful representation of life, Cage positively employs silence as a theatrical device of what he calls “waking up to the very life we're living.”


영어 문장부호 하이픈(hyphen)과 한국어 문장부호 붙임표의 비교 및 영한 번역 전략


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 1호 2013.03 pp.183-202

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Building upon the author's previous researches on punctuation, this paper aims to expand the current literature by exploring the functional concept of punctuation. It is of notable interest that the concept suffers a wide range of disagreements, which calls for the need to “revisit” the very basics of the “points.” Although punctuation allows for and must guarantee a certain degree of subjectivity, even arbitrariness in certain cases, it would still be useful to rebuild the concept of punctuation by exploring and accommodating the diverse perspectives and by reflecting the current tendency. Based on a clearer notion, this paper then seeks to answer two research questions. First, what are the functions of hyphen and butimpyo (form-equivalent punctuation mark in Korean) and how do they differ? Second, what strategies can be used to translate hyphen in English-Korean translation? As for the first question, this paper illustrates how the punctuation marks take on the functional role as unique linguistic entities. Following the analysis, this research compares the two punctuation marks, so as to find the implications for translation. As for the second question, this paper classifies strategies to translate hyphen and discusses how such strategies can be deployed and what attentions should be paid. It is of notable interest that punctuation marks in English-Korean translation often invite 'headaches' and that the issue has been neglected in the academic discipline of translation studies.


포트폴리오와 동료피드백을 결합시킨 대학 교양 영작문 수업 운영 사례 연구


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 1호 2013.03 pp.203-232

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The purpose of this case study is to have an in-depth understanding regarding EFF learners' overall reflections toward portfolio keeping and peer feedback in English writing class. The data were collected from English Writing I class offered by the College of General Education at one of the universities in Korea. The sample group consisted of 23 college-level students who showed strong desires to improve their English writing proficiency. The data were collected throughout the semester. The data sources included the researcher's observation and field notes, 5-point Likert scale, interview, and open-ended questions, and the data were analyzed based on the grounded theory. Regarding the results about the portfolio keeping, the participants perceived that portfolio keeping had the merits such as the improvement of grammar, vocabulary, organization of essay, content knowledge, motivation toward English writing, and decrease in writing anxiety. The participants also noted the difficulties they had faced during portfolio keeping project and these difficulties included the time-consuming nature of portfolio, boredom, and difficulty of reflecting all the feedback into actual writing. With respect to the reflections toward peer feedback, the participants showed less credibility toward peer feedback compared to teacher feedback.


Globalized Racial Space in Native Speaker

Dae-Joong Kim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 1호 2013.03 pp.233-254

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This paper deals with a novel, Native Speaker written by Chang-Rae Lee, a Korean American novelist, to find how racial segregation and Korean Americans in the social space are imagined, substantiated and unfolded in the literary space. Broadly speaking, in reading closely and analyzing Native Speaker, I search for critical meaning of Korean American spaces as social spaces embedding such ideological apparatuses as cultural difference and differential racism. To initiate my argument, in the introduction, I use Hannah Arendt’s contentious arguments about racial space and segregation as a springboard to raise questions about complex issue of globalized racial space in Native Speaker. In turn, I broaden the scope of racial space from Korean enclave built by early Korean American immigrants including Henry’s father to John Kwang’s pan-ethnic utopia in the era of globalization. By this analysis, I discover Kwang’s failure has a root in the early Korean immigrants’ beliefs on Eastern and Western social discourses though Kwang’s space embeds more complex issues of multiculturalism, cultural difference and differential racism mediated by globalization and unbalanced global capitalism.


Anxieties of Victorian Society Represented in Bram Stoker’s Dracula

Hyunok Kim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 1호 2013.03 pp.255-266

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Conventional readings of Bram Stoker’s Dracula tend to focus on the sexuality of the vampire women and the degeneracy of Dracula. There is a large emphasis on the monster rather than on reasons why the anxieties of the British characters are so strongly felt and what those anxieties may truly be masking. This study explores the reactive anxieties felt by middle class white men concerning the New Woman and immigrants in the social and political aspects in Victorian society. It investigates meanings of British society’s multiple anxieties concerning the New Woman and the influx of immigrants at the fin de siécle.


Homestay : What Factors Contribute to Second Language Learning?

Jin-Suk Byun, Jungtae Kim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 1호 2013.03 pp.267-291

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The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of homestay and contributing factors to second language learning of 13 Korean students in the U.S.A. They participated in 3 week summer homestay as a part of a 6-month TESOL certificate program in a U.S. university. They were given pre- and post-tests consisting of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. They were also required to complete a survey, journal, and storyboards about the homestay experience. The analysis results demonstrated that they tended to communicate with a certain member of the host family because of the person’s outgoing personality and that they were given proficiency-appropriate help for their English. There was an ignorable amount of score improvement in listening and reading. Speaking showed a small amount of score improvement and the fluency component of the speaking skill played an important role in elevating the score. Students acknowledged increased interaction with their American host families with their native country-related topics and current topics. The contexts that promoted interaction were mealtime, playing games, shopping with the host family, and helping the host family.


Interpretations of Numerals

Yoon-kyoung Joh

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 1호 2013.03 pp.293-313

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This paper examines advantages and disadvantages of various previous accounts on the interpretations of numerals and makes a new proposal. Taking entailment patterns and various other arguments into account, this paper is primarily in line with the neo-Gricean approach. However, this paper departs from the neo-Gricean approach in the respect that the “at most” reading must be considered as part of the meanings of numerals. The “at most” construal of numerals has a peculiar status as a reading of a numeral. This paper explains why the “at most” reading is, in its status, not equivalent to the “at least” reading and the “exactly” reading of the numeral by claiming that, by the means of a semantic operator, the “at most” reading is derived from a scalar implicature which has been drawn at the pragmatic level. This research argues for the view that the semantic level and the pragmatic level interacts with each other constantly, allowing that the pragmatic level can also feed the semantic level.

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