Earticle

Home

영어영문학21 [English21]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
    학술지
  • 발행기관
    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
  • ISSN
    1738-4052
  • 간기
    계간
  • 수록기간
    1967~2018
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제21권 3호 (12건)
No
1

마리아를 위한 변명-충서(忠恕)로「진흙」 다시 읽기

김철수

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제21권 3호 2008.12 pp.5-20

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This study aims to reconsider some aspects in the life of Maria, the heroine of “Clay” in James Joyce's Dubliners, from one of the viewpoints of Ancient Chinese philosophy, namely the concept of ‘Zhong-Shu(忠恕)'. So far in the history of criticism on this short story, the status of Maria has been swaying between that of an innocent woman who may well be regarded as stupid due to her excessive innocence, and that of a woman shrewd enough to conceal her weak points and desire in a subtle narrative of fantasy. However, reconsidered through the prism of ancient Chinese philosophy, her gnomon-like life, lacking an important part to be a whole, will be refurbished as a new life. This new perspective will offer an epiphany in a true sense to those who have explored, distorted and taken unconditional pity on her life inside and outside of the text. The reconsidered life of Maria as such shows that she is a “veritable peace-maker” and “proper mother” in a true sense, who has never had anyone do what she herself does not want to do, and further, has always had others do before her what she wants to do. All her attitudes toward her life and other people remind the reader of the concept of “Zhong-shu,” which claims, “Do not do to others what you do not want done to yourself” and “Establish others on the ground where you wish to establish yourself, and bring others to reach where you wish to reach yourself.” Despite the numerous events, which offend her pride, ridicule her own self, and divulge her weak points, she proceeds with her life as a lady of real beauty who practices real love to others. Her love is embodied in her behavior, words, and thoughts as she manages to help and serve others while disregarding all the negative and offending circumstances. Her life as such is the incarnation of “Zhong-shu,” which Confucius maintains as “one all-pervading principle contained in his doctrine” and of epiphany, which Joyce makes use of to induce moving tears out of the eyes of Joe as a character and the reader.

2

디킨즈 소설의 자연과학적 패러다임 -후기소설을 중심으로-

문상화

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제21권 3호 2008.12 pp.21-39

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

There seems no common denominator between the works of natural philosophers and works of Charles Dickens because the former are scientific monographs concentrating on objective facts and the latter are novels stimulating subjective human emotion. That evolution and geology that were popular in Victorian society, however, may become a useful way to understand the atmosphere of Victorian intellectuals. The works of Dickens can't be away from the mood of natural philosophy of the Victorian Era. Our Mutual Friend as well as The Origin of Species is a story of survival of characters. As both describe the cruel environment in which anyone the subjects/characters who must kill others to survive, we can easily understand the setting of Our Mutual Friend resembles lassaiz-faire economy of Victorian society. The Mystery of Edwin Drood was not finished by the sudden death of the writer. Though we cannot understand the complete structure of the novel and the meaning, the fact that this novel is incomplete reminds us of the remains of castles, cathedrals and corridors. Lyell insists in his The Principles of Geology that we cannot understand fully the past because of the incompleteness of the remains. Like our partial understanding of the past, we cannot get the full meaning of The Mystery of Edwin Drood.

3

현대 소설가들의 딜레마와 존 파울즈의 응전

배현

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제21권 3호 2008.12 pp.41-71

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

Modern novelists, who began writing after World War Two, conceive new ideas and literary techniques which are quite different from those of their modernist predecessors as well as those of the 18th and 19th century realists. Of the dilemmas with which modern novelists are facing today, the most crucial one is about how to represent artistically, in their fictions, the reality which is newly perceived in this postmodern world. Of the English novelists who started their literary careers in the 1950s, John Fowles is considered to be one of the most important ones both in his intense existential themes and in his innovative literary techniques. As for his art, Fowles can be well discussed in terms of both a traditional realist and an experimental metafictionist. As a modern novelist who lives in the age of “End of Novel,” “Death of Author,” and “Deconstruction,” Fowles tries to ensure the possibilities of the novel genre through various formal experiments. In The Collector, Fowles uses the double narration of one single episode so that the readers could obtain a more objective and inclusive perspective on the events and participate in creating the ultimate meaning of the literary work. The Magus is a story about the conflict between reality and fiction; the protagonist should go through an overwhelming “Godgame” in which a God-like figure, Conchis, manipulated the stage where “every truth was a sort of lie; and every lie a sort of truth” so as to “improvise realities more real than realities.” In The French Lieutenant's Woman, Fowles uses Victorian way of First-person authorial intrusion into an apparent third-person narration, challenges the traditional view of God-like status of the novelist and induces an creative participation of the individual reader by presenting multiple endings to the novel. All these endeavors of Fowles can be understood as his awareness and recognition of the responsibility of the artist, facing every dilemmas of the modern novelists.

4

『비밀의 정원』에 드러난 타자로서의 메리/인도

이수진

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제21권 3호 2008.12 pp.73-94

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The purpose of this paper is to observe otherness of Mary and India in Frances Hodgson Burnett’s The Secret Garden. Burnett shows that Mary and Colin, the leading characters in this text, overcome their mental and physical problems by power of nature. Through the nurturing of the secret garden which has been cast away for more than 10 years, they find out potential power for healing beneath the earth and their minds. Literature written for children has the hidden desire to make children obedient. One of the main themes in children's literature is about description and construction of the familiar things to both children and adults. But the representation of familiarity cannot avoid building division between “us” and “other,” as Colin/England and Mary/India in this text. India where Mary was born and raised is considered as uncivilized of cursed people. India becomes a marginalized background of England. Indians including Mary’s Ajah and servants are undervalued and the weather in India is defined as intolerable. Indians are just objects to be taught and revised. Mary, too, becomes objects to be educated. Mary is unattractive, rude and violent in India because she has been neglected by her parents. To be feminine and English, she has to learn rules and manners which are different from those in India. Growing up in England means learning how to obey and accept hierarchical order. In the end of the text, India, Mary and Dickon disappear like shadows laying down behind the main stream of story structure and history. Only Colin gets his health and power as a successful heir in Misselthwaite.

5

『겨울 이야기』 -무대 밖(off-stage)의 연극과 르네상스 여성들의 담화문화

양윤미

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제21권 3호 2008.12 pp.95-116

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This paper investigates the similarities between the Paulina's play-within-the play hiding the Hermion's death on the off-stage and the renaissance women's secret private culture hidden, reading the particular episode of revitalization of the Hermione. Paulina intentionally tells a lie to protect the mentally-feeble queen as a dead and provides her with great care for sixteen years in the Paulina's private chapel. By denying the visibility of Plaulina's play about the queen's death intentionally on the stage, she leads a great repentance of Leontes to the surface at the end of The Winter's Tale with the spectacle scene of statue and gives a startling recognition that what goes on behind the scene(seen) not only to the spectators but also to the characters. The Paulina's intentionally unrepresented play-within-play has the power to reject the male oriented social discourse and subverts the system of patriarchy and offers the possibility of renaissance women's being subjective self. This subversive power of the patriarchal reality has a great similarity with the secret culture of renaissance women, “the closet” and “the gossip meeting”. They both free women from the rigid conventional gender roles embedded in the masculine codes as a means to maintain dominance over and exploitation of women on the basis of women's friendship and private talks. Though many women were into the lethargic area of imprisonment, silence and death in the seventeenth century, they wisely converted those area into their own and used them to overcome the existing reality. I think the hidden and unseen Paulina's play has the same energy to convert.

6

전치사 UP의 의미

박한기

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제21권 3호 2008.12 pp.117-140

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This paper is intended to define some of the meanings of the English preposition UP, which is one of the typical polysemous forms. It discusses meanings of UP according to two basic ideas to avoid contingent misunderstanding. One is to the effect that every one of the meanings in a semantic network of a word has to share some family resemblance with at least one of the member meanings, and the other is that the selectional restrictions of the traject and the landmark of a lexical form are most useful in defining the meanings of a lexical form. The preposition UP can represent upward movement in a three dimensional physical space, subjectivized upward movement of a scanning line of vision, subjectivized upward movement of a searching line of vision, subjectivized upward supporting force, upward movement of the top point of a physical body, getting up and being synecdochically active and being static after upward movement. Up can also represent upward movements in a two dimensional geographical space, proceeding of a process, and synecdochic proceeding of a complex process.

7

영어의 상표현과 의미해석 -유형론의 언어 보편적 상범주와 관련하여-

조경숙

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제21권 3호 2008.12 pp.141-165

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This paper aims to describe aspectual expressions and their semantic interpretations in English sentences, and to discuss their aspectuality with regard to the language universal categories of aspect from a perspective of Typology. First, the mechanism expressing aspectuality in English contains two elements; the lexical element and the grammatical element. The basic lexical elements in determining aspectual meanings are the aspectual types of verbs in the sentences. However, the semantic interpretations of the sentences are also affected by other lexical factors, such as the semantic features of various verbal complements including the boundness of arguments. Second, the grammatical method of expressing aspectuality in English is to use the aspect forms of progressive or perfect. The progressive form in English is a typical aspect category of expressing ‘Progressive' from a typological perspective. Furthermore, it can also express other aspectual meanings corresponding to the language universal categories of ‘Imperfective' or ‘Habitual', according to the aspectual types of the verbs. Third, the perfect form of English is the grammatical method of expressing diverse aspectual meanings corresponding to ‘Perfective', ‘Resultatives' and ‘Continuous', as one form. Moreover, these meanings of English perfect form are not the same as those of ‘Perfective'. Therefore, perfect form should be regarded as a new independent aspect category of ‘Perfect', which expresses the aspectual meaning of ‘the relevance to a reference time'.

8

초등영어 동사 시제 지도

김귀석, 이수경

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제21권 3호 2008.12 pp.167-197

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The purpose of this paper is to propose a more effective teaching method of tense in elementary school English. Recently, English education in Korea has focused on improving students' communicative competence based on fluency and accuracy. Due to this trend, the values of English grammar education are underestimated in schools. However, grammar still plays an important role in English acquisition and learning. Among the various grammatical categories, tense is one of the most important and difficult topics for Elementary students, due to the differences between Korean and English tense systems. This study deals with the present, present progressive, past, future tense only, which are similar to the Elementary school curriculum in terms of their forms and meanings. In this paper, we have suggested many teaching activities, making use of scripts, real objects, stories, and charts to teach present tense, short texts for teaching past tense and pictures for teaching the present progressive. Also, we have proposed interesting situations and conversation contexts to teach, will and are going to. The advantage of our proposal lies in checking the student's understanding of English tenses and giving longstanding explicit knowledge of grammatical elements to student.

9

지역 영어동아리를 통해 본 아동영어교육 사례 연구

박안자

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제21권 3호 2008.12 pp.199-221

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This study introduces mother's voluntary moves and experimental examples for teaching English to children after the consistence of local community English and analyzes the questionnaire research conducted as the interim evaluation. Prior to making a community, under the theme of finding new future alternatives in recognition of problems of past and present English education, 6 weeks of parent's workshop was conducted and for 2 years afterwards, they have held the after-meeting. During the workshop, the importance of the basis study. listening and introduction of home-literacy using fairly tales were stressed. This community has the motto of 'listening and reading a lot with children' and has shared books and DVD's seen at home and constantly made presentations at the after meetings. The fact found from the reading community is that the out of class literacy gives pleasure and confidence to the students. Moreover, the parents' literacy that shares the pleasure of reading with children becomes a model to children and the root of the literacy strongly is founded from home. Considering that the time out of classes is a lot longer, importance of the language environment at home and home literacy is an element that could never be overlooked. Effectively utilization of the long time at home after school and induction of appropriate exposure could be every efficient strategies in EFL environment as Korea. Parents are the most influential teachers and it is very important to accumulate partnership with the first teacher of the children, parents. As the result of questionnaire research, despite the individual gap between children, they all showed general developmental status. This is another proof that language can be acquired naturally anywhere if the environment is created. For this, the teachers should not overlook at the fact that parents are an important axis of education and turn their eyes to home literacy. The development and accomplishment of children for the past 2 years owe to the contribution of parents who have silently led children and sticked to the principles with clear visions. It is very significant for the community that still has a long way ahead but laying its ground as a community for learning in coexistence.

10

학습유형과 언어불안이 영어 학업성취도에 미치는 영향

임미란

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제21권 3호 2008.12 pp.223-246

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there are any differences in English achievement according to learners' learning styles and the levels of their foreign language anxiety and to examine their interaction effects. The subjects are second grade students in four high schools, of which 108 are male and 111 are female students. Oxford's SAS (1990) and Horwitz's FLCAS (1986) were administered to measure the learners' learning styles and foreign language anxiety respectively. The learners' English achievements were measured by the scores from the nationwide English test administered in the autumn of 2007. The results of this study showed that learning styles had significant effects on their English achievement except for visual, auditory and hands-on style and intuitive and concrete style. There were significant differences in learners' English achievement according to their levels of foreign language anxiety. Also, there were interaction effects only in closure and open-ended style in learning styles and foreign language anxiety.

11

Deeper Ecology Movement

Mansik Lee

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제21권 3호 2008.12 pp.247-269

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

Modern-day citizens are well informed by repetitive daily news reports on the worsening condition of environment caused by the ideological engine of industrial revolution that has treated the earth as an exploitable resource. I think the only valuable reference point is an ecocentric perspective, even though many thinkers write that the crucial transition taking place now is from the industrial era to the information or electronic era. Because I believe we humans have the utterly ethical, if not theological, obligation to take care of the planet earth. I'd like to explicitly express agreement with the ultimate goals of DEM(Deep Ecology Movement). But as to means I have to find out a lot of suggestions for concrete ideas drastically foreign to the supporters of DEM. The utopian dreams of some supporters of DEM are dangerous because they are not sufficient enough to produce power to change the course of modern history. I cannot but be a critical supporter of DEM because feasible solutions for sustainable development or ecological sustainability cannot be deduced from DEM platform principles. The platform principles of DEM must be implemented with the plans based upon something like the system of three level transclusion because any one of plans, such as political action, is not so efficient in environmental problems. Derrida does not describe the process of historical transition from one world view to another by the dichotomous mechanism. I coined a term ‘transclusion[包越]' which is the combination of two concepts, transcendence[超越] and inclusion[包含], for the Derridian description of historical transition. For example, feminist critics can read with the system of three level transclusion, such as (1) their own biological experience, (2) political identity and (3) cultural experiencer not only in the diachronic process but also in the synchronic process. This system can be applied for the social problems including ecological crisis, but only in the form of negotiation. The processes of human negotiation with nature as well as with other humans have been already carried out since the last Ice Age. The major task of ecological studies should be to read and write what has been already happening in between. We can and do systematically negotiate boundaries and other practices with adjacent human and non-human societies if we know how to negotiate the borders of their respective living spaces. The negotiation will produce alternative action plans for ecological sustainability required not by manufacturing it according to a specific set of rules, but by making available an incredible diversity of material from which the appropriate plan is selected. The deep questioning approach of DEM to ecology is very praiseworthy. Unfortunately it is not enough to meet the present crisis. Ever deepening questioning process is desperately needed to cope with the ever-changing world. This is why I'd like to call DEM Deeper Ecology Movement instead of Deep Ecology Movement.

12

Opacity in the Sound Substitution of Korean-English Interlanguage: Centering on Palatalized Tense {∫`}

Jeong-min Seo

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제21권 3호 2008.12 pp.271-290

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the not surface-apparent opacity resulting from the acquisition of English coronal fricative [s] by Korean learners of English. According to Cho & Lee (2001), Korean learners of English are likely to produce English target /s/ in the prevocalic position as tense alveolar fricative [s’]. Moreover, they palatalize [s’] before /i/, producing palatalized tense [ʃ’]. Palatalized tense [ʃ’] by Korean learners of English shows the not surface-apparent opacity because of the tense feature which is not in the phonemic inventory of English. In this paper, I attempt to resolve the opacity problem by employing OT-CC (McCarthy 2006a-d, 2007), which incorporates the derivational information with PREC(A, B). Based on OT-CC with Prec(A, B), this paper examines and analyses the opacity problem of palatalized tense [ʃ’] before /i/ for English target /s/. By doing so, I support the superiority of OT-CC.

 
페이지 저장