영어영문학21 [English21]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
  • 발행기관
    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
  • ISSN
  • 간기
  • 수록기간
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제25권 2호 (11건)

농업주의 이상에 비추어 본 햄린 갈랜드의『주통행로』— 농촌 경관의 이중성


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 2호 2012.06 pp.5-35

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This paper argues that the rural landscape, the values of agriculture, and the nature of farmers which Hamlin Garland describes in his Main-Travelled Roads sharply contradict what Thomas Jefferson suggested in his agrarianism. In Garland's short stories, the visitors of the country tend to see the farming villages as a place incorporated with the beauty of nature, the pleasure of farm work, and the simple life of farmers. By contrast, the actual farmers are disposed to perceive their own place as that of poverty, painful labor, and enslavement. As a result, the two contradictory landscapes are painted in Main-Travelled Roads: one, peaceful pastoral scenes seen through the eyes of sentimental visitors, and the other, scenes of dejected farm life viewed by the farmers themselves. The discrepancy between the actual life of Western farmers described in Main- travelled Roads and the pastoral vision suggested by Jefferson in his agrarianism derives from the incompatibility of the two writers' views of both human desire and pastoral virtues. The Western farmers in Garland's stories no longer live a simple but satisfactory life in harmony with nature. Those farmers basically have the same kind of social and material desire as city-dwellers have. The prairie farming villages are not an environment for pastoral poets to praise, but it is a place in which farmers struggle to make a living through drudgery against land. In Garland's stories, most of the farmers wish to escape from the country and the severe agricultural labor. Despite their desire for cultural life and material affluence, however, they feel frustrated by the limitations of their harsh reality.


개인적 자선과 공공자선 — 「크리스마스 캐롤」에 나타난 디킨즈의 자선관


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 2호 2012.06 pp.37-50

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The purpose of this paper is to show Dickens's view on charity appeared in his famous fable-like short story, A Christmas Carol. Through the most famous character in Dickens's novels, Ebenezer Scrooge, Dickens argues that personal charity is more important than public charity. While public charity is cruel and impersonal like work house system, personal charity, Dickens argues, is more direct and effective for its psychological distance. Three Ghosts coming on Christmas eve implies the ways of Scrooge's past, present and future. The first Ghost is the representative of a Malthus's cruel rationality and the second one is the show case of the conflict between the middle class and the lower class in the mid Victorian Era. The last Ghost is a kind of a suggestion to heal the conflict through personal charity meaning the material contact between individuals. In A Christmas Carol Dickens shows that he prefers to personal charity for the immediate result of charity and the fact that public charity has not fully organized yet.


메리의 탐색 — 프란시스 호지슨 버넷의『비밀의 정원』


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 2호 2012.06 pp.51-71

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Frances Hodgson Burnett's The Secret Garden (1911) is a narrative of Mary's quest which follows a similar narrative type of the fairy tale, “Sleeping beauty.” Like the prince in “Sleeping Beauty,” Mary passes through an overgrown ivy-covered doorway. After arriving at Misselthwaite Manor, Mary discovers a key and an ivy-covered door that leads to the secret garden which is near dead. She crosses the threshold to the secret garden and consequently awakes the Craven men, Archibald Craven and Colin Craven. Arhcibald Craven's sorrow and despair have caused him and his son, Colin to become the target of a curse and so they have both fallen into a deep and dark sleep. This continues until Mary arrives at Misselthwaite Manor and awakes them. She saves Colin and Archibald, as well as the garden, with the help of Mrs. Sowerby, Ben, Dickon and Lilias' spirit which has existed therein ever since her death. Mary is instrumental in discovering and saving the secret garden though there are others who help. Mary, as a seeker, finds the lost key and door to the garden, crosses its threshold, awakes the sleeping center and bring it to life. Moreover, her self develops to the point of transcending ego-centrism; helping to give life to the people of Misselthwaite Manor. Thus, in the last scene in which Colin and Archibals, heads held high, stride across the lawn to the manor, Mary excludes herself, as she chooses to stay at the center of the garden; the locus of feminine energy. The manor depends on the garden; the center of which Mary exists in.


앨리스 칠드러스의 초기극과 인종차별의 공간화


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 2호 2012.06 pp.73-91

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This essay examines the ways in which racial segregation is spatially represented on stage by assessing its political significance in Alice Childress's early plays, Florence, Trouble in Mind, and Wedding Band. It analyzes how the ideology of white supremacy functions to construct black space both physically and imaginatively on the basis of the difference of color, thereby legitimatizing the spatial distinction between blacks and whites. Racial prejudice enforces segregation in spaces for blacks, while preventing them from exercising the rights of place taken for granted by their white counterparts. The settings for their everyday life are the confines mandated by Jim Crow Laws, exemplified in waiting rooms at railway stations, polling places, and places of residence. Upon examination of spatial distinctions as a fundamental cause of racial disparities, it becomes clear that Alice Childress attempted to use realism to describe black spaces discriminately constructed by whites in racial relations between them. Through this essay I argue that Childress's early plays paved the way for establishing the space of freedom for blacks with respect to the spatialization of race by causing the audience to acknowledge the necessity of change through the spatial visualization of racial segregation.


『데이지 밀러: 하나의 연구』에 관한 또 하나의 연구 — 스키넥터디 성향과 뉴욕시 사교계 문화와의 관계를 중심으로 데이지의 정체성 엿보기


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 2호 2012.06 pp.93-124

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Critics of Daisy Miller have generally agreed that Daisy, the heroine of the novella, is a simple and unambiguous character just because they think of her as a stereotypical young American woman in the latter part of the nineteenth century. This essay questions the validity of their view by contending that the character of Daisy has complexity and ambiguity for the very reason that she is presented as a stereotype. In Daisy Miller, she is oversimplified as a stereotype of uncultivated young American women by the Europeanized Americans, including Winterbourne and Mrs. Costello. James is no less responsible for the characterization of Daisy. He presents Daisy as a representative figure in order to render the narrative a satirical comedy of manners which demands characters with stark contrasts in terms of their manners and ways of thinking. On the other hand, Winterbourne, the central intelligence of the story, attempts to categorize Daisy but fails to do so, because of his male desire and his inability to understand what her unique background as a young lady from Schenectady with experience of the fashionable world of New York high society implicates. According to Stuart Hall, a stereotype is created by those who tend to judge others based on their prejudice and a sense of superiority without in-depth knowledge of the backgrounds of the targets of their stereotyping. Daisy is not merely a young woman from Schenectady but the daughter of a nouveau riche couple, who frequented and experienced New York City's high society which has influenced her character and behavior. Daisy is a kind of cultural construct and her identity therefore was forged by the intricate web of cultural forces. Thus, “the unambiguous ambiguity” of Daisy's identity, to borrow Lukacs' expression, can be more lucidly illuminated when approached with references and discourses outside the text of Daisy Miller. This essay is an attempt to re-examine the identity of Daisy and the multiple implications of her unconventional behavior by resorting to a number of outside references that detail the culture of New York high society and the traits of Schenectady.


토익 수험자의 인식 연구 — 비판적언어평가론 관점에서

신동일, 김주연

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 2호 2012.06 pp.125-157

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The purpose of this study is to understand Korean test-takers’ perceptions on TOEIC from critical language testing (Shohamy, 2001a). The interview data of this study were acquired from eleven college students who have learned TOEIC in everyday contexts. The results are found as follows: Firstly, test-takers saw TOEIC as an institutionalized test. They associated TOEIC with ‘spec’, ‘scale’, and ‘gate keeper’. Secondly, TOEIC was perceived as a perpetuating tool of English status and successful career in Korea. Lastly, most participants took TOEIC-based English learning as building test-wiseness skills although a few expressed positive attitude toward TOEIC preparation. This study implies that TOEIC cannot be viewed as a neutral and positive measure of English proficiency, and that ‘use-oriented testing’ needs to be considered in high-stake testing contexts, for the use of shared authority, collaboration and involvement of different stake holders. Implications for further research are also discussed.


A Vindication of the Rights of the Racial Other: Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein

Kyoung-sook Kim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 2호 2012.06 pp.159-177

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This essay re-reads Mary Shelley's Frankenstein as a “vindication of the rights of the racial other,” echoing the wellknown book A Vindication of the Rights of Woman written by her mother Mary Wollstonecraft. Transcending the criticisms reading Shelley's novel as a highly racist work, this essay aims to grasp in Shelley's text some revolutionary moments to vindicate the racial other's rights as equal human beings. In this reading against the grain, the Creature resists the unfair stereotypes stigmatizing racial others and upends such racial discourses themselves through his articulate voice. In fact, the text Frankenstein can be read in the context of colonialism. Victor Frankenstein and Henry Clerval represent England as a colonizer. Victor's scientific endeavor along with Henry Clerval's ambitious desire to join the East India Company and expend his energy in the pursuit of imperialist concerns reflects colonialist aspects of England in the late 18th and early 19th century. While Victor and Henry represent the imperial penetration into the East, the Creature plays the role as the racial other, who is colonized by such an penetration. The existence of the Creature can be interpreted as a kind of symptom of the uncomfortable feelings of the whites toward racial others in general rejected from the European culture. It is highly revolutionary of Shelley to give a voice to the Creature for his own part of storytelling. She brings to the surface the voice of the usually muted Other. The Creature's life story reveals the important fact that the monster is not inborn but constructed by the social system. The monster does not come from without, but is constructed from within an exclusive society defining the Other as a threat while the Other only desires to belong to the society the Other is born or brought into. Considering the fact those corpses that provide their parts to the Creature are in effect Europeans, the Creature comes from nothing but Europeans. The novel seems to make this point quite clear by making Frankenstein and his Creature indistinguishable.


Rethinking the Value of Literary Text : A Modernist/Postmodernist Reading of the Hegemony of the Idea of the Classic and Enlightenment

Hongki Kim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 2호 2012.06 pp.179-192

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Western metaphysics has never been severed from its exclusive effort to monopolitically anchor Humanism as well as literary discourse in its own dogmatic vantage point. Western Humanism had not only invented the idea of the classic but had solidified and handed over its ideological hegemony that ultimately excluded from their literary discourse “the other” that may have threaten their social order and hierarchical cultural systems. From the early Greek and Roman Civilization throughout medieval Western world down to late nineteenth century Western society, prominent thinkers and writers had perpetuated the idea of the classic and only monopolized literary discourse so as to secure their own cultural identification. But, modernist and postmodernist literary discourse including deconstruction, reader-response criticism, psychoanalysis criticism, inquires into the very ideas of the classic and enlightenment that had been indoctrinated by hierarchical systems of both aristocracy and middle class bourgeois society. Postmodernism is a new hermeneutic cultural movement that anchors their point of departure for inquiry to a pragmatic view, a position that, instead of bringing collective response, the literary work remains a polyvalent text that reflects diverse socio-cultural interaction with unknown readers.


Heavy Complements in English

Yoon-kyoung Joh

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 2호 2012.06 pp.193-215

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This study mainly concerns English data where an overt element apparently intervenes between the head and the complement, which posits an interesting question under the X-bar schema. For the data, three possible movement-based accounts (the incorporation, the rightward movement, the verb movement approaches) are discussed but it is pointed out that those transformational approaches encounter critical problems. Thus, it is concluded that the complement that comes after a modifier is base-generated and is placed in a special complement position that is preserved at the right periphery, being mediated by the light verb phrase which connects the theme structure to the rheme structure. This proposal has an advantage of making a generalization that heavy elements occur at the right periphery. This study further accounts for distributional and grammatical contrasts between non-nominal complements and nominal complements that appear after a modifier. Also, this current account can make a structural distinction between subject inversion and the construction of the heavy complement which have previously been viewed as a heavy NP shift identically, explaining their different distributional fact.


Vocabulary Achievement by 6th Graders under the 2008 Revised National Curriculum

Hyojung Lee

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 2호 2012.06 pp.217-243

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The present study investigated how well elementary 6th graders in Korea have learned their curriculum-based English words. In addition, the study tried to ascertain how far the participants had learned depending on the amount of instruction by recruiting the participants from different school systems. With Wesche and Paribakht’s (1996) vocabulary knowledge scale, a total of 36 words from 6th grade English textbooks were tested. The results revealed that first, all participants had slightly higher productive vocabulary knowledge than receptive vocabulary knowledge. Second, while the private school groups had more productive vocabulary knowledge than receptive vocabulary knowledge, the public school groups had more receptive vocabulary knowledge than productive vocabulary knowledge. Third, some words were similarly less-acquired, regardless of the amount of instruction. Fourth, the two groups showed similar errors at both receptive and productive levels. In conclusion, both groups' vocabulary achievement was statistically different, presented by vocabulary development levels; however, they revealed qualitatively similar erroneous features when they use the target words. These findings may have implications for English vocabulary learning and teaching, along with word-selection of English textbooks.


‘Where is Brian?’: A Call for Alternative English Instruction in France?

Jocelyn Wright

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 2호 2012.06 pp.245-264

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This article explores French students’ perceptions of their previous English language learning experience in France as compares with an excerpt from a sketch by a compatriot comedian, Gad Elmaleh (2006). After my own analysis of the sketch, five main critiques of the English education he received are identified and descriptions and rationales for two alternative approaches to language teaching, content-based instruction and task-based language teaching, are briefly presented.

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