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영어영문학21 [English21]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
    학술지
  • 발행기관
    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
  • ISSN
    1738-4052
  • 간기
    계간
  • 수록기간
    1967~2018
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제24권 4호 (15건)
No
1

쏘로우의 자연관과 그 현대성

강용기

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 4호 2011.12 pp.5-20

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

In this essay, modernity in the view of nature is defined as a dynamic interaction between eco-centrism and anthropocentrism. And environmental pragmatism the rationale of which is rooted in ‘experience' might articulate those binary positions either of whose logics cannot avoid a fundamentalist view of the world. Thoreau's view of nature anticipates environmental pragmatism in that it is formulated through his nature-experiencing whereas he never rejects the transcendentalist view of nature. But his experience-based concept of nature is significantly differentiated from the Emersonian transcendentalist view of nature whose logic is fixed to an a priori reasoning. Therefore, it could be said that Thoreau invites dynamic dialogues in terms of nature-perception while Emerson presses his readers with a coercive view of nature.

2

“Saving” Shakespeare—대버넌트(Davenant)에서 개릭(Garrick)에 이르기까지

김강

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 4호 2011.12 pp.21-46

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The aim of this paper is to examine a variety of forms and contents of Shakespearean stages of adaptation and retelling from the Restoration through the age of David Garrick in a macroscopic way. It is probable that contemporary stage productions of Shakespeare's plays have been evolved, put metaphorically, by means of the Darwinian survival of fittest, complying with the different tastes and colors of the stages over generations. In the late seventeenth century, Shakespeare was greatly hailed by John Dryden, while condemned by most of theatre critics inclusive of Thomas Rhymer mostly for his overstated figurative language and audacious conceits in the play. Thus, retelling and adaptation of most of his original plays should be made quite properly by such playwright, or theatre manager as William Davenant and David Garrick, two of the leading figures of the change, to seek mostly popular applause from the audiences and partly to contain a certain aspect of social and political issues of the time. These trends of revision successfully continued to the compromised reach of David Garrick in the eighteenth century with intermittent retrospective responses to Shakespeare's artistic genius and originality. Today, we have our own Shakespearean stages and productions flourishing in the various fields of musicals, operas, and even Hollywood films, which seem providing a new medium for representing Shakespeare. It seems that in our own way, we may be approaching once again to the Restoration than we are willing to think.

3

삼각형 두 개 - 지라르로 『어려운 시절 』 읽기

문상화

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 4호 2011.12 pp.47-62

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The purpose of this paper is to apply René Girard's model for the triangle of desire for Hard Times. Girard in his book argues that persons would possess the desire forced by mediators in society and that the desire can be shown through a triangle structure including subject, desire and mediators. If we apply the theory of Girard for Hard Time, Girard's relational geometry diagrams show the relations among Louisa, Mr. Gradgrind, Bounderby, Rachael and Blackpool. The application of Girard for Hard Times reveals another interesting aspect of the industrialized Coketown people's attitude toward marriage and divorce. The abortive struggle to get divorce of the characters, Louisa and Blackpool, shows why Bounderby as a mediator obstructs the achievement of desire of the characters wanting to divorce.

4

과거와 현재의 교차로인 길리아드 — 마릴린 로빈슨의 『길리아드』

이승복

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 4호 2011.12 pp.63-84

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

Marilynne Robinson's Gilead, published in 2004 and awarded Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 2005, deals with the stories a 77-year-old dying minister tells in his letter to his 7-year-old son. It is a mixture of personal memories and public history, a mixture of fact and fiction, covering the era between the mid-19th century and the mid-20th century. The protagonist John Ames calmy describes the major events in American history and weaves them with the personal memories of how his grandfather and father had reacted to the same events and what consequences their different reactions have brought to him and his family so far. The core of all the difficulties and conflicts within his family is how to apply religious teachings to race problem, which still haunts American society in the modern age. In developing the stories, Robinson deliberately set the spatial setting in a fictional city of Gilead which is based on the real city of Tabor in Iowa. Located in midwestern, this fictional city is on crossroads where different ideas collide and, like other nameless midwestern settlers' town, is soon forgotten from people's memory despite its glorious campaign and numerous anonymous heroes. Through family conflicts between and among generations, Robinson tries to retrieve the past which is painful and thus ignored by American public. Yet, Robinson casts a seed for hope to cure the deep-rooted agonies in the end by having John Ames and his godson Jack Boughton reconcile through mutual understanding. Ames's nameless son is implied to perform the final task of healing the wound if he grows up to be a brave man in a brave country.

5

편집증적 디아스포라 — 초기 아시아계 미국인 문화에 대한 소고

임경규

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 4호 2011.12 pp.85-111

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This paper aims at rewriting the history of early Asian American people in terms of diaspora. In doing thus, I will highlight the diasporic nature of early Asian Americans, that is, their imaginary relationship with, and their cultural exchange with, Asia—an important but repressed part of Asian American subjectivity. First of all, I will define early Asian Americans as the “diaspora of paranoia” with all its Lacanian connotation. Here, the term paranoia does not refer to a particular pathological condition; it rather foregrounds the nature of early Asian immigrants' peculiar way of imagining their homelands. That is to say, for the early Asian Americans, multiplicity of one's identity in a socially symbolic order is subsumed under a single signifier, that is, Asia. This paranoiac relationship with their homelands is structured and constructed by institutional and cultural racism of the US that barred Asians from becoming legitimate citizens of US, on the one hand, and the physical and psychical distance from their homeland that foreclosed the possibility of their ultimate return, on the other. Furthermore, early Asian Americans' paranoiac relationship with Asia gave rise to a peculiar kind of structure of feeling in their culture, which I will define as “aspiration to impossible authenticity.” Of course, there is no such thing as authenticity. Nevertheless, the imagined nature of their relationship with Asia and the physical distance from it necessarily leads them to a tragic self-knowledge that they can never remain as an authentic Asian subject. I will show how this peculiar kind of structure of feeling shapes the early Asian American life and culture through a close reading of Bienvenido's short story “Scent of Apples” which vividly encapsulates early Filipino Americans' life.

6

미너 로이의 성과 사랑의 시

장근영

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 4호 2011.12 pp.113-144

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This essay aims at unearthing the forgotten and lost female modernist, New Woman, Mina Loy. Her brilliant starlit remnants are literary works, paintings, drawings, and art works including “junk art” and lamp shades. Loy’s “Songs to Joannes” (1917) and “The Ineffectual Marriage” reflect her own experiences with fictional and former male lovers as well as Giovanni Papini. Certainly she is rigorously against Romantic conceptions of love, late Victorian values of gender binaries, and men’s commerce of the women so as to maintain the hom(m)o-sexual and self-same male economy. In that economy, woman has an exchange value, becomes a commodity in the market, and is consumed as a usable product between men. Rather than fixed genders or identities, I choose gender fluidity and shifting identities over times. In addition to her pornographic descriptions of love and sex, she is an adherent of contested notions of motherhood and sexuality. In “Songs to Joannes,” she interlopes the male-dominated society: otherwise “The Ineffectual Marriage” shows masculine interventions by Pound's editing and retitling. To specify institutions of marriage in Loy’s “Feminist Manifesto” (1914), I draw topics on prostitutions in America, 1900-1918. Asserting forceful destruction of virginity, Loy is vehemently opposed to commercial exchange values of virginity in relation to marriages. She relocates old binaries, angel/monster, mother/whore, and nothing/excess of feminine sexuality, telling us to demolish “the division of women into two classes the mistress, & the mother”—for Duplessis, in Loy, “maternalist thinking meets free love.” De Beauvoir and Irigaray argue that woman is not needed to have a constant, static identity. Through its transcendental and liminal states, maternity in “Parturition” (1914) becomes an apparatus to achieve the feminine, fluid, and soft self with the acceptance of the otherness.

7

제인 에어와 주변 인물들과의 관계유형 — 사르트르, 부버, 레비나스의 타자이론을 중심으로

정정호, 박선경

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 4호 2011.12 pp.145-173

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Any human-being can't live alone. Our self-recognition and subjectivity are deeply rooted in the relationship of many others, and we live with consciousness of the Other. In Jane Eyre, Jane comes into various others until she identifies herself independent subject with self-consciousness. Among the relationship-types, three Other theories of Sartre, Buber, Levinas could be properly appropriated and productively applied to the analysis of various characters around Jane Eyre. According to the Other theory of Sartre, the subject and the other never come into equal relations, dominate and neglect each other. As a result, the relationship only begets conflict and hate. But if the Other being to attack and control does not exist, and even this relationship is aggressive and selfish, the subject also can't get a proper identity. In theories of Buber and Levinas, however, also subject and the other exist as existence to support each other, they construct mutual relationship by interaction. The theories of Buber and Levinas is a propose alternative strategies against Sartre. Buber puts emphasis on ‘I-You' which is a relationship that stresses the mutual than ‘I-It'. The relationship of ‘I-You' is built on respect from difference of the Other, and the relationship of coexistence may maintained well without division. Furthermore, Levinas argues that responsibility for the Other is rooted within our subjective constitution. He based on the ethics of the Other, and stresses that we should accept others as inferior existence. Levinas insists that the most ethical and ideal relationship is to admit the difference of the other by devoting to them and serving and caring in mutual relationship. This thesis connects the theories of three philosophers to Charlotte Brontë's novel, Jane Eyre and then classify the characters around Jane Eyre into three types of human relationships from the perspective each theory. Especially, it is very interesting to change the relationship between Jane and Rochester dynamically and contain the three theories in the novel. Disscussion of the other in a novel can make it possible that we realize right perception of relationship with the other out of the opposition of dichotomy in the literary works. Also, it should be a wise strategy that any attempt to make a true understanding the others, is not simply for interpretation of literary works, but also for harmonious human relationship in general.

8

『로빈슨 크루소』와 여성적 메타포로서의 섬

최유진

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 4호 2011.12 pp.175-197

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This study reveals the double functions of the island through its operative interplay of ‘spiritual womb' and ‘gendered others'—the former setting out the religious emblem through which the spiritual progress of the protagonist is achieved, and the latter exposing the instrumentalization of and the violence upon nature (or the gendered others). The biblical metaphor, spiritual womb, projects the meaning of it being the place where a soul is spiritually newborn or delivered and, even though his progress is erratic, the contrast between Crusoe's post-island behavior and his pre-island one proves that the island has enabled the protagonist to develop spiritually. In the novel, woman is literally absent; however, her presence is continually affirmed and reaffirmed through the representations of nature—specifically, through the presence/role of the island. The island and Friday are symbolized as the gendered others/marginality and they expose the cruelty and absurdity of patriarchy/Eurocentricism. The feminine metaphor of the island is, however, a disguise that veils the power of counterattacking the center and overthrowing the male-centered/Euro-centered hegemony.

9

토머스 와이어트의 시에 나타난 조신의 삶

홍옥숙

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 4호 2011.12 pp.199-216

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This article explores the life of Renaissance courtiers centering on the three epistolary satires by Thomas Wyatt. Poetic speakers of the satires contrast the comfortable and care-free life in the country with the life at the corrupt court by relying on the pastoral convention. These satires have been evaluated mostly based on the idea that they reflected the humanist education Wyatt had received. However, the concept of ‘sprezzatura,' which Castiglione argued to be the characteristic of an ideal courtier, can play a significant role in interpreting these satires. According to Castiglione, a courtier should be good at sprezzatura or disguise in order to advise the ruler without revealing his intention nor provoking the ruler. All three satires of Wyatt consistently reject and criticize the life at the court. However, the concept of sprezzatura leads us to reconsider the authenticity of the speakers, who seemingly prefer the country life. As the pastoral convention at the time presupposes the presence of the court in the background, praise of the country life also reveals Wyatt's incessant obsession with the court even when he was pushed out of the competitive court life. While criticizing the corrupt court and courtiers' lives, the satires portray the poet who subjects himself to the power of Henry VIII. The seemingly contradictory attitude toward the court life should be understood as the inevitable strategy of the courtiers who were expected to disguise. Wyatt's satires also deal with the problems of the court and the way of living in there, although they do not reveal such personal side of the poet as in his love poetry.

10

TAKE의 이중목적어 구조

박한기

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 4호 2011.12 pp.217-236

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Some of the English transitive verbs are extended to take two objects as its complements, resulting in Double Object Constructions. One of the polysemous transitive verb, TAKE has two Double Object Constructions, one of which has the opposite meaning of the other. It is argued in this paper that TAKE is one of the ‘giving verbs' on the one hand and one of the ‘taking verbs' on the other hand. One of the two Double Constructions of TAKE is {A take H X} meaning “A takes X and gives X to H and causes H to have X”. The other is {iti take H X [to vp]i} meaning that for H to vp, it take X from H and cause H to lose X, which has as its variants {M take H X [to v []]}, {it take H X before S vp}, and {it take H X, but S vp}.

11

아원자적 의미기술의 몇 가지 문제점

이영헌

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 4호 2011.12 pp.237-260

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The purpose of this paper is to explore the event structure of the noun phrases, adverbs, and complex verb phrases based on the subatomic semantics, and to point out some problems in semantic representation of those expressions. So we try to extend and revise the grammatical model in order to solve the problems. We argue that the event structures of some noun phrases should be treated as the event structures of higher order verbs, because they function as the complex predicates. It means that the event structures of the NP represent the higher event than the verbs do. We also treat the evaluative adverbs, speaker-oriented adverbs, and domain adverbs as the functors of predicate, not the functors of the events. We give the event structure of the Korean complex verb. For instance, SA- JUDA(buy), the first verb SA(buy) represents the core event and the second verb JUDA(give) outer event. However, the event structure of some verbs in English, which gives some effects to the objects, could be divided into a outer event and core event structure in Voorst(1988). Finally we add some operators P, >, and sub-event type Ɛ, to the grammatical model. We can represent the event structures of quantized and cumulative aspects and telic and atelic aspects, and the NP with meaning higher order predicate, and speaker- oriented adverbs with a operator P. And the operator > represents the order of events.

12

블렌디드 러닝 기반 영어동화학습을 통한 초등학교 4학년 읽기 능력 신장에 관한 연구

박은주

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 4호 2011.12 pp.261-287

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This study is to investigate the effects of instruction using stories in Blended Learning environment on EFL Elementary learners' reading ability in Korea. The hypotheses are as follows; First, learning activities in instruction using stories in Blended Learning environment would result in more improvement of Elementary learners' ability of English reading; Second, it would result in a positive effect on the students' affective domain in English. This study was carried out for over 12 weeks. To verify the two hypotheses, there were comparisons between two assessments of Elementary learners' reading ability and affective domain, which were done in September and December. The subjects were 26 4th graders at S Elementary school, located in Daejeon-city. As for assessment of the subjects' English proficiency and achievement, a set of English reading test, journal and the questionnaire on learners' affective domain were used. Consequently, instruction using stories in Blended Learning environment is confirmed as a way to improve learners' reading ability and has a positive effect on the students' affective domain including interest, confidence and self-directed learning.

13

온라인 영어독해 수업의 상호작용 활성화 방안에 대한 연구

조수근

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 4호 2011.12 pp.289-314

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The purpose of this paper is to investigate methods to activate interaction in on-line reading courses. Two questions are addressed in this study: (1) What are the actual conditions of interaction occurring in on-line reading classes? (2) What are the methods for activating interaction for those classes? To achieve the goals, an on-line questionnaire has been conducted on 81 EFL students. The results show that interaction is generally not very active, and it mainly occurs between learners and lecturers, between learners and contents, between learners and tutors/assistants. In particular, the interaction between learners exhibits the lowest interaction level. The results also show that in order to promote their interaction with lecturers in on-line reading classes, learners should receive feedback and encouraging comments from lecturers. To activate learners' interaction with contents, it is necessary to provide learners with new vocabularies and expressions before their starting studying and summary pages at the end of the course. In addition, the results show that learners need to receive professional help from tutors and assistants with questions about the lecture and technical problems.

14

Can Okonkwo Speak?: Re-Reading Okonkwo’s Suicide as a Silent Speech through Body

Kyoung-sook Kim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 4호 2011.12 pp.315-330

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Many postcolonial critics have grappled with the question over the subaltern's voice/representation: who can have voice or who can speak (for others)? As an effort to translate theoretical assertions into practice, this essay examines Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart in order to reread Okonkwo's murder and suicide as a highly subversive yet silent speech of the subaltern, reconsidering Spivak's famous (or infamous) manifesto that “the subaltern cannot speak.” Seemingly, Okonkwo who plays a role as the keeper of native culture and order embodies the surrender of aboriginal culture to the colonial violence through his demise. However, Okonkwo's murder and suicide is full of political meanings both to Umuofia and to colonizers. His murder of the colonial figure would threaten the colonial order itself; at the same time, it would trigger Umuofia's collective resistance against colonizers. At the same time, Okonkwo's dead body becomes a reminder to hark back to pre-colonial days when they used to be one as “clansmen” against strangers. More importantly, since Okonkwo's body should be taken down from the tree and buried not by the Umuofia people but by others, his murder and suicide can be passed on to others. After all, Okonkwo's dead body becomes a signifier referring to what brought him to commit such an abominable behavior. In this way, both to his own people and to colonizers, Okonkwo's body becomes a silent but provocative text of anti-colonial violence, which should be deciphered and brooded over.

15

The Poetics of Young Milton

Hyun Pae

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제24권 4호 2011.12 pp.331-343

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Even though Milton's greatness is usually discussed in terms of his great works in the later days, his lyrical poems written in his youth have their own importance. They show very well the poet's mastery of the earlier literary traditions. And, at the same time, Milton's early works, both in their literary themes and techniques, can be accepted as a real preparation for the achievements in his later years. Though his literary works in youth and in age show drastic changes, these changes should be understood as continuous flow not as distinct contrast. While his reputation rests primarily upon the long works of his later years, those early works such as “L'Allegro,” “Il Penseroso,” and Lycidas show the same genius at work and reveal the wide range of his interests and abilities. They illustrate Milton as a great practitioner of different literary genres, his manipulation of musical devices, metrical systems and structures, and his ability of fusing together those literary techniques into his themes.

 
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