영어영문학21 [English21]

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    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
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    KCI 등재
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    인문학 > 영어와문학
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    KDC 840 DDC 820
제21권 2호 (9건)

존 스타인벡의 생태의식과 그 역동성 -『미지의 신께』를 중심으로


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제21권 2호 2008.08 pp.5-26

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The two concepts of god and their ecological entailments motivate Steinbeck’s early novel To a God Unknown; a Christian god worshipped by Burton is juxtaposed against an ‘oak tree,’ a pantheistic deity vindicated more vehemently by Joseph than anybody else. The concept of Joseph’s god is generated through an epistemological process of ‘non-teleological thinking’ whose detailed explanation is offered in Log from the Sea of Cortez while ‘teleological thinking’ supposedly underpins Burton’s evangelist god. Although the two concepts of god are presented seemingly dualistic in this novel, in fact, the non-teleological god is implied to articulate the teleological god, the textual evidence of which is provided by Father Angelo’s deconstructive response to Joseph’s concept of god. Also, Joseph’s non-teleological thinking is travestied through a paranoiac ritual of ‘the old man.’ The concept of non-teleological god (the old man’s sun in this case) is associated with that of ‘Self’ reified by Deep Ecology. Thus, it seems to inherit the epistemological and ontological totality embedded in the view of nature of Deep Ecology, such as ‘inherent value,’ ‘Self-realization,’ and ‘biocentric equality.’ However, Joseph’s articulated concept of non-teleological god allows a deconstructive view of nature that, in turn, prompts to necessitate a dynamic eco-consciousness fluctuating between ‘conservationism’ and ‘preservationist standpoint’. By subverting the totality of Deep Ecology, furthermore, the author invites a pragmatic view of nature provided that pragmatism goes well along with the deconstructionist’s renunciation of the autonomy of language and human subjectivity, and recognition of their historically embedded character. And this pragmatic dynamism will hopefully help to activate ecological discourses and better-provoke more realistic changes of our ecological consciousness and practice, rather than remaining helplessly in the ecological stalemate.


카리브계 미국 흑인여성의 포스트식민적 글쓰기 - 자메티카 킨케이드의『어느 작은 섬』과『루시』


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제21권 2호 2008.08 pp.27-48

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The exploration of the multiple identities of the Caribbean women is intrinsic to the narratives of Jamaica Kincaid whose migration allows internal critiques of new inscriptions of colonial homeland and imperial new land in a variety of cultural contexts. This study considers the postcolonial writing of Kincaid in A Small Place and Lucy, centering on race, class, and gender/sexuality of female subjectivity of the Caribbean diaspora. A Small Place is a fictitious cultural essay, exploring tourist culture and Caribbean identity more polemically. Its main concern is the articulation of the effects of colonialism on subjectivity, specially on female subjectivity in the Caribbean area. As the narrator/writer describes to a tourist of the Antigua area, to invoke and reverse the discourse of white racism, with a critical insider/outsider perspectives on a Caribbean slave society and their legacy on contemporaries, she rejects almost everything that had negative influence on Antigua and its inhabitants. The narrator expresses indignation at not only the white tourists and colonizers but also her fellow Antiguans. With the purpose to explain the intricate situation of Antigua to a European or American audience in A Small Place, the narrator expresses the most elaborate analysis of an intricate cultural-political situation of Antigua, providing a postcolonial feminist definition of the (dis-)identity of a “third world” black woman. Lucy, an autobiographical text based on Kincaid's early experiences as a nanny for a well-to-do family in the U. S. A. dramatizes class, race, and gender dynamics. As a young black woman from a working class with colonial background, Lucy comes to reach a profound awareness that gender relations are mediated by race and class hierarchies. Firstly, the text presents conflicted mother-daughter relationship, focussing on Lucy's own subjective experiences as a daughter. The biological mother is connected to the gendered functions of colonial power. Secondly, Lucy studies her happy, affectionate employer, Mariah, who, like her mother, also would use Lucy in the same way. By exposing the relation between the wealth of people like Mariah and the poverty of the world's majority, Lucy foregrounds global inequality. However, as feminist protagonist Lucy rejects the available identities offered by her mother and Mariah. At the novel's end the act of writing will be a painful process of recovering the past and inventing a new identity. This process can be interpreted as a metaphoric exploration of decolonization. Within the narrow geographic space, the Caribbean area represents powerfully the effects of power and control, of domination and patriarchy. This area becomes radically disrupted in the writings of Jamaica Kincaid in A Small Place and Lucy. These two texts explore the conflicts of power that stem from gender and race relationships in a postcolonial world presenting a postcolonial feminism that takes into account the complexity of the social and economic world in which the black heroine's life must unfold. In this sense A Small Place and Lucy embody the critique of western traditional middle-class feminism that we have come to associate with Gayatri Spivak.


모더니즘, 미국시, 이미지[즘], 도시 - 김기림 시론과 시학


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제21권 2호 2008.08 pp.29-73

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As a comparative study of Anglo-American and Korean modernisms, this essay posits whether Kim Ki Rim's Koreanized appropriation of Anglo-American modernism is successful. Rather than seeing his poetry and poetics as coming purely from the tradition of British poetry, I argue that he is genuinely affected by American poems and poets. Discussing the poems of Ezra Pound, H. D., William Carlos Williams, E. E. Cummings, and Kim's translations and adaptations of them, I trace the impact of Anglo-American literary modernism on Korean and deal with their visual images and imagism. As in the Imagist appropriation of the Orient, Kim's appropriation of Anglo-American modernism, as an occidentalist, is an exploration of the exotic to flourish Korean national literature. For Kim, the picturality in a poem is quite important, and I try to seek the ties between poetry and picturality/paintings, borrowing the notions of Jacques Derrida and Charles Altieri. Actually, following the modernist rejection of Romantic and Victorian tradition, Kim accepts experimental poetics based on visual elements not on auditory. Even while he adopts “dry and hard” masculine modernism, he is lingering in the imaginary―more exactly urban imaginary―to sustain himself in the modern metropolitan city. A sentimental, lyric self in him brings about a perpetual “make it new” in Korean modernism.


엘리엇과 재즈 - 초기 시와『투사 스워니』를 중심으로


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제21권 2호 2008.08 pp.75-100

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T. S. Eliot has interest in the popular culture genres such as dance music, minstrel show, ragtime jazz, Tin Pan Alley songs, vaudeville, burlesque and slapstick as well as in the classical genres. He employs the elements of popular culture, including minstrelsy techniques and jazz rhythm so that religious themes can be fused in his early poems and secular plays. However, only a few critics have intensively written on this aspect and the subject of jazz and its relation to Eliot's works deserve more attention. This study aims to analyze T. S. Eliot's early poems and Sweeney Agonistes by discovering the elements of jazz rhythm which play an important role in the works both as a poetic device and a sound value with religious and cultural connotations. Eliot took an experimental step towards reviving human natural rhythm in the poems by using jazz elements inherent in the primitive music in order to show the shallowness of civilization. For him such a revival was a matter of great cultural significance. In fact, they are devices not only to explain his cultural ideas but also to illuminate the rhythmic pattern of his poems and plays. He makes symbolic use of jazz elements in his early poems and Sweeney Agonistes, which itself as a genre may provide only the cheapest entertainment and are seemingly empty of any serious purpose. However, in fact, he did not employ them merely to entertain his audience, but managed to convey significant cultural meaning through them.


멜로드라마의 정치학 - 웹스터의『하얀 악마』와『말피 공작부인』


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제21권 2호 2008.08 pp.101-128

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John Webster’s major works have been regarded as tragedies, but they seem to be melodramas with their traits being quite different from what the traditional discourse of tragedy defines. There we cannot find the tragic conflict and agony the hero evokes due to his mistakes or moral sins. Rather his plays are full of some traits of sensationalism and decadence which are the main characteristics of melodrama. Although we cannot find the typical victory of the good in his works ending the conflict between good and evil, we can find a kind of melodramatic imagination that is found in the 19th century Victorian theaters. However, Webster's works don't represent the same moral lessons as the typical melodramas emphasize. The moral purpose presented in his works is connected to the author's political view about the ideological conflict and confrontation between the ruling class and the ruled, men and women, and masters and servants. Melodramas often designate the political, religious, racial, and sexual other as the force of evil, and establishes the stability and maintenance of the ruling order by destroying and containing the other's threat and revolt. But Webster's melodramas are out of this conservative ideology. His melodramatic techniques contribute to the criticism of the male-oriented ruling ideology. Therefore, it's not surprising to find that the male characters of high status turn out to be fully corrupted people, and the females and the malcontents become the main characters in Webster's plays. In The White Devil and The Duchess of Malfi, Webster takes advantage of melodramatic techniques as good means to criticize and overthrow the ruling ideology. In The White Devil, Vittoria and Flamineo, the woman and the malcontent, represent the new ideology of individual's freedom for success, while Brachiano, Francisco, and Cardinal the ruling ideology of social hierarchy. Although the two groups are all corrupted, Webster supports the former by making the inferiors more attractive and heroic. Also in The Duchess of Malfi, the Duchess and Bosola, the woman and the malcontent, represent the new ideology of woman's freedom to pursue her desire and the individual's chance for success. On the other hand, Duchess' brothers, Ferdinand and Cardinal, represent the male dominating hierarchical ideology. And Webster criticizes the latter by characterizing the brothers as hypocritical villains, while the Duchess as innocent victim.


날개 없는 흑인 -『신의 아이들은 모두 날개가 있다』


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제21권 2호 2008.08 pp.129-150

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All God's Chillun Got Wings is a play about the marriage of a black man to a white woman. The conflict in the play has profound meaning from social and tragic viewpoints. In a society where a man's value is decided not by his inner worth but by his outer appearance human understanding is made and distorted by the color of his skin. In this play by the marriage to Ella a white woman Jim the black hero wants to be compensated to some degree for the humiliation to which his society has subjected him as a member of the so-called “lower” race. He despises any sign of the slave mentality which rises from his racial origin. For him whiteness is the symbol of human dignity. Ella, on her part, is branded as black by the society because of her fallen sexual behaviors. For her the marriage is intended as an attempt to get out of the bondage of her personal past, as for Jim of his racial past. Both of the main characters are the victims of the society: he as a member of an inferior race, she as a member of the inferior sex. The marriage of these two complicated personalities results not in spiritual unity but in a complete misunderstanding of each other which turns their life together into a nightmare. Jim strives to become a lawyer in order to rise his social level but Ella does not want it because her only sense of superiority comes form the fact that she is white differently from him. Even though Ella succeeds in breaking Jim, in destroying his individuality, and in preventing his development as a person, there remains invincible truths between them; the whiteness of their souls and the sincerity of their love. Ella breaks down mentally, not being able to endure the intensity of the conflict between her faithful passion for Jim and her demonic desire to keep him in an inferior position. The play dramatizes the tragic failure of Jim to belong either to his white wife or to the white society. It emphasizes the devious ways in which this social prejudices and psychological complexes prevent the true union of black and white persons. The hero and heroine of the play are only pure victims whose tragic catastrophe results mainly from the difference of color and its social and personal oppression in spite of their characteristic flaws.


평가부사와 증거부상의 의미 기술


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제21권 2호 2008.08 pp.151-171

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The purpose of this paper is to explore some aspects of the evaluative and evidential adverbs in English and Korean and to formalize the meanings of those adverbs. Especially we argue that those adverbs in Korean are different from those of English. First, those adverbs in English can function as sentential adverb or predicative adverb, however, those adverbs in Korean have the different morphological forms for the usage. For instance, adverb DAHAENGHEE (fortunately) is used as a sentential adverb and the adverb DAHAENGHAKE (fortunately) is used a predicative adverb in Korean. And we also argue that those adverbs should be treated as the two-place predicates, but the argument form is quite different from the form that Ernst(2002) suggested. We also argue that some evaluative adverb in Korean can be subclassified as speaker-oriented adverbs, subject-oriented adverbs, or hearer-oriented adverbs depending on the context. Finally, we show that the semantic representation for the word-orders between evaluative and evidential adverbs by revised subatomic semantics.


이화에 대한 통시적 접근과 유표제약-OCP의 비교


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제21권 2호 2008.08 pp.173-196

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This paper is to consider dissimilation in a few words when two similar elements occur in adjacent position. Although there are varying views of what causes this dissimilation, the generally accepted point of view is that dissimilation occurs so as to provide for easy pronunciation. In this paper, I have considered the dissimilation in two aspects, one of which is based on diachronic approaches and the other within an OT framework. As for the diachronic methods, I have considered the analytic methods of SPE, Schane, Katamba, and Archiangeli & Pulleyblank, but these methods are not fully satisfactory in explaining this phenomenon. Within the OT framework, I have explained the dissimilation through a few constraints. Especially, in this point, OCP plays a key role in explaining the dissimilation. One interesting case is about circle>circular and particle>particular because the dissimilation occurs at two places within each word, circular and particular. Finally I have explained the dissimilation of these words satisfactorily by introducing the new constraints RMD and STW. Although the new proposed methods in this paper can explain the English dissimilation more satisfyingly than other existing approaches, they need to be developed so as to be more persuasive methods for explaining this phenomenon in other languages.


"My Heart cleft in Twain" : The Aspects of the Feminine Virtues in Hamlet

Kang Kim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제21권 2호 2008.08 pp.199-225

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The aim of this paper is to reexamine Gertrude's and Ophelia's part in Hamlet as the women who follow and consequently devote themselves to the conventional female roles as a wife and a daughter respectively. The traditional Shakespearean scholarship of criticism has overlooked them to be a simple scapegoat in the male-dominated society. However, they are not the women who intend to desert their love in order to fulfil their own purposes and interests but the ones besieged with the traditional—oppressive in a modern feminist sense—customs of the Renaissance, who should make a sacrifice of their own ego in a passive and submissive way. In the play we come to fully understand that the two female characters' senses of selfhood depend on a traditional pattern of femininity—wife has to follow her husband and daughter must obey her father. Therefore, ironically enough, their tragic flaws can be interpreted in terms of conventional virtues which at the time women have to possess, not of a challenging or subversive power. Although their greatest mistakes are that they are too much engaged in their duties to husband and father without wisdom, the implication of their affection and obedience toward their male mates needs a reconsideration in the context of the traditional concept of women.

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