영어영문학21 [English21]

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    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
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    인문학 > 영어와문학
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    KDC 840 DDC 820
제30권 1호 (18건)

루이스 어드릭의 『라운드 하우스』에서 ‘위인디구 정의’의 재해석


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 1호 2017.03 pp.5-23

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The twisted ‘wiindigoo justice’ is a key thematic phrase in Louise Erdrich’s The Round House. The double narrative of this novel contests the wiindigoo justice that originally goes along with essential Indianness. Narrative ambiguity is strengthened by juxtaposing Linden who represents colonial power and Cappy who relentlessly destroys it, and positioning Bazil, Travis, Linda and Clemence in-between. And the narrative is more complicated as Joe, an unreliable narrator and protagonist turns out to be placed between Cappy and those go-between characters. The plot also twists wiindigoo justice. After Linden is shot and killed, Joe suffers from a psychopathic aftermath whereas Cappy does not show any psychological fear or instability, which differentiates their stances on the wiindigoo justice. The author downplays the wiindigoo justice once more by extrapolating the Akii story, an indigenous Ojibwe folklore. After all, Erdrich’s narrative ambivalence leads to a literary strategy that possibly facilitates the tribal ‘survivance.’ In terms of the controversial debate on authentic Indianness, which has been held by nationalist critics and cosmopolitans over the last two decades, the author, taking a middle ground, promotes decolonization and cultural transformation as well. In other words, Erdrich takes the native sovereignty seriously, while also allowing cultural expansion on the other when it comes to cultural discourse or literary criticism.


차별적 인종화와 디아스포라의 역사적 외상 - 조이 코가와의 『오바상』


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 1호 2017.03 pp.25-46

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This paper explores differential racialization, diaspora, and historical trauma in Canada in Joy Kogawa’s Obasan. Canadian multiculturalism has been an integral part of the national identity, and the Canadian government has suggested that this multiculturalism is the heritage of tolerance in Canadian history. However, Joy Kogawa, as an ethnic minority writer, rebuts the contention by rewriting the Japanese-Canadian community's history, which had been silenced and erased in official Canadian history. Obasan presents how white-oriented society has enforced differential racialization and institutional racism. Since Japanese people first immigrated, white Canadians considered them as a ‘lower order of people.’ However, they were also afraid of ‘Yellow Peril.’ Their ambivalent emotion towards Japanese-Canadians took the form of evacuation. Obasan focuses on the evacuation, internment, and diaspora of Japanese-Canadians during World War II. To heal the historical and community trauma, Kogawa presents Naomi, whose hybridity allows her to understand both Canadian and Japanese culture. Obasan insists ethnic minorities have to remember and face history to overcome and heal the disasters in the past.


『안토니와 클레오파트라』에 나타난 전복성

김희주, 정해룡

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 1호 2017.03 pp.47-62

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This paper aims to examine how Cleopatra, who is the heroine of Shakespeare’s Antony and Cleopatra, overcomes otherness by extricating herself from the dominant racial and sexual discourses of Rome. She is branded a witch and a whore in the play, and is also accused of lustfulness, due to the prevailing stereotype that Egyptians and gypsies were the same race. However, this play gives Cleopatra a variety of subversive strategies, and she is characterized in a non-stereotypical manners. Cleopatra shows her boldness as a female monarch in her relationship with Antony, and she establishes her presence by assuming the figure of the goddess of Isis. Through this strategy, she captivates the generals of Rome, and subverts power relationships. Her cross-dressing creates a crack in Rome’s dominant male ideology. Cleopatra, one of Shakespeare’s most powerful female characters, represents her identity as a woman of strong sexuality and independent voice and boldness, and, accordingly, consolidates her position as a female monarch. Furthermore, by using a variety of subversive strategies, this play debunks the patriarchy of Rome and dominant discourse of colonization.


헨리 제임스의 『대사들』에 묘사된 지각적 경험의 특성


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 1호 2017.03 pp.63-85

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Literary criticism for Henry James’s The Ambassadors tends to focus on its descriptive technique and narrative manner. Critics have analyzed how thoroughly James, in composing the novel, concentrated his attention on delineating the vision, perception, impression, and recognition of Lambert Strether, the protagonist of the novel. In short, they have tried to prove the fact that James showd an exquisite craftsmanship in practicing the technique of ‘showing.’ Engaging in such critical discussion on the writing style and structure of The Ambassadors, this paper aims to illuminate the nature and process of Lambert Strether’s perceptual experience of the cultural environment of Paris. Strether’s perceptual experience can be characterized by such psychological concepts as attention, the fusion and flow of consciousness, impressionistic pictorialism, attraction and confusion, and an ironical conversion of recognition.


『비밀의 강』 — 다시 쓰는 호주 개척 신화


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 1호 2017.03 pp.87-108

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The Secret River is not written by an Aboriginal author but an a descendant of white settlers. Some critics criticize The Secret River as having racist stereotyping under the guise of postcolonial text. But postcolonial theory is not always well-suited to the Australian context. The novel follows the life of William Thornhill, a decent but poor man who eventually comes to New South Wales in 1806 for petty theft. The novel is the outcome of Grenville’s research on the history of her ancestor Soloman Wiseman. She has drawn him as being morally ambivalent about the way he sees and treats the Aborigines. Grenville’s portrait of Thornhill is not a hero to lead readers’ moral path in the story. Instead, he takes part in a massacre of Aborigines to disperse them and to take up the land around the Hawkesbury River. Although he gains hundreds of acres of land, he remains ‘emptied’ and never feels triumphant. In the last scene of the novel, he sits on the bench feeling punished and staring into the dark. Grenville encourages readers to reflect up on the question of what it means to be a white Australian and to call upon White-settlers to atone for the their treatment of the Aborigines.


텍스트마이닝과 영미소설의 서사성 연구 - 표본 소설 분석

박정식, 박미선

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 1호 2017.03 pp.109-134

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Using text-mining technology, this article traces diachronic changes of narrativity in the genre of the British and American novel from the 18th-century to the mid-twentieth-century. Recently introduced to the various fields of the humanities, text-mining is a viable way in which quantitative analyses can be used in literary studies. To open wide the possibility of quantitative anlayses of the genre of novel, this article shows how text-mining is used and innovates the study of novels through sample analyses of Henry Fielding, Daniel Defoe, James Joyce, and Ernest Hemingway. The results show the distinctive differences in narratorial control (first person pronoun), syntactic simplicity, and other grammatical and stylistic features. For instance, in the samples, Hemingway enhanced narrativity by increasing word concreteness and James Joyce by syntactic simplicity, whereas Defoe enhanced it by increasing referential cohesion and Fielding by deep cohesion.


토마스 킹의 『푸른 초원, 흐르는 강물』에 나타난 가면 쓰기와 가면 벗기 - 라이오넬의 실수를 중심으로


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 1호 2017.03 pp.135-160

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Thomas King is one of the best-known contemporary Native writers in Canada helping provide Canadian literature with a wide range of cultural backgrounds. His second novel, Green Grass, Running Water deals with several stories about the First Nations people in a Blackfoot community in Alberta, Canada. Among the stories, the life of Lionel is especially worthy of notice with three mistakes that he had made from his childhood to middle-age. The mistakes show that he has imitated white people by disguising his Indian identity with clothes he wears, an effect of colonialist ideology which promotes white supremacy over colored people. His mistakes of the past have a lasting influence on his presence and are related to white people, which justifies the presence and role of trickster characters in the novel. With the help of the trickster, who serves as a saviour or healer in Native American mythology and literature, Lionel successfully finds his right place and purpose in his life by restoring his identity as a Blackfoot Indian. His life suggests the question of the unhealed past and its lasting influence on the present reflecting the fate of the whole aboriginal people. This analysis takes a closer look at how Lionel's masking and unmasking is portrayed as a process of healing and restoration for the whole indigenous community.


살만 루시디의 『하룬과 이야기 바다』에 나타난 서사의 정치학


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 1호 2017.03 pp.161-179

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Salman Rushdie's Haroun and the Sea of Stories, published in 1990, is Rushdie’s first novel after the fatwa was declared against him. Therefore, this novel works as a connector between The Satanic Verses in 1988 and The Moor's Last Sigh in 1995. Haroun and the Sea of Stories is an allegory in which Rushdie is sharing literary and political concerns. This novel, written for his son, Zafar, depicts an adventure of Haroun against Khattam-Shud, who is Arch-Enemy of all Stories and even of Language. The novel exposes the dictator's censorship and oppression of free speech. Thus, in this essay, I will investigate Haroun and the Sea of Stories as an allegory of censorship and free speech. I will conclude that Salman Rushdie has avoided the binary structures and expressed hope in polyphonic hybridity as a politic narrative.


아프리카계 미국사회의 반공동체 의식에 대한 토니 모리슨의 비판적 시각


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 1호 2017.03 pp.181-206

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This study discusses Toni Morrison's critical perspectives on African Americans' anti-communalism in Song of Solomon, Sula, and Paradise. Morrison shows that materialism and paternalism, egotistic individualism, sexual exclusivism, and racial-sexual chauvinism in the black community serve as abusive obstacles to the founding and maintenance of community based on love, obstacles to the fraternal love of community, and obstacles to the love for fellow human beings. In Song of Solomon, Morrison’s perspective puts her critical focus on the patriarchal violence of Macon Dead who oppresses his family members and on his capitalistic materialism that extorts rent from his poor tenants. In Sula, Morrison’s critical focus is not only on Sula’s self-centered individualism that destroys family hierarchy and community rules but also on the community that denies Sula’s essence and dishonors her. Morrison shows that both Sula and the community go astray from African American communalism, and that each destroys the other. In Paradise, her critical focus is on the community that defines itself by disdain for racial-sexual others and by acts of violence against them. She argues that the community has copied the whites' capitalistic values, paternalism, sexual exclusivism, and racial chauvinism. She shows that the copied society doesn't share other genders’, classes’, races' identities and consciousness with its racial community. Finally, through her critical perspectives, Morrison stresses that African Americans should form and maintain communities where people understand each other and accept racial, cultural, sexual differences. More specifically, her ideal communalism means that all people, no matter what their racial, sexual, and/or cultural backgrounds may be, have their unique identities, and should be accepted in the equilibrium of multiple subjectivities.


아이티 공동체와 트라우마 회복하기 - 에드위제 댄티카의 『듀 브레이커』


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 1호 2017.03 pp.207-230

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Trauma theory reconstructs the relationship between the reader and the text as a “witness” to trauma, so that reading itself demands political, ethical, and aesthetic practices. The reader who analyzes a literary text as a testimony can become an interpreter and therapist. Furthermore, the recovered text which has revealed and healed its trauma eventually builds the bridges of understanding between sympathetic interpreters and traumatic experiences. Therefore, this paper aims to analyze how the literary text provides access to history related to individual experiences, traumas, and memories in Edwidge Danticat's The Dew Breaker, which consists of nine short stories. Her narrative text as a short story cycle imbricates—the diasporic lives of Haitain Americans as victimizers/victims and—the hanging lives of local Haitians as survivors/preys under the influence of Duvalier’s dictatorship that used torture, murder, rape, imprisonment and so on. The three main stories based on the Biennaimés—“The Book of the Dead”, “The Book of Miracles”, and “The Dew Breaker”—respectively offer a beginning, a middle, and an end to Dnaticat’s fiction. Such a textual structure takes a centripetal force to draw in the other six short stories—“Seven”, “Water Child”, “Night Talkers”, “The Bridal Seamstress”, “Monkey Tails”, and “Funeral Singers”. Mr. Biennaimé, a hunter and victimizer as Tontons Macoute/the dew breaker/fat man under the brutal reign of dictator Papa Doc in Haiti, plays an important role as social glue, for he connects other characters as a member of a whole community without distinction of race, gender, and class. The Biennaimés’ own memories and traumas have effects on their daughter, Ka, and other characters. Danticat creates various characters including Ka, Danny, Aline, Michel, and Nadine as agents of reinscribing and reconstructing their parents's memories and traumas, for they become not only listeners to victimizers’ confessions but also tolerators of victims’ silence and inarticulation.


윌리엄 셰익스피어의 『자에는 자로』— 여성 목소리의 상실에 대한 페미니즘적 읽기


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 1호 2017.03 pp.231-249

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From a feminist perspective, this essay attempts to show that, in Measure for Measure, patriarchal oppression and rigidity entrap its main female characters into the loss of their own voices. Representatively, Isabella and Mariana, who do not have the social opportunity to articulate their own voices, are eventually degraded into the passive role of women as the objects of exchange by the patriarchical order. This essay, therefore, tries to analyze the passivity and enforced silence of the two heroins in the play, using the feminist theories of Elaine Showalter and Susan Gubar. Both Showalter's “Wild Zone” and Dinesen's “The Blank Page” discuss how women are able to disrupt, symbolically at least, the oppressions of the patriarchal power and order. In these symbolic dynamic dimensions, women can possess their own voices and autonomies. Although Isabella partly controls her voice by way of using her intelligence and tactful discourses, the author makes her an unsettling character because of her virtuous ethos. The self-definition of female sexuality has been denied by the constant confrontations of the male authority in Measure for Measure. Women in this play must endure the silence and emotional restraints enforced by the male authority. Furthermore, Isabella is missing from the stage at the end of the play, which prevents her from replying to the Duke's proposal. Therefore, few would disagree that there is an absence of women's measure for men's measure, after all.


지역 생태계에 나타난 교환의 의미 — 존 스타인벡의 『통조림 공장가』


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 1호 2017.03 pp.251-271

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This study focuses on the analysis of general economics based on social exchange theory in Steinbeck’s Cannery Row (1945). This novel is set during the Great Depression in Monterey, California, on a street lined with sardine canneries that is known as Cannery Row. It revolves around the people living there: Doc, Lee Chong, Dora, and Mack, the leader of a group of derelicts. In the interconnectedness of characters, Steinbeck uses the social behavior of his characters to make an inverted economic system in the ecosystem of Cannery Row. On the basis of George Homans' social exchange theory, I analyze how Steinbeck's reversed economic view reveals the impacts of the ecosystem of the community on an individual, business, and group basis such as Doc’s exchanges with Hazel, Frankie, Mack and the boys, and Dora’s operation of the Bear Flag Restaurant. This reversed economy focuses upon people and their relationships in the local community rather than wealth and profit margins. In Steinbeck’s novel, individuals are indispensable parts of the whole society, and Homans' social exchange theory reveals people's interactions with one another to make an important part of the ecosystem in a place like Cannery Row.


Dissenters and The Pilgrim’s Progress

Jaemin Choi

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 1호 2017.03 pp.273-292

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John Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress is well known for its unique employment of allegory. Use of this well-known feature, however, has been discussed mainly in aesthetic and formal terms without consideration of the historical and cultural contexts in which the language of allegory became the site of political struggles. To remedy the void, this paper attempts to look at the literary work from the perspective of the Restoration, a historically turbulent period in which Bunyan and the Dissenting community he belonged to collided head to head with King Charles II and his court followers over not only religious but also linguistic and literary matters. To better appreciate how a literary form was more than a mere personal choice in Bunyan’s times, relevant examples such as the popularity of heroic couplets in King Charles’ courtly circles and the Puritans’ ambiguous and even contradictory attitude towards allegory are provided and discussed at length. In the course of discussion, one of the most recent, well-known scholarly works on Bunyan’s allegory (i.e. Thomas Luxon’s Literal Figures) is introduced to reveal some shortcomings with his ontological interpretation and to suggest an alternative understanding of Bunyan’s allegory. What becomes clear in this discussion is that Bunyan was fully aware of possible dangers an easy rendition of Christian doctrine in the form of allegory might entail but he ventured to use the method in order to reach more broadly and teach more effectively Godly wisdom and divine knowledge to his primary target audience—the Dissenting readers.


Beauty Metaphors in Advertising in American and Russian Women’s Fashion Magazines

Ekaterina Chon, Yoon-kyoung Joh

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 1호 2017.03 pp.293-310

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Metaphors are widely used in advertising, where they have special characteristics and serve to persuade customers to buy products or services being advertised. Metaphors can be seen as a reflection of the culture where they are used. In this paper we look at metaphors from the perspective of Conceptual Metaphor Theory and examine metaphors for beauty that are used in American and Russian fashion magazines for women. In analyzing beauty metaphors, we characterize which source domains each culture uses and explore how these source domains are similar or different. As recognizing the cultural applicability of different concepts based on metaphors is essential for advertising, translation, cultural communication, product placement and other areas, we believe that our study can make some contributions.


The Effects of English Role Plays on Korean University Students’ Anxiety, Motivation, and English-Speaking Ability

Eun-Young Jeon

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 1호 2017.03 pp.311-329

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This study investigated whether role plays in English have a positive effect on the motivation, anxiety, and English-speaking ability of Korean university students. The experiment was conducted among 34 university students in Jeonju, who were enrolled in an English conversation class. The participants received 14 weeks of role play treatment. Before and after the treatment, a survey on students’ anxiety and motivation was administered and the students’ English-speaking proficiency was tested. The data were analyzed using a paired t-test. The results showed that role plays in English had a positive effect on decreasing students’ in-class anxiety and improving their speaking ability. Therefore, role plays in English can be effective not only for improving English-speaking proficiency but also for lowering tensions in university English conversation classrooms.


The Role of the Korean Military as a Bridgehead for the Spread of English

Chee Hye Lee

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 1호 2017.03 pp.331-354

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This study explores the role of the Korean military as a bridgehead for the spread of English through the lens of English Linguistic Imperialism (ELI). In so doing, it is particularly concerned with the question of how Galtung’s (1980) four distinct categories (cC, pC, cP, and pP) of the structure of imperialism, or the Center-Periphery dichotomy, can apply to the introduction and expansion of English in the socio-historical and political contexts of Korea during the nation-building period (1945-the 1960s). The U.S. Army Military Government in Korea (USAMGIK) (1945-1948) declared English to be the official language of Korea and, in modernizing the Korean military, paid special attention to English education. Connected with the dominant power of the USAMGIK (cC), the Korean military became the new elite group (cP) in Korean society. Enjoying supremacy over the civilian sector, the Korean military committed to playing a pivotal role in spreading English into the civilian sector (pP). Not only anglocentricity, or the supremacy of English, but also professionalism, typically represented by the English Language Teaching (ELT) method of audiolingualism, was widely disseminated from the U.S. military to the Korean military, and then to the Korean public. Though short-lived, the language policy and practices of the USAMGIK have had a long-term effect on English education in Korea. The spread of English in Korea, in this sense, cannot be disassociated from the military as one of the social institutions.


Chinese EFL Learners’ Overuse of Be : Focusing on Its Formal and Distributional Characteristics

Aijing Li, Mun-Hong Choe

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 1호 2017.03 pp.355-374

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This study investigated the redundant occurrences of be in a corpus of Chinese students’ written English, focusing particularly on three aspects of the phenomenon: the characteristic patterns of their overuse of be according to proficiency level, the forms and types of the accompanying main verb, and the association between redundant be and its (non-)finite forms. The findings indicate that the frequency of redundant be errors is closely related to the syntactic properties of the main verb. When the main verb is a transitive or unergative verb, be appears most frequently with the root form of the verb. Redundant be before the root form of a verb is often used as an auxiliary verb in negative, interrogative, passive, or emphatic constructions. When the main verb is an unaccusative verb, redundant be appears more often before the past participle form of the verb. The finite form of redundant be occurs less frequently as the students’ proficiency develops, but the frequency of the nonfinite form does not change significantly. These indicate that Chinese students’ excessive use of be may not improve as a function of proficiency.

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