Earticle

Home

영어영문학21 [English21]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
    학술지
  • 발행기관
    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
  • ISSN
    1738-4052
  • 간기
    계간
  • 수록기간
    1967~2018
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제22권 1호 (14건)
No
1

생명력 예찬과 실존목적 탐구 -『죠지 밀즈』를 근거로-

고지문

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제22권 1호 2009.03 pp.5-27

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This paper examines Stanley Elkin's award-winning novel, George Mills, and his writing philosophy and technique. His philosophy and technique are based on his own unique definition of fiction and plot. Fiction “provides a stage where language can stand,” and is energized by the will. Plot is “the willingness of a character to pay close and absolute attention to the situation in which he finds himself.” George Mills, hero of the novel, is a stableman who belongs to the low class in Northumbria society with a strict class hierarchy in the 11th century. He is obsessed with the family curse, which he heard from the lord, that his descendants will never escape from the low class by birth even if they have excellent possibilities and potentialities. His descendants abandon all hope and will to raise their status and to discover their own being, and are satisfied with poor lives dependent on vigor and endurance. They have no dream and expectation in life. However, early in the 19th century, the forty-third descendant cannot accept his status as it is, and tries to do his best to fulfill his ambitions to escape from the low class. His ambitions lead him to dangerous adventures in Turkey. When he fails in his adventures, he is forced to get aboard a ship to the U. S. A. In 1980, a thousand years from the 11th century, the sixtieth descendant is living as an impoverished worker in St. Louis. His will and goal in life are not to raise his status but to know himself and find the meaning of existence. He is an ideal hero whom Stanley Elkin has created based on his unique definition of fiction and plot.

2

랠프 엘리슨의 『보이지 않는 인간』에 사용된 상징물 -"그 본래의 의미를 훨씬 넘어서는" 사물들-

나희경

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제22권 1호 2009.03 pp.29-53

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The multifaceted symbolism adopted by Ralph Ellison in Invisible Man is considered as an attempt to understand the painful reality of the African-Americans by giving order and form to the chaos of their experience. Working as an effective means to express the tragically ironic implications of their chaotic experience, his symbolism includes diverse ways of expression such as symbolic objects, symbolic acts, and symbolic incidents and episodes. Among those various descriptive techniques, Ellison's use of symbolic objects is of primary importance in Invisible Man, in that they are heavily charged with the protagonist's recognition of the social reality that American blacks face. This paper explores the unique way in which the symbolic objects function as substantial signifiers in the novel. Some of the symbolic objects absorb the historical accumulation of the African-Americans' painful experience, whose will was severely pulled this way and that because of their “double consciousness.” The other symbolic objects become signifiers to which the protagonist projects his personal desire for social climb. Yet in both cases, they cause him “discomfort far beyond their intrinsic meaning as objects.” The protagonist undergoes inner conflict caused by two disparate psychological impetuses: his will to successfully assimilate into American society and his innermost impulse for racial awareness. The meaning that he projects to the symbolic objects becomes also sharply contradictory because it is based upon his double consciousness. Ironically, however, Ellison incarnates the physical experience of the ‘invisible man' by using visible and tangible symbolic objects. Thanks to such an ironic feature of his symbolism, the meaning of the African-Americans' experience can accommodate its universality and uniqueness at once without being thinned out into abstractness and ambiguity.

3

알레고리를 통한 탈식민 상황 읽기 -『모든 것이 무너지다』-

이성진

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제22권 1호 2009.03 pp.55-77

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

Things Fall Apart, Chinua Achebe's first novel, shows postcolonial conditions in Igboland in Africa. White men bring their religion as well as colonial rulers such as District Commissioners. The white colonialist not only conquers Igboland with guns, such as Abame, but also subdues the tradition of Igbo. Through this conquest and suppression, the colonialist has done the spiritual exploitation. In this process European colonialist mythologize the African past and then excludes it from the history. Okonkwo as a protagonist is an allegory of Igboland. He represents Igbo people and tradition. Poor young Okonkwo becomes a hero in Umuofia through wrestling competition. He has achieved his fame by preserving Igbo tradition. However Okonkwo collapses because of killing a messenger sent by a District Commissioner. Like Okonkwo, the Igbo people are divided and their union fragments into pieces. In this paper I will study the historicized Igbo tradition which Achebe has reconstructed through many episodes or tales of Umuofia. And European colonialism such as christian religion or District Commissioner is also focused on this paper. It can be expected that we/Africans can find a postcolonial vision toward our future from the analysis of the colonized Ihbo society.

4

헨리 제임스의 「정글의 야수」-삶에 대한 두려움-

조흥근

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제22권 1호 2009.03 pp.79-99

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

“The Beast in the Jungle” can be considered as a companion piece of “The Altar of the Dead” in that both tales are concerned partly with the English Decadence of the 1890s and partly with the classical modernism in the early twentieth century. The heroes in both tales make an escape from ‘everyday routines’ into their own particular inner world of imagination or fantasy in which they build a strong fortress of egotism or narcissism. John Marcher in “The Beast in the Jungle” makes a journey of “a great negative adventure” in his own world of fantasy, waiting for his own “exceptional” fate with May Bartram. But his journey ends with the nightmarish attack by “the beast in the jungle” representing his own final fate. The beast represents John Marcher himself who rejects May's true love and his own life. Thus, it can be said that this tale treats the existential themes of alienation and absurdity in the modern world.

5

왕정복고 시대와 18세기의 시와 소설 속의 성직자

강문순

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제22권 1호 2009.03 pp.101-125

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This article examines the relationship between clerical portraits in some works from the Restoration period to the eighteenth century and the artists' changing perceptions of their roles as social reformers. The ancient literary tradition of portraiture of clergymen, “balanced portrait,” in which both the negative and negative are juxtaposed, remained an integral part of the writers' technique and suggested their relationship to the clerical figures. In the works the writers employed the balanced portrait. After the Restoration, writers began destroying the conventional antithesis. Though the balance still existed, the references to good clergymen are politically charged and begin to question the clergy's role as moral reformer.

6

고귀성과 현실 -월리스 스티븐스의 「고귀한 기수와 낱말의 소리」 읽기-

양균원

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제22권 1호 2009.03 pp.132-157

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

“The Noble Rider and the Sound of Words” was read by Wallace Stevens at Princeton in 1942, and became the first chapter of his collection of essays, The Necessary Angel, in 1952. It shows well the poet’s stance at the very beginning of his poetic career, and prognosticates the ensuing developments of his basic concepts such as reality and the imagination. It deals with the reason why the imagination is indispensible to modern life, and exemplifies the way it has worked from Plato to a modern artist. The imagination has been so various in meaning as not to have any meaning at all, and often treated as almost equivalent to the poet’s creative power, as in S. T. Coleridge’s “Secondary Imagination.” In “The Noble Rider” Stevens tries to provide us with a better illustration of art by which we can develop a new sense of imagination adaptable to the new “pressure of reality.” To show the different way the imagination works in history, Stevens chooses to present several episodes, deliberately revealing how the idea of nobility degenerated. Among them are an excerpt from Plato’s Phaedrus, Andrea del Verrocchio’s equestrian statue of Bartolommeo Colleoni, Cervantes’s Don Quixote, Clark Mills’s statue of Andrew Jackson, and Reginald Marsh’s Wooden Horses. In the last example, Wooden Horses, Stevens’s effort to form “the figure of a possible poet” seems to come to a transient end. The possible poet, inevitably contemporaneous, should continue to compose another proper relation between the imagination and reality against ever-changing reality, to “help people to live their lives.” The nobility of a sort may now be related to “ribald and hilarious reality” as in the merry-go-round picture, which is “not without imagination” and “far from being without aesthetic theory.”

7

『다리 위에서 본 풍경』 -중용과 조화-

김성철

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제22권 1호 2009.03 pp.159-177

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the right way of life implied in Arthur Miller's A View from the Bridge. Miller views society as a complicated network of individuals who need to balance their needs and desires against those of the wider social group in order to live fulfilled and contented lives. Important, for Miller, is the balanced way of life which takes on both individual and social responsibility; a balance trying to make the world a better place. He lays emphasis on the harmonious relationship between the individual and society. So he tries to teach his reader and audience certain truths about their own lives. Raising social and moral problems, he writes about the individual's sucess and failure, guilt and betrayal, and about love and responsibility. We can read his plays as lessons suggesting ways by which we can improve our society and life. Miller makes people all over the world accept unpleasant truths about their own lives and overcome them to lead a better life. He thinks highly of the social moderation and harmony that a modern man should observe and support as his/her life mottos. The issues of responsibility to oneself and his/her community are concerns which Miller again emphasizes in A View from the Bridge. Eddie Carbone wants to possess his niece, Catherine, who has grown up in his family. He recognizes the responsibility he has for others. He knows informing is wrong and his love for Catherine is wrong. But Eddie can't handle his own emotion. He is obsessed by incest, ignorant of his duty and responsibility in family and society. He refuses to distinguish between the good and the bad, the right and the wrong. He breaks the social convention by betraying the cousins. Eddie tells the Immigration Bureau about his wife's relatives so they will be returned to Italy to prevent Rodolpho from taking Catherine away from him. To neglect either personal or social responsibility is self-destructive. Because Eddie pays for his betrayal with his own life. Eddie's heavy price for breaking certain moral restrictions exemplifies how important it is to keep social conventions, a conventional way of thinking based on understanding and solidarity in a community of ordinary men. In contrast with Eddie's perverse desire, Rodolpho's love of Catherine is a sincere one. He never desires to own Catherine. He thinks he will lead a happy and independent life with Catherine. Catherine also respect and have a liking for Rodolpho with all her heart and soul. They are the representatives of the new world controlled by new order and value where people can usually develop their relationships through compromise and concession, harmony and morality. Miller insists that there is a moral law which judges our individual and collective actions. Miller sees such a law as fundamental to the growth and development of the ordinary individual and his society.

8

아메리칸 드림의 서곡 -어거스트 윌슨의 『마 레이니의 검은 궁둥이』-

윤현숙

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제22권 1호 2009.03 pp.179-202

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

August Wilson wrote a cycle of history plays, one play for each decade in the 1900s. His ten-play cycle comprises the most important issues confronting Black Americans for that decade, so ultimately it could stand as a record of Black experience over the past hundred years. In all his works Wilson tried to reveal the richness of lives of the black people, which has been hidden by the glancing manner in which White America looks at Blacks, and Blacks look at themselves as well. His goal is to re-examine true freedom and self-respect reflected in their lives and to make the genuine ideals of American Dream come true in America. Barak Obama, a new president of U.S.A. succeeds to the very true ideals of August Wilson, a playwright, which are to pursue not simply realization of an individual ideal but also contribution to mankind. Wilson embodied this belief into Ma Rainey's Black bottom, in which he analyzed the causes that had made the dreams of Blacks distorted and frustrated, and paradoxically affirmed that the genuine ideals of American Dream consist of freedom, peace, and coexistence, which are African traditional ideals.

9

베케트의 『고도를 기다리며』와 올비의 『동물원 이야기』에 나타난 혁명성 비교 연구

이광수

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제22권 1호 2009.03 pp.203-222

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This thesis compared Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot and Edward Albee’s The Zoo Story in the light of Deleuze and Guattari’s theory of minor literature that emphasizes three revolutionary qualities. Firstly, from the viewpoint of the deterritorialization of language, the two plays are the same in that they oppose paranoiac systems revealing linguistic inability, but they are different because Waiting for Godot achieves linguistic deterritorialization undermining standard English while The Zoo Story just gives up using linguistic method. Secondly, from the political point of view, the demonic bureaucratic machine in Waiting for Godot and the destruction of bourgeois illusion in The Zoo Story are commonly connected with politics, yet there is a difference between them; the former deals with huge bureaucratic machine succeeding in flight with open ending, when the latter gets captured by symbolic system giving a trite message with closed ending. Thirdly, in terms of the collective assemblage of enunciation, the two dramas naturally resemble the absurd dramas, however, Waiting for Godot reflects the common tendency of Irish literary works— anticonservatism, on the other hand, The Zoo Story tends to be an individual enunciation dealing with family union. In short, Waiting for Godot is a powerful machine of minor literature, but The Zoo Story is a weak one.

10

폭력의 일상성과 차이의 공간 -사라 케인의 『폭파』-

정병언

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제22권 1호 2009.03 pp.223-238

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This essay examines Sarah Kane's Blasted in the context of Henri Lefebvre's thesis on “the everyday” and “differential space.” In light of his concept of space, the study sees Blasted as a metaphor for contemporary world. It also discusses how “differential space” is generated by the social act of love. Early in its run at Royal Court Theatre Upstairs, critics, even in post-Thatcher Britain, often dismissed Blasted for its gratuitous violence. Critics also complained about the play's ambiguous setting. However, these anti-realistic elements deftly express the banality of violence in a postmodern society. Artaudian cruelty, after all, serves to attack the torpor of an audience culturally innured to violence, thus awakening its consciousness to the necessity of what Lefebvre calls “differential space.” Cate's voluntary practice of love, for instance, prods the audience into transforming their passivity into voluntariness in spatial practice for “the space of ‘yes', of the affirmation of life.” This voluntary moment becomes the force that will restore the integrity of an individual and his or her outside world, thus ending the chain of violence. In this sense, Blasted serves as “a space for change,” with special emphasis on the necessity of this moment for a “differential space.”

11

관계문법에 의한 한국어 분석

박현석

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제22권 1호 2009.03 pp.239-258

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This paper is an attempt to explore Korean double nominative, double accusative, and passive constructions within the framework of Relational Grammar. To give some background knowledge of Relational Grammar, I first introduce the notions such as grammatical relation, syntactic level and some relational laws. The main arguments of the present study are as follows: First, I classify Korean double nominative constructions into two different types: one resulting from the ‘Possessor Ascension Rule’ and the other bearing on the ‘Causative Clause Union’. Then I argue that only one of the two subjects is a real subject and the other is a cho element. Second, I also classify Korean double accusative constructions into two types. I prove that the first type of the construction results from the ‘3-2 Advancement’, and the second type bears the ‘Possessor Ascension’. As a result, I prove that only one object out of the two is a real object and the other is a cho. Finally, for the account of the Korean passive constructions, I formulate syntactic constraints on ‘-Ji Type’ and ‘-Hi Type’, respectively, as a parameter.

12

일본어의 Mitsukaido 방언에 나타난 Rendaku 재고

조학행, 서정민

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제22권 1호 2009.03 pp.259-283

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The aim of this paper is to reconsider Sasaki (2007, 2008a-c), which analyses the opacity resulting from Rendaku in the Mitsukaido dialect of Japanese. In analysing the opacity, Sasaki (2007, 2008a-c) argues in favor of Stratal Optimality Theory (SOT, Kiparsky 2000) rather than classic Optimality Theory (Prince & Smolensky 1993, 2002), Sympathy Theory (McCarthy 1999), and Optimality Theory with Candidate Chains (OT-CC, McCarthy 2006, 2007). However, SOT (Kiparsky 2000) cannot explain the opacity of Rendaku properly. In this paper contrary to Sasaki (2007, 2008a-c), we attempt to solve the opacity problem by employing OT-CC (McCarthy 2006, 2007), supporting the superiority of OT-CC (McCarthy 2006, 2007) over SOT (Kiparsky 2000).

13

대학 교양영어 확대 프로그램의 개발과 효과 -집중 영어 프로그램-

박부남, 정혜옥

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제22권 1호 2009.03 pp.285-309

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an intensive English program which is an extension of the General English program of a university. The program, Dynamic English, was designed to improve students' English communication skills through experiencing interactive learning in an intensive English for 1293 freshmen during 3 weeks(45 hours). To evaluate the effectiveness of the program, the authors measured students' achievement tests both prior to and at the end of the program. Questionnaires were also administered to 1293 students to identify their satisfaction with the program and their attitude to language learning. The results of this study showed that the program increased students' English achievement scores and their confidence in communicating with native speakers. However, the program did not positively affect students' motivation in English learning in an intensive English program. On the basis of the findings, the study offers a few pedagogical implications and suggestions for an intensive English program developers who want to design and develop an intensive English program for university students.

14

Having a Look at English Light Verb Constructions

김선희

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제22권 1호 2009.03 pp.311-330

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The purpose of the present study is to explore English LVCs and account for their usage environment within the framework of neo-Gricean pragmatics. More specifically, we will provide the answers to the following three questions: (i) how do LVCs differ from their corresponding SVCs in interpretation? (ii) what contributes to the semantic properties of LVCs? and (iii) does the choice of light verbs affect semantic characteristics of the whole constructions? And then we will argue that the distribution of LVCs and SVCs is expected and explained by utilizing Levinson's principles of pragmatic inferences, especially the M-principle which operates in terms of alternates that contrast in form. What the M-principle predicts is that “prolix or marked expressions will tend to pick up the complement of the stereotypical extensions that would have been suggested by the use of the corresponding unmarked forms”(Levinson 2000:38). When it comes to English light verbs, what is said by the use of LVCs is that colloquialness / casualness of the construction is intended, and / or that its aspectual / durative properties are present.

 
페이지 저장