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영어영문학21 [English21]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
    학술지
  • 발행기관
    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
  • ISSN
    1738-4052
  • 간기
    계간
  • 수록기간
    1967~2018
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제19권 2호 (13건)
No
1

오닐의『잘못 태어난 자들을 위한 달』: 가면의 죽음

김세근

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제19권 2호 2006.12 pp.5-23

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In order to understand Eugene O'Neill as a man and a playwright it is indispensible to clarify the character and symbolism of the mask as he used in his drama. The mask represents the main theme and technical experiments which he tried to express in his plays. In A Moon for the Misbegotten, his last-written paly, the mask is not actually employed but its symbolism plays an essential role in the plot structure and characters' relations. Outwardly the play is a trick game. In fact it becomes an exercise in the unmasking of hidden truth. Jamie and Jocey, the two main characters, masking their true characters, try to trick each other, and neither is ever quite sure what the true intention of the other is. For that matter, neither is quite sure what his/her own intention is. Each pretends to be something different from what he/she really is, and only at the end is the truth revealed. In this process the conflict between the mask and the face becomes the main action of the play. Inwardly it shows a fierce struggle of Jamie the hero, who is desperately kept in despair and guilty-consciousness caused mainly by his Oedipus complex. He is a victim of the Dionysus-Mephistopheles dynamics. His mask shows the influence of the Mephistophelian side of the dynamics. Under the mask he is suffering from his hopeless hope to be freed from the mask. With the plot proceeding in the moonlight Jamie and Jocey find their true faces and realize their love for each other. Jamie's mask is taken off by Jocey who turns from a pretended prostitute to a virgin Earth Mother. But his mask, governed by Mephistopheles, has already changed his face to a mask of death. Jocey tries to free him from death but fails because she, as a virgin, has not any Dionysian life force. Man can be freed from the mask only to death. A Moon for the Misbegotten is O'Neill's final answer to his life-long quest for the root of existence and the significance of life.

2

드니스 레버토프의 서정적/정치적 시편 연구

박연성

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제19권 2호 2006.12 pp.25-48

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The early poetry of Denise Levertov was regarded as celebratory lyric which paid attention to the pleasures of the present. When she produced political poems at the outbreak of the Vietnam War, many critics such as Gilbert, Borroff and Nelson reacted hostilely to this development. However, some critics including Driscoll and Nielsen rebuked this hostile view of Levertov's poetry by pointing out Levertov's humanism and Hasidic Jewish influence. She demonstrates both its interiority and public concern and her poems combines politics with lyricism and mysticism. Using studies done by Driscoll and Nielson, I examined six poems written by Levertov from the 1960's to the 1990's to show how both personal and social elements were considered together in her poetry. This investigation is worthwhile in that this is an extensive study, viewing Levertov's poems throughout the wide span of her poetic career. In "Three Meditations", she takes into consideration evil, both internal and external of her, against refreshing nature. In "During Eichmann's Trial," Eichmann, the horrendous figure of the Nazis regime comes to represent every person. Everyone can be an evil figure because everyone has a dark nature. In "In the time of War, " Levertov contrasts man's capability for gentleness and goodness with the evil propensity which resulted in the violent scenes of Vietnam. "Advent 1966" gives readers an image of the baby Jesus overlapped with the burning babies of Vietnam. She laments the loss of her poetic vision due to the vivid images of violence in the Vietnam War. In "El Salvador" the way to hope and salvation is shown through the martyrdom of Archbishop Romero in this land of oppression and terror. In "California During the War" the bright moment of blooming flowers is contrasted with the evil of the Gulf War. Throughout her poetic career, we can see both political and personal elements in the mainstream of Levetov's poems. Through examination of these six poems, we can see how Levertov creates an osmosis of the personal and the public.

3

바르트의 텍스트 이론과 적용:『주홍 글자』에 대한 기호론적 접근

이강노

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제19권 2호 2006.12 pp.49-67

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Literary works are generally said to have objective meaning which the reader should search for. New Critics shifted the source of meaning traditionally assigned to the author to the text itself. And the structuralists sought the grammar of literature in which the literary structure and meanings are found. Post structuralists such as Barthes and Derrida were the first to confront the problem of the sign and of the closure of meaning through the concept of the text developed in its post-structuralist sense. Whereas the work is a finished object, the text is presented as the field of free floating signifiers which are subject to no ultimate signified. Barthes suggests two kinds of text according to its textual characteristics. Writerly text is a text where the reader can write it again in many different ways and interpretations which would only consist in desseminating the original text. Readerly text is somewhat like a classical work in which the reader can read and write the text with ease and pleasure. Barthes also introduces a semiological method of analysis on myth and readerly text. According to Barthes, writing is the singifier of the literary myth which receives from the concept of literature a new signification. The Scarlet Letter may be a kind of myth in which the scarlet letter A as an empty signifier practices the infinite deferral of the signified and reveals an ideology of puritanism through significaton.

4

한국계 미국여성소설과 기억의 문화 정치학:『딕테』와『종군위안부』

이경순

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제19권 2호 2006.12 pp.69-97

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As memory has emerged as a key subject for uncovering interpretations of historical events and social practices, scholarly interest in memory and history has been increased in recent years. Collective and personal memory, especially official memory and countermemory have only recently begun to engage with feminist theoretical analyses of gender, sexuality, race, nation, and class. As part of the ongoing argument between history and memory, Asian American literature focuses on how marginalized groups attempt to maintain at the center of official memory what the dominant group would often like to forget. This paper apprpaches memory and cultural politics in the construction of Korean American woman's identity in Dictee and Comfort Woman. Theresa Hak Kyung Cha and Nora Okja Keller seek to further projects of empowerment and differentiation through the use of memory as a counter-discursive strategy in their texts. This cultural politics of ethnicity and gender identity in these texts unravels the many complex layers of American ethnic experience. In Dictee and Comfort Woman. the marginalized Korean American women are reconstituted as the memory-subjects by inscribing their place in hisory and by making a space to dis-place history. Historically Korean Americans, like other Asian Americans, have been materially and discursively excluded from the mainstream of the U. S. American life. Korean American women, however, are placed in a more complicated situaltion, in the sense that they not only have to struggle with trauma of colonial experiences and anti-colonial national world, but also in the new western world, they have to assimilate in order to survive. With female perspective, Cha and Keller unveil the colonized history of their homeland as well as the immigrant history of Koreans in America which has been effaced by dominated discourse. Thus Cha and Keller succeed in making available the experience of trauma from multiple perspectives and their narratives necessarily privilege individual memory as a reliable evidentiary source.

5

살만 루시디의『수치』에서 나타난 내부식민주의와 젠더 양상

이성진

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제19권 2호 2006.12 pp.99-121

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In Shame(1983), Ahmed Salman Rushdie retells the history of Pakistan since its independence in 1947. The story covers three generations and focuses on the lives and families of two men, Raza Hyder and Iskander Harappa. Rushdie bases these characters on real-life Pakistanis, former President Zia-ul-Haq, and former Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. In Shame, Rushdie uncovers and exposes the illegitimacy and brutal authoritarianism of internal colonial regimes in Pakistan. Pakistani ruling elites, which replaced the colonial rulers but retained their exploitative power-relations within forms of patriarchal control, deny women the right to speak. Rushdie wishes to record the sufferings of women when patriarchal ruling power is exercised on their bodies. To achieve that goal, he relates the experiences of Pakistani women in the form of a fantasy-history where he imaginatively re-creates the recent political regimes of Pakistan. How is gender negotiated in the novel? The concepts of shame and honour are irreversibly intertwined in the image of gender. The first girl represents the shame that brings dishonour upon her family. In this case, shame is something that springs from the gender. Regarding the second girl, shame is not rooted in her consciousness. It is rather the circumstances that cause her to feel shame. The third persona, the boy who died from self-combustion when he realized the truth that shame will outlive him, indicates that shame is fundamental. It is embedded in the gender structures and therefore unavoidable. Shame evokes the violence that would occur if women are kept in their marginal position. In this novel, Sufiya symbolizes the effectiveness of historical determinations on individuals. Yet her violence also speaks to the limits of such determination. Sufiya transgresses the historical determinants of her circumstances. The significance of her existence, therefore, lies in the excessive gestures of her violence. Moreover, Sufiya's lethal aggressiveness may be interpreted not as destructive violence, but as resistance to the oppressive conventions imposed on her by society and especially by male authority.

6

엘리자베스 바렛 브라우닝과 고정희 비교 연구: 사회비평으로서 페미니스트 시쓰기

이소희

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제19권 2호 2006.12 pp.123-154

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This paper compares Elizabeth Barrett Browning in 1850s England and Goh Jung Hee in 1980s Korea, focusing on their writing subjectivities as a woman poet in each different social context. Both consider their act of writing the feminist poems as a social criticism, transforming the patriarchal social system into more humanized social structure. Barrett Browning, by writing Aurora Leigh(1857), created three kinds of female subjectivity: the most self-assertive woman-poet, Aurora's first-person narrative; the raped working-class girl, Marian's breaking verbalization of the forbidden subject; and the disinherited Victorian woman-poet, Barrett Browning's access to the phallocentric genre. Goh Jung Hee, by writing three poems, "An Appeal Made by "Patriotic Women's League" for Donation of Rings"(1987), "Rice and Capitalism: A Woman's Tune Who Gains a Bowl of Rice by Selling Her Body"(1992), and "Let Us Burst Open the Dams"(1987), created Korean women's collective subjectivities by water images based on historical consciousness, reflecting the past and present Korean women's everyday lives. Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Goh Jung Hee accomplished their social responsibilities as a woman poet in each different socio-historical context, illustrating women's access to full subjectivity with female imagination and incisive critique through writing the feminist poems as a social criticism.

7

전래동화 다시쓰기: 어린이문학의 새로운 도전

이수진

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제19권 2호 2006.12 pp.155-175

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The purpose of this study is to reconsider the values of fairy tales. Some people say that fairy tales are useful to teach what children should know to live and grow in real world, such as good and evil, laws and punishment, human relationship like cooperation and friendship. But those who want to protect children say that fairy tales have bad effects on them because characters in fairy tales are stereotypes. My paper examines the social and political background in which fairy tales have been created and transformed. Although they use fantasy occasionally, fairy tales remain rooted in the real world. Stepmothers and witches are the products of the ruling class including "good" fathers who are threatened by women's increasing power in society and within the family. But newly-written fairy tales remold the characters of traditional tales. Some of them reverse the stereotypical points of view that fairy tales usually have. Some create new characters to show that there aren't fixed roles any longer in the actual world as well as in fantasy. For example, the Wolf in The 3 Little Pigs tries to be excused for his crime and the Princess refuses to be passive and get married to Prince Charming. To read fairy tales is not to remain as passive readers but to respond to the stories as active and creative readers in that readers have the right to represent the meanings of the stories. Rewriting fairy tales means not only breaking the conventions and fixed gender roles, but also creating new values. Rewritten fairy tales make us realize that there are different ways to view the traditional stories.

8

자메이카 킨케이드의『루시』에 나타난 탈식민 이산

이현주

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제19권 2호 2006.12 pp.177-201

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This article examines the heroine's experience of diaspora and the process of her recognition about the neo-colonial relationship between western countries and the Caribbean region in Jamaica Kincaid's Lucy. Lucy leaves Antigua for a metropolis in America and experiences diaspora. She lives with a white, middle class woman, Mariah, taking care of Mariah's children. Mariah, who becomes Lucy's surrogate mother, reminds Lucy of her real mother and her childhood memories in Antigua. From Mariah's life, Lucy perceives a colonizer's gaze charged with the ideology of European colonialism. Furthermore, most of the white people, including Mariah, regard Lucy a subaltern and outsider from a Third World country. The implication of their colonial gazes is perceived and reinterpreted by Lucy's keen eyes. Through Lucy's sensitive perspective, Kincaid exposes cultural colonialism embedded in the metropolitan urban culture. A postcolonial woman, Lucy becomes a subjective agent whose cultural consciousness is torn between the new culture emerging in the metropolis and the vanishing traditional culture of Antigua. Lucy appropriates and abrogates both her past mother/land and new metropolitan life only to reveal her own insoluble inner tension engendered by the two conflicting cultures.

9

들뢰즈의 영미 문학론: 유목/근경(根莖)공간으로서의 "중간" 문학론을 향하여

정정호

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제19권 2호 2006.12 pp.203-227

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Interestingly enough, French philosopher Gilles Deleuze started his career as a historian of philosophy and as a creator of new philosophy with British empiricism. He wrote his very first book on David Hume, British empiricist philosopher in the 18th-century. From then on Deleuze tried to combine British empiricism with French rationalism. He created new territory of the philosophical project by way of Transcendental empiricism. Deleuze was also very fond of Anglo-American literature from which he could abstract many of his key concepts. His important new philosophical concepts are rhizome, desiring machine, deterritorization, body without organs, line of flight, nomadology, becoming, etc. His favorite men of letters were Lewis Carroll, D. H. Lawrence, James Joyce, Samuel Beckett, Herman Melville, and Malcolm Lowry. Deleuze believed that Anglo-American literature starts from the "middle" (In-between) that could operate, create and transform everything. In the middle Anglo-American Literature transgresses, resists and always moves across the border, that is, deterritorizes anything fixed. Here we meet Deleuze's theory of the middle literature as rhizomatic/nomadic space. Through Deleuze can we reterritorize the Anglo-American literature to empower "literature" in the death of literature and in the crisis of the humanities. This is why we pay due attention to Deleuze's theory of Anglo-American literature.

10

Eco-friendliness in the Korean Geomancy: A Comparative Approach to Poongsoo and Deep Ecology

Yong-Ki Kang

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제19권 2호 2006.12 pp.229-248

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While the traditional Chinese geomancy and its mechanistic practice might aggravate our ecological crisis, by promoting man's creative participation in transforming the non-human world could the Korean geomancy(poongsoo) featuring the idea of bibo enrich our ecosystem and even cultivate our eco-friendly mindset. The substantially pro-environmental aspect of the Korean poongsoo is well-shown in a great number of bibo practices covering every corner of the peninsular, such as bibo trees and forests, bibo water ways or bibo pagodas. Significantly enough, the Korean bibo poongsoo goes along with deep ecology in its view of nature. The founder of deep ecology Arne Naess' 8 points correspond to the fundamental view of nature which lurks in the Korean poongsoo. The points 1, 2, 3 and 8 concern the intrinsic value of non-human nature. Just as deep ecology asserts that humans should respect non-human nature because it has its own inherent value, the Korean poongsoo induces humans to live as if nature matters. The concept of gi well-represents the intrinsic value of nature. And the positive practice of bibo in the Korean poongsoo is on the same track with Naess' emphasis on necessity of positive cultural transformation which is addressed in his points 4, 5, 6 and 8. The 7th point in which Naess stresses the life of 'greatness' also goes well along with the Korean geomancy favoring a life of harmony between humans and non-human nature in general. To sum up, the Korean geomancy is charged with our own contemporary eco-consciousness.

11

영어의 복합어와 복합화에 대한 소고

박승재

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제19권 2호 2006.12 pp.249-272

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The purpose of this study is to acquire a comprehensive understanding of compound words and compounding which is subject to phonological and morphological processes. For this purpose, the structure and type of compound words were examined in terms of their morphological or phonological properties. Next, the semantic annotations of compound words were investigated mainly with respect to the position and meaning relation of constituents, certain restrictions, and their solutions. Finally, the possible linguistic annotations on phonetics, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics were explored because they could be strongly related to many other linguistic properties of compounding processes. These reviews support the assumption that a wide range of annotations concerning compound words and compounding can provide some pedagogical implications for language researchers in terms of the successful language instruction as well as human being’s natural language acquisition.

12

Dialogism, Heteroglossia, and Carnival: Bakhtin's Concepts and their Implications for Second Language Writing

나윤희

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제19권 2호 2006.12 pp.273-291

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This article builds on the idea that Bakhtin's philosophy of language can provide an extremely productive paradigm within which to conduct research and build theory in the field of second language writing. Bakhtin's conceptualization of language has encouraged first language composition researchers to explore the following four major areas of inquiries: 1) reading appropriating and resistance in student writing; 2) responding to student writing in an internally persuasive way; 3) creating a context for alterity; and 4) redefining academic genres and discourse. However, relatively few L2 writing researchers have explored the potential of the Bakhtinian perspective to its fullest extent. Drawing on a number of L1 composition an studies and a growing body of L2 writing research conducted within a Bakhtini framework, this article seeks to suggest potentially productive areas of research in the field of second language writing.

13

21세기영어영문학회 연혁 외

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제19권 2호 2006.12 pp.292-304

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