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영어영문학21 [English21]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
    학술지
  • 발행기관
    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
  • ISSN
    1738-4052
  • 간기
    계간
  • 수록기간
    1967~2019
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제27권 3호 (20건)
No
1

상처입은 아일랜드 아이의 복수 — 맥케이브의 『푸줏간 소년』

김은영

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 3호 2014.09 pp.5-26

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

From the 19th century, British cartoons and writings suggested some verbal and visual representations of Irish people as childlike or childish in order to justify their colonial logic. Richard Haslam contends that “a damaged child” represents Ireland and examines this idea in post-independence Irish fiction, popular culture, and cultural theory. Patrick McCabe chose the same topic of a damaged child in his novel, The Butcher Boy. The protagonist, Francie Brady, is an only child from a dysfunctional Irish family, which is stereotyped by British colonialism. The novel is mainly set in a small town in early 1960's Ireland. After Mrs Nugent, an allegory of British colonialist, fixed the stigma, PIG, upon his family, 12 year old Francie went insane, and finally slaughtered Mrs Nugent in the way of killing pigs. In the novel, Francie's narrative as he descends into madness, which might not be understood from a common person's perspective, reveals the landscape of neocolonial Ireland. Though the early 1960s was significant in establishing a new, modernized Ireland, McCabe alludes to us the dark side of this period in Irish history through both individual and communal madness.

2

어둠의 공명으로서의 시 — 세이머스 히니의 『산사나무 랜턴』

김재준

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 3호 2014.09 pp.27-50

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Motivated by Mikhail Bakhin's proposition that every utterance is heteroglot and Wolfgang Iser's theory on reader's involvement in texts, this paper tries to identify how the poetic discourses in Heaney's The Hay Lantern are organized. Using a few poems of the above collection, this paper shows that in contrast to the earlier poems such as “digging”, in which all poetic elements are controlled to support a single poetic theme or discourse, the poems of The Hay Lantern loosen the various heterogeneous images, allowing the reader to freely interpret the voices present in the poem. Through the process of reading, the reader becomes aware of the gaps present in the poem, and is more eager to find out what the images and voices have to say. In order to enjoy the poem, the reader has to orchestrate it and needs to become a new creator of the poem, by participating in the poetic game and exploration. It is also important to verify how the discursive poetic elements illuminate the poet's artistic consciousness. Within the poem a discursive bridge exists between the speaker, reader and other voices present in the text. This bridge encourages the reader to experience the poet's cultural and artistic origins, and allows the reader to explore the various sources of one’s poetic gifts.

3

‘이웃의 정치신학’ — 아서 밀러의 『시련』

윤정용

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 3호 2014.09 pp.51-79

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The Crucible, which dramatized the historical incidents that took place in Salem, Massachusetts in 1692, inquired into a universal resemblance between Witch Trials and McCarthysim, and scrutinized the intrinsic problems about human nature. In The Crucible, Miller examined causes and effects of two repeated historical incidents closely, and called for exact awareness of them. What Miller was shocked at McCarthysim of the 1950s was that it not only brought about collective fear about communism but also concocted subjective realities. In The Crucible, Miller sharply pointed out that what is believed to be natural and absolute in a society could be made up by extremely subjective judgments, and transformed into objective truth, gaining authority. In The Crucible, Miller demonstrated that an atmosphere of collective fear could give rise to a new but faulty value, by which innocent individuals were deprived of their lives based on a groundless claim. Distorted religious enthusiasm was coupled with hatred, greed, and jealousy, which caused a tragedy of ‘Witch Trials.' By juxtaposing the Witch Trials and McCarthysim, Miller tried to show the fact that the individual is vulnerable to collective insanity and ideological offensive moves. In The Crucible, collective insanity prevented villagers from reasonably thinking of their ‘Neighbors,' which led to bad feelings among the members of the village. Even they used the weak as political scapegoats, calling them witches in order to pursue their own personal interest or cover up their sins. But their selfish desires such as hatred, greed, jealousy were unexpectedly revealed in the middle of witch trials. In conclusion, individual selfishness and struggle for power come into light in the witch trials, which are pivotal forces in The Crucible.

4

치누아 아체베의『신의 화살』에 나타난 식민주의와 에제울루 몰락의 의미

이성진

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 3호 2014.09 pp.81-98

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Chinua Achebe's Arrow of God is one of his trilogy, Things Fall Apart, No Longer at Ease and Arrow of God. Things Fall Apart and Arrow of God examine the similar theme, the effects of British colonialism and the disintegration of the traditional Ibo society. The two novels, however, differently portray Ibo people's historical perspective and responses to British colonialism. Arrow of God represents the historical process and British colonialism more complicatedly than Things Fall Apart does. In this thesis I investigate the aspects of British colonialism and the meaning of Ezeulu's degradation. The Indirect Rule with Warrant Chief is the most critical British colonial discourse in Arrow of God. The British colonizer practices the indirect rule by appointing Ezeulu as the Paramount Chief. The British colonizer, however, disintegrates the Ibo society's tradition and value through the position of Ezeulu, Chief Priest of Ulu. Ezeulu who recognizes the truth of the British colonizer, rejects the proposal of Captain Winterbottom, the colonial administrator. Ezeulu intends to resist the British colonizer through the reunion of Umuaro, but the elder members do not recognize the colonial condition and the British colonizer in Umuaro. Ezeulu is degraded an old mad chief at last. Ezeulu's downfall means the disintegration of Ibo society, but his ruin symbolizes the sacrifice for Umuaro and the vision of the new Ibo society.

5

앨리스와 분노하는 여성들 — 『앨리스』의 젠더 재현

이수진

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 3호 2014.09 pp.99-125

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The purpose of this article is to examine gender representation in Alice books written by Lewis Carroll. The notable fantasy worlds Alice visits show many unique and strange peculiar characters such as the Caterpillar, the Cheshire Cat, the Mock Turtle, and Humpty Dumpty. They have nonsensical personalities and make Alice’s adventures in two worlds exciting. However, the readers can also see the women characters who are always angry and shout in shrill and rough voices impatiently: the Queen of Hearts, the Duchess, the cook, and the Red Queen. The reason why these female characters are always angry is associated with the domestic ideology which requires female’s obedience and sacrifice to make home an ideal and perfect place. To support male-centered society and nurture children at home, female needs to endure any difficulties she has to face with. If the burden she must carry to support the dominant ideology is too heavy and harsh, she would fail and collapse. Then she would go mad. The Queen of Hearts, the Duchess, the cook in the Duchess’s house, and the Red Queen seem to have too much burden to endure given by the strict and oppressive dominant ideology of the nineteenth century. This makes them always impatient and easily turn into crimson with rage. Even though they may try to overcome the limits while demanding “Off his head,” throwing dishes or pans, and running desperately to stay where she is, they don’t succeed. When they have much more oppression through the male-ordered society, they will be the White Queen, who is already out of her mind.

6

보완과 대체담론으로서의 토착신앙 — 킨케이드의 작품에 나타난 오비어와 제이블리스

이현주

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 3호 2014.09 pp.127-149

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The Caribbean has been the locus of diaspora, migration, even transmigration since Western colonizers plundered the native societies in Africa and took Africans to many islands and lands located in and around the Caribbean Sea so as to exploit them as slaves for the purpose of cultivating plantations. As a result, Caribbean ethnicity and cultures are complex and include descendants of African slaves, European colonizers, and native Caribs. Jamaica Kincaid shows creolized Caribbean realities representing an African diasporic religion like Obeah, which is practiced in anglophone Caribbean countries by descendants of South African slaves in her works. In this paper, I explore Obeah and Jablesse as supplementation and alternative discourse in Jamaica Kincaid's At the Bottom of the River. According to Alan Richardson, Obeah played a role at once inspirational and practical in facilitating resistance and revolt among the African slaves in the Caribbean. As a cultural marker within British colonial disbelief underscoring the cultural superiority of the British, Obeah must be outlawed and obliterated by the imperialists considering it savage custom and African barbarity. In Obeah, the jablesse is a creolized spirit that takes a lot of forms and incarnations. Also, the jablesse includes the marks of both African diasporic religions and its oppression under British Colonialism. In Kincaid's literary texts, the powerful evocation of the jablesse based on Obeah shows the sparks of imagination and the creation of alternative world subverting colonial power.

7

『설득』의 긍정심리학

이혜영

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 3호 2014.09 pp.151-167

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In Persuasion, the importance of a flexible and positive attitude is emphasized through the open and wise response of the heroine, Anne, to her constantly changing circumstances. Through Anne's example, we can clearly see that continuous effort for self-reflection and self-knowledge is required to be equipped with this desirable attitude towards life. Also, through the new character creations like Mrs. Smith and Captain Harville, Austen recommended “that elasticity of mind,” called resilience, which is a power to positively accept the circumstances, even the suffering and trials of life. In contrast to the positivity of the above characters, there are negative characters like Sir. Walter and Mary. Because of their solipsistic, closed and negative mind-set to the outer world, these characters cannot see the world clearly and objectively. As a result, they come to bring downfall and unhappiness upon themselves. Austen lived and wrote in an age of great social change. In Persuasion, Austen's last completed novel, the writer's awareness of the changing spirit of the age is most evident. So it is natural that in this work positive psychological traits like adaptability, flexibility, and elasticity of mind are recommended. Finally, it can be said that the positive mentality of the characters in Persuasion is needed more in our age of total and unprecedented change than it was in Austen's world 200 hundred years ago. In this sense Austen's novel presents a very modern message to us.

8

존 웹스터의 사회비판 의식 — 『말피 공작부인』을 중심으로

정해룡

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 3호 2014.09 pp.169-192

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John Webster’s Duchess of Malfi addresses issues of corruption, female sexuality, marriage and social mobility by dramatizing a confrontation of values between the Duchess and her brothers, Ferdinand and the Cardinal. The play reflects Jacobean anxieties surrounding shifting economic, social and religious institutions during the transitional period of the early seventeenth England. Conflicts of this play come from the Duchess’s decision to disobey her brothers and to marry Antonio not her social equal. The Duchess acts according to her own desires, trespassing social norms of the period. Throughout the play the Duchess questions stereotypical views of women and the importance of class within patriarchal society. She defies traditional social and sexual hierarchies, challenging Jacobean society’s views regarding the representation of the female sexuality. The Duchess’s marriage with Antonio is presented in terms of harmony and mutuality, evoking Protestant companionate ideas of marriage. Much of the scholarly debate about the Duchess has centered on her sexuality. She is blamed for being irresponsible, overly passionate and too bold. However, Webster’s Duchess is neither lascivious, as her brothers have blamed, nor the paragon of chastity. She expresses her own sexuality in a healthy and natural manner. For his dramatic purpose Webster significantly modified his source, William Painter’s The Palace of Pleasure, where the Duchess is portrayed as a lusty widow, to show sympathy toward the Duchess. The Duchess is presented as a powerful woman with a dominant will and is portrayed as strong and independent to the moment of her death. But she ultimately fails to transcend any true boundaries created by the patriarchal society in which she lives. It’s important to note that Webster does not make the Duchess just a victim of male-dominated corrupt society. The play explores the possibility of societal change to overcome the oppression of ideologies within patriarchal society.

9

윌리엄 포크너 소설에 드러나는 비이성적인 면모

조동인

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 3호 2014.09 pp.193-208

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This paper explores the aspects of irrationality in William Faulkner's two novels, The Sound and the Fury and Light in August. The irrational aspects in the novels focused on elaboration upon tragic elements like war, massacre, and violence in Yoknapatawpha County after the Civil War in the history of the Southern society of the United States of America. The Southern society of America was indulged in the glorious past but it was tainted with violent evilness, lynch, and even castration and murder. Faulkner, as one of the greatest Southern writers, suggested for hope and remedy for restoration of the South in the texts through women's benevolence and warmth, and feminine nature and generative quality to heal the deeply rotten and troubled Southern society with irrationality as well as stubbornness of the past. It is significant that the Nobel prize laureate with his clairvoyance had considered and depicted women well ahead of the era of white supremacy and patriarchy as the healer and curer of all the irrational evilness which had been executed in the deep Southern society.

10

역사 다시 쓰기 — 『눈 먼 암살자』에 나타난 주체성 회복 전략

주재하

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 3호 2014.09 pp.209-229

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The object of this paper is to examine resistance against the ruling ideology as a means of true survival in The Blind Assassin of Margaret Atwood (1939-), the iconic Canadian writer. In The Blind Assassin (2000), Atwood shows a more true way of survival through Iris who creates her own history in the process of raising her voice and forming her identity. Especially, Atwood uses straightforward language to unveil the faces of women who have been traumatized by submitting to the culture codes of a patriarchal system. This unveiling shows how women have been exploited by, and excluded from, the discussion of Western culture. The Canadian society as Atwood describes it is reminiscent of a Foucauldian society of surveillance and also has attributed as a British colony and economically weak country relative to its southern neighbor the USA, as described in Survival. Iris refuses to be stuck within such social boundaries, as she attempts to recognize and estimate her limitations. After her sister’s suicide, Iris begins to recognize how blind she was and begins to write a memoir to fix her distorted life. Her memoir is a “left-handed book” that contains multiple narrations and uncertain truths, an indeterminacy that overturns the traditional consistent, linear writing style of history. Finally, she experiences true survival and restore her historical identity and subjectivity by letting her granddaughter Sabrina to publish the memoir.

11

사망기사에 관한 소고—한국 및 영어권 신문 사망기사 비교분석

신혜정

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 3호 2014.09 pp.231-256

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Obituaries are usually written for public figures in foreign news media, but ordinary citizens are remembered too in paid obituaries by their family members or friends. In South Korea, people who make the obituary pages are those who are famous or those who have notable title(s) and/or achievements. Ordinary people's names can be on the death notices page if they have son(s) or daughter(s) (or sons-in- law/daughters-in-law) who have a name or position that means something in the community. This study compares English news media's obituaries and Korean media's English obituaries. In a corpus analysis of the former South Korean president Kim Dae- jung's obituaries, the obituary by a Korean magazine stood out in its lexical choices while English media's obituaries showed a strong homogeneity. In another comparison of obituaries by two English Newspapers in Korea (the Korea Times and the Korea JoongAng Daily) and the JoongAng Ilbo, the Korea Times emphasized what the deceased had accomplished over her values and personality that moved people's hearts. Obituary readers in the English world, a sizable number of people, expect to see lives worth remembering in the obituary pages and there they can see what kind of values are cherished in their society. These values are reinforced as qualities required of an ideal citizen. Therefore, when writing English obituaries, these expectations and conventions should be respected. An obituary is not a chronicle of the deceased's achievements but a “commemoration” of a life well-lived. It is hoped that this study will help those in Korea's English news media write obituaries that can be well-received by foreign readers. Also, it will be worthwhile to see this study contribute to furthering studies on obituary writing in Korean.

12

Heart+사랑 — 비유표현과 개념구성

조영순

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 3호 2014.09 pp.257-281

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The purpose of this study is to present the English figurative expressions of heart+love and to show their concept compositions. For the former aim, Kövecses (2000)’s metonymy and metaphors of love, and for the latter aim, Ruiz de Mendoza & Galera-Masegosa (2011)’s idea of complexes’ composition is utilized. The heart+love metonymy exploites strong, rapid, and irregular heart beats; The heart+love metaphors rest on [CLOSENESS TO ONE’S HEART], [POSSESSION OF ONE’S HEART], [FORCE TO ONE’S HEART], [ABNORMAL STATE OF ONE’S HEART], and [SOMETHING IN ONE’S HEART]. Composition types of complexes of heart+love are mostly metaphor with metonymy, chained metaphor, and metaphor amalgam. Different conceptualizations of [HEART] are found in different types of heart+love compositions: [HEART FOR FEELING] is found in the target domain of a metaphor with metonymy, [HEART FOR PERSON] in its source domain, and [HEART AS A VALUABLE OBJECT] & [HEART AS A CONTAINER] in a chained metaphor.

13

대학생들의 영어 읽기 동기 및 메타인지 읽기 전략과 영어 읽기 능력과의 관계

강정혜

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 3호 2014.09 pp.283-306

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The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of English reading motivation and metacognitive reading strategies on EFL learners' reading achievement in Korean university setting. The results of the questionnaires and test were statistically analyzed based on the frequency analysis, descriptive analysis, factor analysis, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. The results were as follows: There was a significant positive correlation between English reading motivation and metacognitive reading strategies. Through this result, the higher intrinsic motivation is, the higher MARSI shows. The effects of English reading motivation and metacognitive reading strategies on English reading achievement showed that general reading strategies had an influence on English reading achievement. Through the results like this, it can be concluded that English reading achievement was more affected by metacognitive reading strategies than English reading motivation.

14

대학생의 자기결정성과 학업적 실패내성이 영어 학업성취도에 미치는 영향

조진현, 임미란

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 3호 2014.09 pp.307-329

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The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there are any differences in English Achievement according to college learners' Self-Determination and Academic Failure Tolerance levels. The subjects are 160 college students, of which 86 are male and 74 are female. Two Questionnaires were administered to measure the learners' Self-Determination and Academic Failure Tolerance levels. The learners' English proficiency was measured by the scores from TOEIC actual test. And to examine the study questions, the collected data was analyzed by two-way ANOVA and regression analysis. The results of this study showed that the Self-Determination(F=7.201, p<.01) is statistically significant and the Academic Failure Tolerance has no significant differences among three groups. However, the intrinsic regulation factor(F=4.870, p<.01) of four Self-Determination factors is statistically significant among three groups. And the Self-Determination of college learners has an effect on the Academic Failure Tolerance. Based on these results, learning supporting, counseling and educational programs depending on the levels of the Self-Determination and Academic Failure Tolerance will be properly provided in order to perform and maintain learners' successful English learning in EFL classrooms.

15

Gentlemen’s Fear of Degeneration Represented in Bram Stoker’s Dracula

Hyunok Kim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 3호 2014.09 pp.331-343

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This study explores gentlemen's fear of degeneration in the Victorian society in the late nineteenth century, which the New Woman appears. It examines the attitudes of gentlemen, who embrace the new century's progressive ideas replacing the old suppressive Victorian traditions in the nineteenth century. As a symbol of late Victorian anxieties concerning the stability of the Empire, Dracula may be identified as a foreign threat intending to destabilize the British world order. He inverts the Victorian gender code, as the former passive woman becomes an active agent, voluptuous and sexually demanding, whereas the male becomes sexually attracted by those women thus turning into a passive agent waiting to be seduced. As such, Dracula well shows the anxiety that the future of British civilization may be endangered and also reflects gentlemen's coping with the crisis.

16

Articulating the Genome in Language : Richard Powers’ The Gold Bug Variations

TaeJeong Song

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 3호 2014.09 pp.345-362

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This paper examines the field of scientific referents represented in the discursive world of The Gold Bug Variations to analogize Powers’ thought processes, and the change of a paradigm in biology with the emergence of a network of exchanges in signifying fields. I then look closely at the ways in which the discourse of cybernetics has transformed molecular biology as scientists have wrestled with the infinity of the genome. Powers wants to explore the genome and history of the genomic study in the archaeological standpoint of knowledge, and more importantly, the current historical moment, in which the infinity of the genome is articulated through the cybernetic metaphor. By weaving things such as multiple discourses with Bach's Goldberg Variations, Herri's art, biology, and computer science, he shows the development of biology from modern to postmodern through cybernetic metaphors and advanced biotechnologies.

17

A Phonological Approach to the Contextual Variances of the English Lateral /l/

Kwanyoung Oh

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 3호 2014.09 pp.363-385

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The purpose of this study is to explore distributional variants of English /l/s which are differently realized depending on their contexts, to suggest different methods of analysis through feature geometry, and to compare two contrastive analyses of variants in English dialects, GA and RP, which are performed by rule orderings and level approach each differently. Generally, allophony of the English lateral is shown in two types of forms, prevocalic (clear or light)-l and post-vocalic (dark)-l. These are phonetically distinguishable. However, when we look into some examples, there are other cases in which the /l/s become deleted as in talk or syllabic -ls as in bottle. This paper attempted to account for variants of /l/ in phonological approaches. First, this study showed that, in the cases of the dark-l and l-deletion in monosyllabic words, different methods of analysis suggested in feature geometry with phonetic information were clearer and more concise than the approaches based on rule orderings. Second, for the identification of the clear and dark-l, this paper introduced level approaches to account for these variations. As a result, they offer briefer and more convincing explanations to variants in words which were followed by morphological boundaries or were disyllabic than approaches based on rule orderings.

18

Investigating the Use of If-conditionals in the Corpora of NS and NNS Argumentative Essays

Yoon-Hee Na

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 3호 2014.09 pp.387-413

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The purpose of the study is to investigate the use of if-conditionals in the corpora of NS and NNS argumentative essays. For this comparative study, a collection of American college students' argumentative essays and a self-compiled corpus of Korean NNS students' argumentative essays were used. First, the overall frequency of if-conditionals was examined in the two corpora. Next, the use of if-conditionals was coded by semantic categorization. Common features and major problems were also examined in the Korean NNS students' writing. The results revealed that although the overall frequency of if-conditionals in two corpora was not significantly different, the distribution of if-conditionals in three semantic categories was different. Significant differences between the two corpora were also identified in several semantic sub-categories, revealing some common features and problems that the NNS students had in their use of if-conditionals.

19

Exploring Linguistic and Non-Linguistic Aspects of English Debate Participants’ Speech

Ho Lee, Jihyeon Yang

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 3호 2014.09 pp.415-436

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The current study explored the linguistic and non-linguistic aspects of participants in an English debate contest. Further, the present study analyzed interviews in order to enlighten students’ perception on the use of English debate technique in the classroom and gather students’ suggestions for improving the current English debate system. For the research, the speaking samples of eight undergraduate students participating in a semi-final round of English debate contest were transcribed and analyzed line-by-line. Then, four semi-structured interviews, the purpose of which was to explore the participants' perception on English debate, were also transcribed and analyzed. As T-unit analysis showed that the proportions of critical-error-free T-unit in total T-unit are from 0.79 to 1.00., students were likely to produce comprehensible sentences. Transcription analyses showed that participants committed a small number of illogical discourse and inappropriate use of similitude. Rather, the lack of interaction and inattentiveness to opponents were found to be critical as non-linguistic aspects. The current study ends up with the conclusion that workshop program for building up background knowledge about English debate is needed and that the preparation time need to be adjusted and constrained in consideration to the instructor’s aim.

20

Korean Study-Abroad Students’ Retrospective Narratives of Adjustment Experience in the Host Country

Hohsung Choe

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 3호 2014.09 pp.437-457

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This study investigates two Korean study abroad students’ adjustment process, highlighting their linguistic, academic, and emotional issues. Retrospective narrative was used as a methodological framework to reconstruct their life and experience in the host country. Autobiographies, personal conversations, and interviews are the primary data source. The participants were asked to write an autobiography focusing on their study-abroad experience. Personal conversations took place occasionally and field notes were kept during the conversations. Each participant was interviewed every other month, a total of six times distributed over a year. Data analysis reveals that they faced linguistic, academic, and emotional struggle when they arrived in the host country, and that the successful adjustment can be achieved only when all three types of struggles are eliminated. For instance, one was linguistically and emotionally well adjusted, but his unsuccessful academic life forced him to return. The other suffered from the emotional struggle, which was a serious obstacle to integration into the life in the host society.

 
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