영어영문학21 [English21]

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    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
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  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
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    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제28권 2호 (21건)

핀터의 『핫 하우스』— 연극공간의 정치성 읽기


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 2호 2015.06 pp.5-26

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This paper analyses characters and a stage as power effects, representing the various ways to provoke dreadful or comedic scenes in The Hothouse. It is a unique political play that rouses our suspicions against the system of public powers. Set in a government-run mental institution, this play also suggests violence of a hierarchical society by showing Roote, a general manager, Gibbs and Miss Cutts, middle managers. Their brutality to Lamb, a junior staff, is practiced openly in a double room separated into each section by interviewing him to control an electronic shock. Although senior managers maintain public order and try to use the underclass in this institution, Roote and Gibbs are under control of Lobb, a representative of government, i.e., the staff are considered as rulers and victims of bureaucracy. Meanwhile, some comedic elements from incongruity or tautology which is a blistering giggle popped up from the reverse of public forces reproduce the other side of this dominant place. In light of Foucault’s theory, spaces are fundamentally associated with political rationality that is on the different arguments for what he considered ‘governmentality’ since the 19th century. In conclusion, this study is aim to examine politics of dramatic spaces filled with power-relations not just ruling each other but actualizing our ‘political intelligence’ in a community or the self.


『황폐한 집』에서의 과도기적 추리서사 — 버킷의 재현을 중심으로


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 2호 2015.06 pp.27-43

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Examining the representation of Bucket, this paper aims to prove that Dickens’s Bleak House produces a different narrative of crime from that in Newgate novels and in detective fiction. Bucket, like the detective in detective novels, reassures the class hierarchy by containing the subversiveness of crime discourse in the Newgate fiction. Bucket’s representation is, however, different from that of aristocratic amateur detectives and of incompetent and shallow-minded police in detective fiction. Bucket is represented as a police who reveals competence in detection, class-neutrality, and family value. Through the representation of Bucket, Bleak House produces more progressive discourse of class than detective novels. Taking a broad view of the development of nineteenth-century British crime fiction, this paper argues that the detective narrative in Bleak House is a transitional type of crime narrative between Newgate novel and detective fiction.


『사기꾼』에 나타난 인간의 이성과 허구


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 2호 2015.06 pp.45-66

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This paper aims to explore the significance of human logos and fiction in The Confidence Man. It may be said that almost all of Melville’s works are based on truth-seeking. However, this is complicated by Melville’s skepticism about human logos’s ability to seek truth. Given his skepticism about the effectiveness of human reason, he explores confidence tricks, deception, gullibility, greed, etc. According to Melville, deception and confidence play a significant role in our lives. This is the reason why Melville depicts the reality of various types of con men. Through the panoramic view of the 19th century American society, Melville attempts to portray Americans’ morality and doesn’t shy away from exploring its more hypocritical aspects. By underscoring the trust inherent in fiction between the writer and the reader, Melville seems to hold up his imaginative freedom to intellectual analysis. In so doing, Melville suggests that when human society is full of interactions of confidence and distrust, humans are forced to live with both charity and hatred. In short, Melville views American society or universal world as both noble and foolish. In addition, Melville suggests that human love is a necessary for the kind of nurturing and trust required to recognize humanity. Melville’s thoughts on human trust reveal his trust of God, of human logos, and of his own authorship. Therefore, Melville urges us towards compassion and sympathy even if they must coexist with misanthrophy, human distrust, and infidelity.


웃음으로 사회 비판하기 —『진지함의 중요성』


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 2호 2015.06 pp.67-87

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This paper aims to examine social criticism ‘trivialized’ in The Importance of Being Earnest. At first, as the play was hailed as a great comedy, the aspects of social criticism which are expressed from time to time have mostly been disregarded. While the play is delivering humor, wit, and satire, it often touches on acute social issues including class, economy, politics, and dominant values. The farcical world represented in the play, however, prevents the audience from perceiving the problems as ‘serious.’ Furthermore, the social institutions and values are not developed into fully-fledged discussions. The sensitive and controversial problems of the society are only briefly mentioned in the nonsensical environment. Accordingly, ‘serious’ topics become trivialized with clamorous laughter. Especially Lady Bracknell, an aristocrat, often displays contempt and fear toward lower class people who can commit outrageous violence that might subvert the established system. Her attitude and behavior relating to class issues reflect the society which was undergoing drastic change. At that time, social unrests were often engendered by riots or rebellions of lower class people. Besides, blood lines, family, and marriage, which are the basis of the Victorian society to maintain its social order, are targeted by satire. These concerns valued at that time are ridiculed throughout the play. Reversed gender norms are also a source of laughter. Women characters have the initiative in their relationships with their partners. While they pursue their goal insistently, male characters are usually passive and are willing to accommodate themselves to their partners’ desires. Wilde expresses his revolutionary ideas by locating the social institutions and values of the farcical world in which their meanings are inverted and trivialized.


토니 모리슨의 『자비』— 서술하는 주체와 관계 안의 주체


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 2호 2015.06 pp.89-113

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Toni Morrison's A Mercy is an attempt to reconfigure the prenational time of American history and to restore the interracial, interethnic, and intercultural context before its accommodation in the dominant discourses of national history. Morrison provides her vision of a communal relationship by presenting the main character's act of writing as the interlocutory scene in which she gives a narrative account of her life to the other. The main character, Florens's first-person narration can be understood as the dyadic scene of self and other as it is motivated by the desire to recognize and to be recognized by the free blacksmith, the one she is in love with. However, she is telling her story to her now estranged lover, by scratching it onto the walls of her master, Jacob Vaark's mansion. It is very unlikely for the blacksmith to visit the mansion again, and besides, he cannot read. This motif of failed address also offers an explanation of Florens's relationship with her mother, who, as a slave, chose to send Florens away not to make her a victim of the sexual abuse by her master, D'Ortega. However, Florens, at the age of eight, could not fathom her mother's intention, and remembers the separation as her mother's abandonment. The motif of failed address becomes the condition of subjecthood and relation as the wrong or incomplete message from the mother becomes a driving force for Florens's effort to interpret her experience and her search for selfhood against the social force of racism. Florens also builds the sense of self in the process of telling her life story to the blacksmith. Florens's narrative shows that the self is not fully bounded to or separate from the other, but in its vulnerability and singularity depends on the other. This point can be related to Adriana Cavarero's concept of “the narrating self.” Cavarero argues that the subject is not a solipsistic or independent entity closed upon itself but emerges in relation to the other in the conditions of address. In her view, we are beings exposed to one another in our vulnerability and singularity, and if “I” do not have “you” to address, my story becomes impossible as my singularity or uniqueness can be recognized in the interlocutory situation or in the encounter with the other, who is also unique. Morrison shows that our vulnerability as subject becomes the condition for our responsibility for each other and that the reciprocity can be a relational mode of the communities formed counter to the dominant discourses of national history.


저술하는 주인공으로서 핍 — 신사 개념의 해체와 재구성


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 2호 2015.06 pp.115-138

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This paper attempted to regard Pip Pirrip as an authoring hero and look at what his prominent characteristics are at first, and then, how these characteristics of his contributes to the securement of persuasiveness in Charles Dickens's discussion about a new gentlemanship in Great Expectations in the Bakhtinian perspective. In this novel, Dickens portrayed his hero Pip as an innocent orphan, isolated both domestically and socio-hierarchically, as well as a sensitive adolescent boy. Also, Dickens narrated Pip's self-authoring, where Pip was establishing his self-identity while responding so sensitively to his personal, social environment. Here Pip was pondering deeply almost all social, individual values disturbing a true gentleman, and his such profound meditation ended up exposing many social absurdities. Becoming a true gentlemen of Pip's can also be an ideological becoming in that it makes him establish his belief system newly as a true gentleman. Actually, Dickens's creativity was highlighted in this effort to make Pip's new autobiography highly persuasive regardless of maximizing his hero's interactive context. This narratology made Pip's becoming a true gentleman more persuasive as well. By using the hero-characteristics of Bildungsroman as variables and restructuring as many gentlemanship-related factors as possible as his hero's lived experiences, Dickens made all his discussions in Great Expectations so persuasive.


『비네가 톰』의 노래 전략과 여성역사 다시쓰기

박보영, 김강

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 2호 2015.06 pp.139-163

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Caryl Churchill is considered a leading British female playwright who has radically and consistently tried to dramatize social issues in the context of history, class, and politics through new and experimental theatrical styles beyond the traditional theatrical forms. As her first socialist feminist play, Vinegar Tom was completed by cooperating with the Monstrous Regiment, a socialist and feminist theatre group, which was mainly interested in the political orientation and theatrical techniques of Bertolt Brecht. The play consists of 21 scenes with 7 songs. The scenes show the past events in which socially and economically deserted women who were condemned as witches under patriarchal social norms. The songs by the female performers in modern dresses interrupt a natural flow of the consequent scenes so as to allegorically criticize the history of women distorted by a male-dominated perspective. The female performers play the roles as both singers and characters. Such crossing roles of singers out of the characters produce the alienation effect by which the audiences are induced on purpose to compare and contrast the past and the present in respect to the oppression of women. The songs containing the feminist themes connect concretely social prejudice and abuse of the witches in the 17th century with the issues of socialist feminism the present women still experience as oppression. The feminist themes that the songs contain are of the female body socially regarded as a tool of reproduction, nonsensical social perspectives on the roles of female gender, and slave-like domestic situation of some married women. The themes of the songs are also expanded into other realms of historical oppression beyond feminist concerns in regard to lunatics, blacks, and Jews. In Vinegar Tom Caryl Churchill progressively tries to rewrite existing history from a feminist perspective by means of the Brechtian techniques of songs accompanying an alienation effect. It is intended for the audiences to reflect on their own past and present conditions in history. As the song lyrics suggest, our awakening alliance will bring about the new vision of social change full of progress and hope by looking into the relationship between individuals and society, and making correction of any historical errors.


에이드리언 리치의 위치의 정치학


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 2호 2015.06 pp.165-194

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Beginning with Modernist formalism and through Feminist consciousness, Adrienne Rich’s poetry has undergone a continuous change and revision. Especially since 1980s her feminist consciousness has expanded to embrace race, class and sexual orientation as well as gender. The crucial issue for her in this process is how to synthesize dialectically the differences and particularities among women instead of separatism and biological essentialism based on single categorization of woman. In this strategic move, the crucial concept is that of positionality. This attempt of Rich’s to converge otherness to politics of location is developed largely in two directions: one is a continuous quest for her own identity; the other is to create the communal discourse. Location for her includes not only physical site of time and space but also the community of discourse. Thus this paper aims to examine this search of Rich’s in her Your Native Land, Your Life and An Atlas of the Difficult World with emphasis on the representative poems of both books. In “In the Wake of Home,” Rich shows an ambivalent attitude toward home. Home is suggested not only as a safe haven, place of plenitude but as place of absence and loss. All through the poem, the contradictory views on home are juxtaposed. In addition, she also suggests political history of violence through reminding us of history of the homeless, refugees and diasporas. She tries to combine the personal mini-narrative with the meta-narrative of the homeless others. Thus, home also becomes the site to voice for others deprived of home by historical and political violence. In this way, home as a site of contradiction becomes crucial in her politics of location. An Atlas of the Difficult World develops the concept of positionality as the site where a subject accepts the contradictory identities and also as an agent to bestow a political act and responsibility to the subject. Throughout the book Rich makes us question our own locations and the possibility of solidarity with others. As the location and identity of a poet are always changing in response to the mutual act between time and space, so are readers. She requires the readers to join her poems, creating the meanings and taking a responsibility for them. In this way, readers create a new world of her poems. This is Rich’s strategy to locate the readers as an agent of the narrative that her poems open. Different readers in different locations can meet in the space of her poems where they can make new meanings which in turn lead to the revision of history. This is what Adrienne Rich imagines as a community.


레이먼드 카버의 단편소설에 나타난 닫힌 의식세계와 열린 의식세계의 대비


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 2호 2015.06 pp.195-214

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This paper aims at examining Carver's short stories in terms of two contrasting attitudes to life, represented by closed consciousness and open consciousness. Characters with closed consciousness in Carver's earlier stories reveal a gloomy outlook on life; characters with open consciousness in his later stories show a positive attitude to life. The study also discusses the short story of “Feathers,” focusing on contrasting character traits of two married couples. Closed consciousness is bespoken by Carver's main characters who feel lost and frustrated, as in the short stories “Pastoral,” “Will You Please Be Quiet, Please?” and “What We Talk about When We Talk about Love.” However, an example of open consciousness is best shown in the contrast between “Bath” and its revised lengthy version, “A Small Good Thing”; the shorter version vocalizes the mental state of a panic-stricken mother contemplating her son's impending death, whereas the revised one stresses the positive attitude of a mother who gets ready to start life without her son, overcoming her grief. An analysis of “Feathers” focuses on the contrasting lifestyles and thinking of two couples: Jack and Fan, and Bud and Olla. Jack and Fran with their closed consciousness are most interested in enjoying their present comfort, neither wanting any nuisance in their marriage nor attempting to achieve anything. Nevertheless, this couple decides to have a baby when they get seduced by the happy life of Bud and Olla despite their indescribably ugly son and his intimidating playmate peacock. Ultimately Fran and Jack, who have never been aware of parental roles and responsibility, get perplexed and lose their way in child-raising. By contrast, Olla and Bud with their open consciousness are characterized by their future-oriented goal setting. The life stories of Olla's childhood as well as her first and second marriages are recapitulated by her peacock (an emblem of her pursuit of happiness) and by her old plaster-of-Paris cast of crooked and jagged teeth (a reminder of what she was then and what she is thankful for now). Unlike Fran and Jack, Olla and Bud take lessons from the past and project their present conditions into the future. In “Feathers” Carver uses the unhappy couple with no perspective on life as a foil for the happy couple who plans their life and sets goals for a better life.


인종서사와 기억 — 토니 모리슨의『빌러비드』


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 2호 2015.06 pp.215-233

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Toni Morrison's Beloved (1987) as an ethnic narrative explores the memory of the African-Americans. This paper aims to analyze the work of memory of the ethnic self and the subversive revision of the dominant history in the novel, primarily concerned with the role of memory in the construction of ethnic identity, and the relationship between memory and writing. In response to the erasure of the African-American's slave experience, Morrison attempts to juxtapose her ethnicity with the official history, focussing on ethnic memory's ability to destabilize history. Furthermore, ethnic and gender issues expose the many layers of African-American experience, particularly from the point of the mother-daughter relationships and from the psychological aspect of the slave mother. Thus Morrison emphasizes that memorizing the painful past is liberating the individual and the collective of the ethnic minority.


월트 휘트먼의 이상적 인간상


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 2호 2015.06 pp.235-254

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Walt Whitman suggests ideal humanity based on his ideas of Christian God and the natural world. He himself is said to develope into his ideal. The contents of the ideal humanity are power, receptivity and love. Of three contents, he most emphasizes the individual power which can embody freedom and equality, democratic ideals. The godlike power can confront external tyrannies and extreme difficulties and conserve intrinsic individuality. The power can be strong to evil-doers, which means embracing rather than demarcating and excluding them. Receptivity is about embracing them. He acknowledges his own evils and so understands human evils. For him, evils can be changed into good energy. They are just debris in the flowing Universe or to thicken the plot in the human world. By enlarging the good, he makes evils meaningless. He teaches the reader to love human beings and nature. For him, love is especially for the weak. Charity and compassion is part of love. He gives himself to the weak, identifies with them, comforts them, ascertains their intrinsic values and urges them to live with strong power. Jesus Christ and the natural world embodies love. He calls the Christ his brother and comrade. By showing the model of his own life, he urges the reader to follow the ideal humanity.


이중목적어 동사로의 전성


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 2호 2015.06 pp.255-277

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This paper classifies ditransitive verbs into three semantic groups; the <giving> verb give, <α<giving>> verbs such as pay and teach, <<β>giving> verbs such as mail, buy and make. <<β>giving> verbs are further classified into three semantic groups; <<sending>giving> verbs, <<preparing>giving> verbs, and <<buying>giving> verbs and <<making>giving> verbs. In order to determine why and how specific monotransitive verbs are converted into ditransitive verbs, this paper constructs Idealized Cognitive Model of <giving>, which has three parts; Preconditions “A has X” and “X is useful for H,” Center “A transfer X to H,” and End Point “H has X.” A <making> or <buying> verb can satisfy one of the preconditions to be a <<making>giving> or <<buying>giving> verb respectively by meaning extension based on part-whole metonymy and syntactic conversion following the meaning extension. A <preparing> verb can satisfy the other precondition to be a <<preparing>giving> verb by meaning extension and conversion. A verb in the group of <sending> verbs can satisfy the center to be a <<sending>giving> verb.


상보적 읽기가 대학생들의 읽기능력에 미치는 영향

강은영, 이화자

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 2호 2015.06 pp.279-299

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The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of Complementary Reading (CR) in EFL college reading classes. In the experiment, Group A was given CR instruction with word tests as a passive task type and Group B CR with word tests, added by presentations and journals as an active task type. Group A improved more than Group B in reading comprehension, reading speed, and learner attitudes. The statistical analysis of the Post-Speed Test suggested a difference between the two groups, while the Post-Recall Test and the Post-Cloze Test exhibited insignificant difference. Group B’s presentations and journals, the active reading task type, were very effective in developing the learners’ attitudes and reader efficacy. The follow-up study to investigate the sustained effect of CR revealed that students with CR performed better than those without CR in reading tests. Findings from this study suggested several pedagogical implications for effective reading instruction.


전라남도 도서지역 원격화상 영어교육의 초등학생 영어능력 및 학습에 미치는 영향

문상옥, 김봉규

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 2호 2015.06 pp.301-324

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The purpose of this study is to find out how video-conferencing in English language education has an impact on primary school students in remote Jeonnam island areas, where there has been a lack of human and pedagogical resources compared to other areas of Korea. This research has two specific aims. The first is to explore the use of video-conferencing in English language teaching on the effect of language performance and the satisfaction of primary school students. Next, this study discusses the problems of video-conferencing in English language teaching in remote Jeonnam island areas as categorized and illustrated in terms of both students' and teachers' point of views. 53 primary students from Jeonnam island areas participated in this study over a eight-week research period. Video-conferencing in English language education conducted in 6 primary schools in island areas is limited because of outdated facilities, weak classroom management, lack of cooperation of teachers, and insufficient communication among participations. The study shows that students showed a positive attitude and self-efficacy in video-conferencing in English language education. To tackle the problems, this study suggests smart cyber video-conferencing in English Language Education which provides cutting edge technology for future video-conferencing in language education.


영어 TV 드라마의 활용이 하위학습자들의 영어 학습에 대한 태도, 만족도, 학습동기에 미치는 영향


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 2호 2015.06 pp.325-350

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The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the use of English TV drama had any effect on low-proficiency students’ attitude and satisfaction toward learning English. This study was carried out at a 2-year college in January, 2015, and the participants in this study were 50 low-proficiency students in a 3-week winter semester course. Three questionnaires were administered to measure the learners' attitudes, satisfaction and motivation. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were conducted. The results of the study show that there were significant differences in attitude before and after English TV drama was used as teaching material. The learners thought that using English TV drama in the classroom was more helpful and interesting than following a course-book, as they could gain self-confidence and satisfaction in learning. It was also found that using TV drama as material for English had positive effects on re-motivation of low-proficiency students. Based on the findings of this study, the use of TV drama turned out to be a pedagogically appropriate teaching device to facilitate positive learning attitudes and motivation for low-proficiency students. The study concludes with educational implications and limitations.


영어 학습 탈동기 및 재동기 요인 — 성인 중하위권중심

주미란, 박성만

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 2호 2015.06 pp.351-374

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The purpose of this study is to examine Korean college students' demotivation and remotivation in their learning English. In this study, the participants consist of 44 first freshmen and 51 senior university students whose TOEIC scores are below 650. A questionnaire consisting of four factors with 40 Likert-scale items for demotivation and 29 items for remotivation was administered. Results indicated that learner-related factors, inside classroom factors, teacher-related factors, outside classroom factors were high in order in terms of demotivation, and outside classroom, learner-related, teacher-related, inside classroom were high in order in terms of remotivation. A negative correlation was found between all the demotivation factors and English ability. A positive correlation outside classroom factors and English ability was found statistically significant in remotivation. Demotivation level of senior students showed higher than that of freshmen students with freshmen's higher level in remotivation. This result suggests that teachers’ recognition of their possible influence to improve teaching methods is crucial to maintain or increase medium and lower level students’ motivation in learning English.


“A Fierce Tyrannical Monster” in Roald Dahl’s Matilda : A Reading of Miss Trunchbull

Ji-Eun Kim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 2호 2015.06 pp.375-390

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Despite the popularity of Roald Dahl’s Matilda (1988), there is comparatively little criticism of the main antagonist of Miss Trunchbull. Matilda is a story about the struggle against tyranny, specifically Miss Trunchbull who is “a fierce tyrannical monster” (Dahl 67). However, Miss Trunchbull is also a woman of positive attributes such as her excellence in male sports and as the principal of the school, the voice of authority. Furthermore, without Trunchbull who fascinates everyone with her charisma, authoritarian voice, childish whims, masculine features and physical strength, there would be no engaging conflict in Matilda. Drawing on Judith Butler’s concept of the performativity of gender, this paper suggests that performativity constructs the figure of Miss Trunchbull and this explains her monstrosity. Rather than reading Trunchbull simply as a “fierce tyrannical monster” figure that is comic, immature, and monstrous, this paper argues that Trunchbull is a unique and fascinating character that obliterates the gender dichotomy, child/adult boundaries and one who destabilizes power dynamics.


Emotion with regard to Value and Virtue in Austen’s Sense and Sensibility

Dongbeom Huh

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 2호 2015.06 pp.391-408

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My aim in this paper is to motivate and clarify the idea that there is a tight connection between our (felt) emotional responses and our evaluative concepts especially in Jane Austen’s Sense and Sensibility. Accepting a given suggestion that the most influential academic reading of Marianne often do violence to the inevitable variability of our emotional experience, this paper further suggests that there are of two main types of normative character of emotions: “intelligibility” and “reasonability.” Acknowledging that such a separation is inevitable for a deeper understanding of our emotions would give us a chance to avoid a confusion about whether a particular emotion is reasonable or unreasonable, without failing to capture the normative complexity that emotions actually display. Considering that the norms governing emotions have a elastic character, this paper concludes that emotions have the constitutive functions. Experiencing a certain emotion itself (i.e. remorse) can contribute to rebuilding value that has been lost in the evaluative world.


Autonomous or Controlled: The Motivational Orientation of Adult Korean EFL Students

Bokyung Murray

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 2호 2015.06 pp.409-427

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This study investigates the classroom motivation of adult Korean EFL students from the perspective of concepts contained in self-determination theory (SDT), namely autonomous regulation and controlled regulation and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Two SDT self-report questionnaires, the Self-Regulation Learning Questionnaire and the Perceived Competence Scale, were administered to 37 adult Korean EFL students. Two research questions were addressed to determine the motivational stance of these students from an autonomous or controlled perspective. Overall results indicated that these students appeared to be motivated autonomously, but further analysis revealed this apparent autonomy was not true intrinsic self-regulation, but was from autonomous elements found in extrinsic controlled regulation. Therefore, these students could be found to function primarily under an extrinsic controlled form of motivation even though they exhibited some degree of autonomy. Discussion considered implications of these results for the classroom and suggested study limitations.


Korean EFL Learners’ Depth of Meaning of Highly Frequent Words

Taehyon Park

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 2호 2015.06 pp.429-451

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This study examined how well Korean EFL university students knew the particular meaning of highly frequent words. Twenty-nine students rated their own knowledge of 30 target words in a self-report. They then took a matching test in which the target words were divided into ten groups; each group had three synonymous words. The test required the specific knowledge of the particular meaning of each word. Student interviews were also conducted to find out their ideas of what it means to know a word. Interviews also touched on reasons for some students' inability to discern the exact differences between words. The findings of this study suggest that students need to be helped to make the most of synonyms to acquire the depth of word meaning, and vocabulary teaching should be put in its right place in a course of study.


Acoustic Correlates of Stress in English Noun Phrases and Compounds : Korean Learners of English vs. Native Speakers

Yun Hee Chung

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 2호 2015.06 pp.453-471

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This paper investigates the phonetic implementation of contrastive stress in English compounds and noun phrases produced by Korean learners of English and native speakers. The data was collected from 20 speakers (13 Korean learners at an intermediate level and 7 native speakers of North American English). The three most reliable phonetic correlates of English stress, namely pitch, duration, and intensity were measured across the production of the first words and second words for 10 pairs of compounds and phrases in carefully controlled statement sentences. The results showed that native speakers and Korean speakers differ in their use of acoustic patterns. The native speakers of English implement pitch and intensity as reliable cues to distinguish compounds from their phrasal counterpart whereas Korean learners do not exhibit any acoustical differentiation in compounds and phrases. These results suggest that Korean learners of English fail to achieve English-like stress in compounds and phrasal nouns in their real utterances.

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