영어영문학21 [English21]

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  • 자료유형
  • 발행기관
    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
  • ISSN
  • 간기
  • 수록기간
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
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    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제27권 4호 (24건)

사회비극으로서의 『모두 나의 아들들』


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 4호 2014.12 pp.5-30

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The purpose of this paper is to investigate All My Sons as a social play. Miller wants to write social tragedies in which the average man in the street becomes the tragic protagonist. He argues that tragic heroes are defined by their willingness to sacrifice everything in order to maintain their personal dignity-regardless of their status in society. Miller never sees milieu as destiny, though he is interested in the idea of stage as an environment because he is always concerned with the way the outside world shapes the individual. In his social tragedies, some of his more specific concerns would be the importance of the past, the issues regarding responsibility and connection, the nature of families, the damage caused by capitalism and materialism, and the law. Importantly, Miller also tries to describe the heroes who take on both individual and social responsibility, trying to make the world a better place. His tragedies, on a general level, create a better society by exploring the demands of morality, and uncovering individual and social needs. He lays emphasis on the harmonious relationship between individual and society. In All My Sons, Joe Keller is a man among men, a small factory owner, finally forced to his legal and moral crimes during World War II which resulted in the death of twenty-one pilots. His desire to pass his business on to his sons is rooted in love. This desire to bond with his son frees him from moral responsibility and allows him to commit crimes. He has violated a sacred bond of responsibility between himself and the society. Keller shipped faulty parts to the Army Air Forces. His actions are so terrible that one of his sons kills himself, and the other firmly rejects his system of thought and values. Keller is also shown to have felt guilty for his antisocial crime, having taken his own life. But in doing so, he recognizes the responsibility to others which he has until now ignored. Chris, despite his new-found socialism, is still a product of the more traditional generation, and is reluctant to throw away his old value from his father's world. While he dislikes his father's capitalism, he still loves his father, and he is confused as to what he should do. He refuses to face the truth about his father. His realization comes too late. Just after his father's death, he recognizes the relatedness of mankind which is at the heart of the play. Miller insists that we have social responsibilities and justices beyond the immediate family.


영국 디아스포라 사회에 나타난 오리엔탈리즘 — 하니프 쿠레이쉬의 『도시 교외의 부처』를 중심으로


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 4호 2014.12 pp.31-50

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The term “Orientalism” was originally used by Western artists and scholars of cultural studies to refer to the imitation or description of aspects of Middle Eastern and East Asian cultures in the West. Since the publication of Edward Said's Orientalism in 1978, “Orientalism” has been used to refer to a general Western attitude towards Middle Eastern, Asian and North African societies. In Said’s analysis, the West regarded these societies as undeveloped and inferior, while Western society was seen as developed, rational, and superior. These aspects of Orientalism are represented in the diasporic society of late 20th century England. After the Second World War, many people from ex-colonies in Asia settled in England. Therefore, in England, there are aspects of Orientalism in both white and diasporic society. This article analyzes the aspects of Orientalism in English diasporic society through the diasporic writer Hanif Kureishi’s novel The Buddha of Suburbia, which deals with the diasporic society in London in the 1970s. Using this text, this article shows how Orientalism affects whites and immigrants and what the British needs for a multi-cultural society.


돈 드릴로의 『화이트 노이즈』에 제시된 포스트모던 경험의 속성


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 4호 2014.12 pp.51-78

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In White Noise, Don DeLillo carefully investigates the causal interrelationship between technology and the obsessive fear of death in postmodern society. The two social and psychological elements of postmodernity are closely interconnected with each other in their function. Technology becomes the process and result of intellectual human activities through which he performs cultural transformation of nature for his successful adaptation to it. The fear of death, a fundamental psychological condition of human beings, gets distorted and amplified by the influence of modern technology. This paper examines the socio-psychological features of postmodern experience suggested in White Noise by focusing on the difference of the natural and cultural qualities of experience of its main characters. In the life of Jack Gladney’s family, the main characters of the novel, symbolic or cultural experience overpowers physical or natural experience. Their life is in the condition of the surfeit of the one and the lack of the other. Some of the characters such as Jack and Orest show an extraordinary concern toward the value of purely physical function of their bodies. Yet most of them are unaware of the fact that their life is excessively dependent upon the power of technology and the function of symbolic experience. DeLillo maintains a satirical viewpoint to the overwhelming influence of modern technology on the life of those characters, which in turn causes the excess of symbolic experience and the uncontrollable fear of death for them. However, DeLillo does not suggest that we can disregard the value of symbolic experience which is rooted in the ontological condition of human species.


우연, 디스토피아 그리고 영제국의 운명 — 세기말 소설의 불안감에 대한 진화론적 해석


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 4호 2014.12 pp.79-96

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Novels published in the fin de siecle period show the gloomy and negative prediction on future, affected evolution. According to Darwinism, every living thing in nature is affected by changing atmosphere, and the results are the survival of the fittest, struggle of existence, and natural selection. The problem of Darwinian evolution is that evolution does not have any directional nature, which means degeneration is a way of evolution. Non-directional character of evolution was accepted by the people of Britain which had suffered from the decline of industry. Novels, the product of culture, having customers called reading public should respond the gloomy atmosphere of England and show two opposite directions: the first is the acceptance of the mood in the novel, and the second is the hopeful rejection of the defeated mood in the novel. Or, other novels show the mixed mood of the two opposite atmospheres. H. G. Wells shows the gloomy mood in Time Machine and World War, and Stevens shows the hopeful and positive mood in his novels including The Treasure Island. This article emphasizes the fact that the fin de siecle novels are products of the gloomy atmosphere of England suffering from declining of her power, whether the novels acknowledged the weakening of her power or not.


「유리의 도시」에 나타난 정체성의 문제


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 4호 2014.12 pp.97-117

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The aim of this paper is to analyze “City of Glass,” a novella written by Paul Auster, in terms of the problems of identity and search for possibility. While traditional detective novels have a “conservative ideological form,” as Bennet and Royle suggest, no such form or structure is emphasized in Paul Auster’s “City of Glass.” The traditional detective novel’s predominant quest-motif about the offender’s identity shifts towards the question about the fake detective’s identity in this novella. Therefore, it is interwoven with the issues of identity; fragmented selves, split personalities, multiple, confused, and mistaken identities. The protagonist named Daniel Quinn loses his identity and cannot decide whether he is real or fictitious. It is noticeable that Auster’s life experience constitutes his personal identity which is quite often projected onto his protagonist. His identity crisis, caused by many struggles as a beginning writer, losing his wife and son due to divorce, or the hostile environment of New York is reflected in the novella. Daniel Quinn fails in his search for identity and, as a result, his search for identity is portrayed as confused, uncertain, and unfinished.


소설의 장르의 형성과 헨리 필딩의 소설론


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 4호 2014.12 pp.119-140

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Henry Fielding is quite an interesting writer in that he has a systematic theory of novels and he has actively as well as openly manifested his ideas. He advocates his literary theories and principles in his short “Preface” to Joseph Andrews, throughout the 18 essays featured in Tom Jones, and via the ever-present, self-conscious voices of author-narrator in most of his novels. Ian Watt, who defines the characteristics of the new literary genre that appeared in the first half of the 18th century as “formal realism,” emphasizes the ways by which novelists depict the realistic characters and their common lives by means of the detailed and concrete manner of writing. He evaluates Daniel Defoe as first practitioner and praises Samuel Richardson's effort in taking step further; but diagnoses Fielding’s work as stepping aside. The aim of this paper is to scrutinize Fielding's theory of novels, to define his status as one of the important figures in the early development of this genre, and to clarify his purpose and intentions as a novelist. He criticizes vehemently contemporary licentious romances and tries to land his literary works a place among the classics. He calls his novels “history,” and maintains true historians should imitate nature, and its general and universal truths. Furthermore, Fielding, by means of his “epic prose” style, depicts the social milieu of his time, and parodies both the impulse of the middle class, which tries to establish a new social order, and the incapability and irresponsibility of the upper ruling class. His ultimate goal in literature can be summarized as “the exposure of vanity and hypocrisy in society, and the recommendation of the antithetical virtues—charity, chastity, and the classical ideal of life.”


나딘 고디머의 눈으로 본 J. M. 쿳시의 소설 — 『마이클 K』에 나타난 원심력과 구심력에 관하여


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 4호 2014.12 pp.141-170

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Nadine Gordimer published in 2010 a collection of literary essays spanning for more than half a century, one of which was her 1984 review of J. M. Coetzee’s The Life & Times of Michael K. Interestingly enough, she added a sentence to what she had written more than two decades ago: “Postscript: J. M. Coetzee took Australian citizenship in 2006.” It is hardly a news that Coetzee left South Africa and settled down in Australia, for anybody interested in Coetzee is surely aware of it. Yet Gordimer chooses to problematize it and seems to suggest the need to reappraise Coetzee’s novel in light that he is no longer a South African author. This paper not only explores in what ways The Life & Times of Michael K is related to the author’s relocation but attempts to see Coetzee’s novel in light of two antithetical forces: the centripetal force of Coetzee’s novel trying to “take up residence in a world where a living play of feelings and ideas is possible” and the centrifugal force of South African literature in which his novels are swallowed “into a political discourse.” This paper ultimately suggests that Coetzee’s novel derives its extraordinary singularity from a tension between two contradictory forces engaged in a deadly but creative fight against each other. Yet it remains to be seen, as David Attwell suggests, whether in his adopted country Coetzee will ever “produce as rich a harvest” as he has done in his native country. It is in this respect that Gordimer’s rather harsh and ironic words will need to be taken into serious account.


『성녀 조안』에 나타난 쇼와 버틀러의 도덕률 — 반-성직주의의 도그마


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 4호 2014.12 pp.171-192

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This essay explores Saint Joan in terms of anti-clericalism and anti-jingoism to reveal how institutional religious hypocritical society is irreligious compared to Joan's individualism and protestantism as a savior and agent of life force. She finds herself to save conventional society and humanity through self-recognition as an agent of new religion. By Joan's merciful morality of new religion, instead of institutional religious authority, humankind can be saved and reached further development for the betterment of humanity, which is the elements of unconventional religion what Shaw and Butler insist throughout their views. Shaw's criticism of orthodox religion in the nineteenth century is generally similar to that of Samuel Butler. Both Shaw and Butler were opposed and attacked ethical dualism and hypocritical conventionality of Christianity. Instead, for the modern religion, they emphasized evolutionism with purposive creative force. They regarded men as instruments carrying on the purpose of life and aim of humanity by fulfilling their religious duties. Accordingly, Saint Joan is the play which carries out that purpose most effectively.


『톰 아저씨의 오두막』에 재현된 노예 및 여성 이미지 연구 — 엠블럼, 삽화, 조각의 예술 매체를 중심으로


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 4호 2014.12 pp.193-216

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It is interesting that some connections can be found between literary images in Uncle Tom’s Cabin and visual images of emblem, illustration, and sculpture which are associated with angels, goddess, Jesus, and shackled male or female slaves. The visual images in which black slaves like Tom supplicate freedom or emancipation from the whites, were popularized in the early and mid-19th century, and the images strongly influenced the expansion of slave emancipation movement. Undergoing the abolitionist movement, intriguingly, the women began to realize that they were simply like white domestic slaves. Consequently, it turns out that the movement played an important bridging role in enabling the women to regain their voices in the subsequent women's rights movement. For the purpose of this study, this paper is to deal with three ways. First, a history of the slavery emblem has been briefly reviewed, and then, an investigation has been made, using visual images like emblem and illustration in Uncle Tom’s Cabin, to know how Eva is represented as a religious and abolitionist symbol and how Tom is represented as a symbol of martyr and Jesus. Finally, a study of sculptures of Hiram Power’s and Howard Roberts’ has been made to reveal the relationship between women’s anti-slavery movement and women’s emancipation movement. Broadly speaking, this study is an intertextual and interdisciplinary research to investigate how literature and visual arts are interlinked and interconnected.


한국어 내핵관계절 습득에서의 유생성 효과


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 4호 2014.12 pp.217-236

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The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the semantic feature (animacy) of the head nouns has influence on the acquisition of Korean head-internal relative clauses. To achieve these goals, a grammaticality judgement task has been conducted on 40 Korean speakers. Twenty test sentences were created according to four types of internally-headed relative clauses for a quantitative study. In this study, we found that Korean speakers judged the grammaticality of internally-headed relative clauses at a rate of around 50%, suggesting that they restrictively accept the existence of internally-headed relative clauses. We also found that object internally-headed relative clauses with an inanimate head were judged more correctly than those with an animate head which indicates that the animacy effect only work on the acquisition of object internally-headed relative clauses. The fact that the animacy of head nouns has a limited influence on the acquisition Korean internally-headed relative clauses suggests that there is some interrelation between head nouns’ animacy and the acquisition of internally-headed relative clauses in Korean.


(σ⁻μμ)F=(σ˘μσ˘μ)F의 재고


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 4호 2014.12 pp.237-254

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The goal of this paper is to cross-linguistically examine the equivalence between a single heavy-syllable foot and a two-light syllable foot in the rhythmic grouping. In spite of their bimoraicity nature in quantity, (σ⁻ μμ)F=(σ˘ μσ˘ μ)F does not function equally across languages under the guidance of quantitative asymmetry between iambs and trochees proposed by Hayes (1995). In iambic system languages the iambic-specific phonological process such as Iambic Lengthening attempts to be the best quantitative shapes of disyllabic uneven iambs (LH) by means of lengthening the strong branch of (LL). As a result, the rank of (H) > (LL) comes out. The Trochaic Shortening process does the same role in the trochaic system languages to reach the harmonic goal of disyllabic even trochee (LL), producing (LL) > (H), otherwise (LL) and (H) are not scaled each other. Therefore, the equivalence between (σ⁻μμ)F and (σ˘μσ˘ μ)F does not seem to be a universal principle but a strong linguistic tendency which is varied with the presence of language-specific phonological processes like Iambic Lengthening and Trochaic shortening and their hierarchical constraint rankings wiith other constraints.


초등 영어 수업에서 파닉스 기반 읽기 지도에 관한 실태 조사


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 4호 2014.12 pp.255-277

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This paper aims to survey the current situation in which phonics-based reading has been taught to third and fourth graders and propose effective strategies for teaching phonics-based reading in the elementary school English classroom. The results of the survey are as follows: Although most teachers recognized the necessity of teaching phonemic awareness and phonics-based reading, they were not very satisfied with teaching contents, times, activities and materials included in the textbooks in terms of students' achievement and involvement. Phonics-based activities in the textbooks focused mainly on typical controlled practice. But teachers wanted to use various activities like games, songs, etc. which students can be actively involved in. Almost half of the teachers were not very satisfied with their own methods to teach reading based on phonics, because they were unacquainted with the phonics approach and did not feel competent with their phonics-based teaching techniques. Only a few teachers completed in-service teacher training programs for teaching phonics-based reading. But most teachers wanted to participate in the future programs. In conclusion, it is suggested that various activities for teaching phonics-based reading be developed and distributed among classrooms, and the range of teaching contents and times be sufficiently extended, and finally, teacher training programs for phonics approach be built up and available to any teachers wishing to attend them.


셰익스피어 작품을 효과적으로 이해할 수 있는 교수법


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 4호 2014.12 pp.279-299

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The purpose of this paper is to suggest an effective teaching method of Shakespeare's works. The study targets 39 students who took the English Literature Studies as a liberal subject. I focused on how to effectively teach Shakespeare's works through learning contents. First, I applied a communicative teaching method to convey moral values and wisdom of life. Second, I used movies, the reading of main scenes in English, and the reading of a translated version. Third, I applied a part of PBL (Problem-Based Learning) strategies to make a group presentation. I have analyzed the students' personal characteristics and their response when I taught Shakespeare's works using my lesson procedure. I conducted the main experimental study on one class of the lecture. Above all, my results have shown that it is a more effective teaching method. The aim of a lesson is to make students easily understand the subject and remain interested. The results of this study show high satisfaction of managing a method of class, watching movies, reading translated versions, using a chronological table, and making a group presentation and group discussion. In conclusion, this teaching method is a student-centered learning, providing liberal value via group discussion.


EFL 학습자의 독해의존요소에 관한 연구


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 4호 2014.12 pp.301-323

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L2 reading comprehension has been the key issue in Korean EFL context as most of the class hours are devoted to EFL reading. There have been various research results which are differentiated according to various factors such as leaner-variables, textual processing, syntactic grammar, and learners’ background knowledge. Despite its widespread uses and researches, empirical evidence suggests that L2 reading comprehension is a predictor of further development of L2 skills in EFL, and the factors affecting L2 reading proficiency are so various that it is not comfortable to apply them for EFL classroom environment. The current study explores what factor affect EFL learners’ reading comprehension by means of survey-based studies on EFL college level students. Experimental interventions will be conducted on EFL college students, which try reading test format to look into what beneficial factors are, affecting L2 reading proficiency in EFL students. The results related to factor analysis and multiple regression analysis are as follow: First, the most significant factor affecting EFL students’ reading proficiency is vocabulary- related knowledge in linguistic knowledge. Second, as non-linguistic knowledge, text processing like glossing skills is somewhat related to EFL students’ reading proficiency.


Lost in the Posthuman Woods: Ecology and Sovereignties in William Faulkner’s Go Down, Moses

Joongul Paek

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 4호 2014.12 pp.325-350

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This paper aims to reconsider Ike McCaslin’s ecology and its consequences in William Faulkner’s Go Down, Moses in conjunction with the idea of sovereignty. In opposition to recent skepticism about the ecological potentials of Ike McCaslin’s wilderness experience, this paper re-emphasizes the wilderness as the source of ethically crucial virtues. While learning to hunt in the Mississippi woods, Ike also learns how insignificant a human being is. The wilderness thus provides Ike an occasion to question the primacy of human sovereignty over nature and animals, and by extension to disavow white patriarchal sovereignty over enslaved Africans. But this paper claims that Ike’s wilderness experience has failed, not because it is inherently flawed, but because Ike has failed to render it socially meaningful. To prove this, this paper argues that sovereignty is not just about owning property or lording over humans, nature, and animals, but also about the owning of racial blood. Despite Ike’s complacent belief that he succeeded in leaving behind the bane of sovereignty, Ike has failed to erase the haunting specter of sovereignty in the elusive shape of racial blood.


Cultural Imperialism, Interpellation, and Speaking Back in Arundhati Roy’s The God of Small Things

Sukjoo Sohn

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 4호 2014.12 pp.351-371

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This paper explores the ways in which the twins in Arundhati Roy's The God of Small Things respond to and counteract cultural imperialism and interpellation to become subjects of their own experience. Among others, I appropriate the idea and theory of Althusser in postcolonial contexts to discuss how these characters are not controlled or silenced as children or after they return as adults. They employ a variety of strategies to resist and subvert hegemonic language, culture, and power. The little twins use the vernacular language to transgress and counter standard English usage and proper pronunciation, and the twin brother uses silence and invisibility as daily practices of the self. In the end, this study shows how the practices of appropriating and transforming the hegemonic discourse help these “bad subjects” speak back to the authorities. Such a failure of interpellation raises the possibility of opening up a negotiatory space for agency as it leads to subversion in the text.


English Floating Quantifiers as Intensifiers

Keun Young Shin

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 4호 2014.12 pp.373-393

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This paper attempts to provide a new perspective on floating quantifiers, which have been studied almost exclusively from a syntactic point of view. This paper proposes that floating quantifiers should be analyzed as pragmatic intensifiers that can occur in different positions in a clause. In other words, floating quantifiers are comparable to emphatic reflexives that induce a contrastive focus on the interpretation of a definite DP. Evidence in favor of this claim comes from the fact that floating quantifiers share a number of idiosyncratic properties with emphatic reflexives, which cannot be accounted for by positing syntactic movement or by treating floating quantifiers as adverbials. In addition, the positions of emphatic reflexives and floating quantifiers are affected by a pragmatically significant prosodic factor. The paper also suggests that floating quantifiers are partitives, claiming that quantifier-floating is not due to a lexical property of a given quantifier.


How Are Various Types of Picturebook Dynamics Semiotically Interpreted?

Youngju Choi

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 4호 2014.12 pp.395-413

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Picturebooks are a very special genre in that words and pictures cooperate to create the intended message of the authors/illustrators. Words and pictures often do not deliver the exact same message. It is this discrepancy which creates the tension and interest, which prompts readers to enjoy interpreting the message while moving from verbal to visual signs and vice versa, that is, visual to verbal signs. The existing literature separately deals with the categorization of word-picture interactions and the reader’s interpretation process while switching from one sign system to the other. This paper addresses the categorization and the interpretation simultaneously. It illustrates how three different types of the word-picture interaction are interpreted when readers switch their attentions from words to pictures and from pictures to words with the picturebooks A Big Fat Enormous Lie; The Little Mouse, the Red Ripe Strawberry, and the Big Hungry Bear; and All By Myself.


Examining Measurement Characteristics of an English Listening Comprehension Test

Youngsu Kim, Sae Il Choi

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 4호 2014.12 pp.415-434

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The purpose of this study was to investigate some measurement characteristics of an English listening test for high school students annually developed and administered by the 15 provincial Offices of Education in Korea. The study applied item response theory (IRT) models and a series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA, CFA) procedures to a data set from 284 students at a local high school. The IRT analyses showed the test could not distinguish students properly along the continuum of listening proficiency because the test items were too easy and the test was too short with a relatively low reliability for such a large scale test. Subsequent EFA and CFA procedures revealed that the test was primarily unidimensional and should function as a summative test but not as a diagnostic one. Further implications from the analyses were discussed together with some suggestions to improve the test quality.


Incidental Assimilation of Metadiscoursal Skills in Computer-Mediated Communication

Hyung-Sun Kim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 4호 2014.12 pp.435-461

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Metadiscourse is an important strategic skill in writing, yet it has been seldom a part of explicit classroom instruction. In pursuit of evidence about the L2 writers' incidental assimilation into the L1 uses of interpersonal metadiscourse (IMD) skills, this study examined CMC corpora of L1 and L2 university students covering three discussion sessions. Although not straightforward, the L2 writers demonstrated some signs of assimilation; while the L1 writers gradually reduced IMD with increasing affinity, the L2 group made a quick drop-off and then caught up with the L1 rate at the later session, showing a U-shaped pattern of development. The investigation by categories presented four patterns: an early change for self mentions; delayed changes for engagement and attitude markers; a sustained difference for boosters; and a retrogression for hedges. Exposing learners to appropriate target forms would suffice for the categories involving directness such as self mentions, engagement markers, and attitude markers, while learners may benefit more from some explicit instruction for boosters and hedges.


Korean EFL Learners’ Perceptions and Uses of Count/Mass Nouns

Yumi Ma, Yoonja Oh

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 4호 2014.12 pp.463-481

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This study explores Korean EFL learners’ perceptions of quantification and their grammatical sensitivity in the use of count/mass nouns. To investigate the perceptions of adult learners and young learners, it compared the perceptions of thirty children with those of thirty adults using a quantity judgment task. For the adult group, a grammaticality judgment task was additionally administered to investigate their actual use of count/mass nouns. The findings show that both the young and adult learners exhibit a consistent pattern in their perceptions of count/mass nouns giving support to the results obtained in studies which addressed the same topic with learners of different L1 and L2 backgrounds. In the grammaticality judgment task, the adult participants judged the grammaticality of count nouns and subject mass nouns appropriately. They showed a tendency to judge quantity based on numbers for the object mass nouns and the flexible nouns. These results imply that the adult participants’ use of count/mass nouns match their perceptions of count/mass distinction.


An Analysis of Relative Clause Acquisition in the Spoken Corpus of Chinese EFL Learners

Seunghyun Baek, Min Guo

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 4호 2014.12 pp.483-508

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The purpose of the present study was to examine the nature of relative clause (hereafter, RC) acquisition of Chinese EFL learners with two distinctive levels of oral English proficiency based on the Spoken English Corpus of Chinese Learners (Wen, Wang, & Liang, 2009). 207 English-majored sophomore students’ oral narratives in a given topic were analyzed in term of overall oral proficiency, frequency distribution of RC, type of RC, and type of RC error. The results indicate that students with high oral proficiency were likely to be more productive and more accurate on RCs than those with low one. In addition, the six types of RCs they produced in the spoken context provided support for the RC accessibility hierarchies. Moreover, there were a close relationship of RC production to oral proficiency; more specifically, OS and OOGen RC structures were significant predictors of oral proficiency. Further the possible causes for RC errors were cross-linguistically explored. In alignment with that, pedagogical implications for English-L2 RC acquisition were discussed.


Effects of Mobile-Learning Attributes on Satisfaction and Performance in EFL Education and the Moderating Effect of Learning Supports

Hee-Jung Jung

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 4호 2014.12 pp.509-525

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The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of mobile-learning (m-learning) on EFL student satisfaction and performance. For this empirical study, a research model was proposed with hypotheses. For m-learning attributes, four variables were suggested: Mobility, Content Personalization, Interactivity, and Accessibility. In addition, Learning Supports mechanisms used as potential moderating factor was proposed in order to test whether this variable enhances the relationship between Satisfaction and Performance in English m-learning. the data were collected from actual m-learning EFL students. A total of 279 responses were analyzed to test the proposed hypotheses. Results show that all hypotheses were significantly supported, suggesting that m-learning attributes are crucial factors for increasing EFL learners’ satisfaction and performance. Furthermore, the relationship between Satisfaction and Performance is enhanced by the inclusion of various types of Learning Supports. Finally, academic and practical implications are discussed.


The Effects of using BBC Drama on Listening Comprehension in TOEIC

Sunyoung Heo

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 4호 2014.12 pp.527-545

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The aim of this study is to explore the enhancement of listening comprehension in TOEIC by using BBC TV drama. Seventy-eight participants were divided into two groups: an experimental group and a control group. With 4 different types of activities on the basis of Sherlock Holmes were employed. An experimental group outperformed overall listening parts. Among the four parts of TOEIC listening comprehension, part four was affected most by the drama using activities and showed statistically significant difference. The result also showed that part one was influenced least by those activities. Overall students were positive on using drama in listening class, and the motivation feature of drama was counted as the most responses regarding the activities.

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