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영어영문학21 [English21]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
    학술지
  • 발행기관
    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
  • ISSN
    1738-4052
  • 간기
    계간
  • 수록기간
    1967~2018
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제30권 3호 (17건)
No
1

『파리의 대학살』에 나타난 종교와 정치적 폭력

강석주

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 3호 2017.09 pp.5-27

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

On the surface level, Christopher Marlowe's The Massacre at Paris could be read as a kind of political propaganda to attack the Catholic and to defend the Protestant. But it has the other side of undermining the absolute authority of religion and political decision. It is undeniable that Marlowe portrays the representative Catholic characters Guise and Catherine as devilish, and the Protestant leader Navarre as holy and just. And it seems natural that he should consider the English audience and the contemporary ruling party who keep Protestantism. Catholic's cruelty and corruption in the play will reinforce the Protestant audience's antipathy against Catholicism and become the means to defend Anglican Church. However, it is worth noting that the corrupt politicians commonly take advantage of religion for their power. Even though Navarre the Protestant king is portrayed as a faithful man who prays for God's justice, his religious faith is also questionable. The Massacre at Paris focuses on Catholic hypocrisy and corruption, which can be applied to all religions including Protestantism. Therefore religion becomes not the object of faith but the object of fear in the play. Marlowe's audience might be confirmed how religious faith could lead them to cruel and violent disaster, and how religion could be ill used politically.

2

여성의 몸에 새겨진 노예들의 합창 — 그레이스 니콜스의 『나는 오래된 기억을 지닌 여성』

김은영

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 3호 2017.09 pp.29-51

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

Anglophone Caribbean woman poet Grace Nichols's first book, i is a long memoried woman, which was awarded the Commonwealth Poetry Prize in 1983, depicts the experience of slavery in a long-poem sequence. In the book, Nichols appropriates the traditional epic style, which is mainly considered a male domain in British literary history. In her challenge to this patriarchal domain, Nichols narrates the collective identities of female slaves via multiple poetic personas, use of creolized English, and choral forms of the African oral tradition. She focuses on representing the wounded female body not only as the very site of slave memory but also as a locus of recovery. Nichols refuses and dissolves the images of slave women as miserable victims through these poetic strategies of representation. Finally, Nichols creates a new female image with her synthetic power.

3

「키클롭스」장에서 희생양 블룸을 통한 아일랜드 민족주의 비판

김은혜

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 3호 2017.09 pp.53-71

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

Joyce reveals and criticizes the real state of Ireland through the main character, Bloom. As Bloom exists on the border of the Dublin community, which enables him to defamiliarize the Irish culture, he can be a useful tool for Joyce to use to criticize the Irish mainstream. Irish nationalism, formed to protest against English oppression, came to oppress individuals in the same way as the mechanisms of colonial rule. Joyce criticizes the problems of Irish nationalism by using Bloom, who is made a scapegoat. The men in Barney Kiernan's pub attack Bloom, revealing the attribute of nationalism that Joyce criticizes. Declaring the Irish patriots to be heroes and mythologizing their deaths, the men in the pub insist on the spiritual and cultural superiority of Ireland over England. They construct the concept of ‘authentic Ireland' and whoever is at odds with it is considered to be the enemy. As Bloom logically disputes their argument, he is branded as a ‘stranger' and treated like a scapegoat. Through this, the men bind together their community and reinforce their self-esteem. This exposes the qualities of nationalism, obstinacy and intolerance that result in violence. Unlike the men in the pub, Bloom continuously argues the importance of “love” to solve conflicts between nations. Through this clear contrast, Joyce suggests the qualities which Irish Nationalism should promote.

4

폴 오스터의 『유리의 도시』에서의 대니얼 퀸의 정체성 탐사의 시도

박윤기

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 3호 2017.09 pp.73-89

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

The aim of this paper is to discuss Daniel Quinn’s embarkment on a quest for identity in Paul Auster’s City of Glass. Living with the memories of his wife and son who are now dead, the protagonist, Daniel Quinn, loses his identity and cannot decide whether he is real or fictitious. Within this identity crisis he is situated in a conflict between the view of his self and of the social norms. Instead of being integrated into society, he lives in solitude. He confines himself to writing detective stories under the name of William Wilson. Max Work is the “real” detective of the stories. Therefore it can be said that Quinn takes on multiple identities. What make matters worse, the problem of his identity becomes more complex when he takes on the identity of Paul Auster, an assumed detective, and gets involved in the “Stillman case.” The Auster-character tells Quinn that he is writing an essay on the question of the authorship of Don Quixote. At this point, the question of identity that develops in City Of Glass transforms into one of the author’s identity. However, there is no means of answering the question clearly in the post-modern era.

5

『시간의 틈』— 『겨울 이야기』 다시쓰기

서경희

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 3호 2017.09 pp.91-110

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Jeanette Winterson’s The Gap of Time is the first novel in the Hogarth Shakespeare Series which imagines Shakespeare’s plays in modern settings for a 21st-century audience. As a cover version of The Winter’s Tale, The Gap of Time transplants the familiar story of a foundling to contemporary London and a fictional American city called New Bohemia. Though it is quite a faithful rendition of the original play in terms of the storyline, The Gap of Time inverts the structure of the play to focus more on the hopeful message of “whatever is lost will be found” and on the theme of forgiveness which is epitomized by Perdita, the little lost one. Also, The Gap of Time is enriched with detailed backstories which, for example, find a homoerotic charge in the relationship between Leo (Leontes), a hedge fund CEO, and Xeno (Polixenes), a gay game designer, by making them former lovers at their boarding school. Leo’s destructive jealousy becomes more convincing with these complicated backstories. Herself a modern foundling, Winterson gives the last word to Perdita who will redeem the past and live the future as an endless journey. Time can’t un-happen, but it can be un-lost.

6

판에겐 무슨 일이 일어났는가? — 『만조의 바다 위에서』에 재현된 루머와 신화의 탄생

이관수

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 3호 2017.09 pp.111-127

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This study aims to examine the creation process of a myth in the fictional community of B-Mor in Chang-rae Lee’s On Such a Full Sea by delving into the novel’s narrative structure and voice presented in the first person plural form, “we.” In pursuit of this examination, this study discusses the textual complexities and effects of the first person plural perspective to which the narrator’s unique influence on readers’ interpretations of the text is attributed. This discussion also brings up the issue of the narrator’s unreliability and the reflection on rumors or words-of-mouth which proliferate in B-Mor, whose residents ceaselessly combine pieces of unverified information. This in turn creates the myth about Fan, a female fish-tank diver who leaves her home in the B-Mor settlement. These arguments converge upon how a myth about an individual is created and reiterated to the point that it becomes a completely “true” story with a narrative created by a community. This study intends to consider the formation and subsequent birth of the myth of Fan.

7

신화다시쓰기 — 복원된 서사로서 마가렛 애트우드의 『페넬로피아드』에 나타난 극적 독백과 코러스

임미진

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 3호 2017.09 pp.129-152

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In The Odyssey, Penelope is portrayed as the quintessential faithful wife, a woman known for her intelligence and constancy. And the book draws to an end with the slaughter of the suitors by Odysseus and Telemachus, the hanging of twelve maids who have been sleeping with the suitors, and the reunion of Odysseus and Penelope. Margaret Atwood’s The Penelopiad remythologizes this event drawing on material other than The Odyssey, especially for the details of Penelope’s parentage, her early life and marriage, and the scandalous rumours circulating about her. Margaret Atwood has chosen to tell the story from the perspective of Penelope and the twelve hanged maids. The maids form a chanting and singing Chorus, which focuses on two questions that arise after any close reading of The Odyssey: what led to the hanging of the maids, and what was Penelope really up to? In The Penelopiad, Penelope is always been haunted by the death of the hanged maids. The Penelopiad is gothic version of The Odyssey told through the voice of Penelope, speaking from beyond the grave as she tells her life story in the form of a confession in self-defence and self-justification. However, Penelope’s is not the only voice here her tale is frequently interrupted by the voices of her twelve hanged maids, those nameless slave girls who have nothing to say in The Odyssey. Writing against this erasure, Atwood uses her imagination to expand Homer’s text, giving voice to this group of powerless silenced women.

8

직유를 통하여 균열 내기 — 앤 섹스턴의 『변형』

조희정

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 3호 2017.09 pp.153-175

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Anne Sexton’s Transformations attempts to re-write Grimm Brothers’ fairy tales from the perspective of a “middle-aged witch,” who sustains a critical view of patriarchal society. In poems deconstructing the binary oppositions between two types of women and revealing the impossible fantasy of the idealized married life, Sexton uses similes in order to link the past and the present. Similes are effective weapons in Sexton’s writing, in that they bridge the gap between the idealized world of fairy tales and the real American society of the 1960s. Unlike metaphors, which tend to emphasize the organic nature of figures, similes display the artificial nature inherent in figurative language and lead the readers to realize the tensions between two entities connected through them. In addition to showing a critical view of patriarchy in general, Sexton also foregrounds forms of sexuality that are usually marginalized as abnormal in patriarchal society. For example, in “Rapunzel,” the relationship between the witch and Rapunzel is portrayed as that between mother and child, almost bordering on lesbianism. In “Briar Rose (Sleeping Beauty),” the sleeping princess is under the control of her father, who appears to have incestuous desire toward her own daughter. Also, Sexton emphasizes that women are often circulated as commercial goods in the patriarchal system and that this tendency is reinforced in modern American society. Through her brilliant parody of fairy tales inherited from the past, Sexton engages the readers to recognize problems both in the original texts and in their own society.

9

그림책에 나타난 어른의 권위와 통제의 모습 분석 — 아동기 연구에 연계하여

최재영

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 3호 2017.09 pp.177-197

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This study analyzes English picture books for ways adult authority and control over children are portrayed in their texts. It is argued that as in any other texts, children’s literature, such as the picture book is filled with ideological messages. In the case of children’s literature the messages are created by adults intending for children. Recent theories of childhood studies argue that adult understanding of children has been very limited. Adults tend to view children as incompetent and passive beings in need of protection. Children’s rights to participate in the decision making of their own affairs are denied by adult authority and power. As a result, the majority of the messages dispensed through texts for children are intended to instruct them in the right way of growing up in the light of the adult. Issues with control are inevitable in such texts. Two picture books analyzed show authority and control immersed in seemingly happy stories for 6 and 7 year olds. Another picture book, however, reveals a different attitude. It acknowledges adults’ claims of being in the know and their attempts to control children, and invites children to participate. The story recognizes children as functioning human beings and empowers them in the course, instead of belittling them for their biological immaturity. It also implies the possibility of a better adult-child relationship, one based on mutual appreciation.

10

관계사구문에서의 리레이블링과 스머글링 접근법에 관한 연구

강선옥

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 3호 2017.09 pp.199-217

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The purpose of this paper is to solve a relativization analysis problem which involves relabeling. Cecchetto and Donati (2015) argued that relative constructions are puzzling because they are clauses which have a nominal distribution. That is, the process from a clause to a nominal expression entails a change in labeling (i.e. re(labeling). Cecchetto and Donati (2015) also stated that the relative clauses are not CPs but NPs because the determiner of the head of the antecedent is merged with NP in the matrix clause. According to the raising analysis in relative clauses, the antecedent in the matrix originally derives from the object of the embedded verb. However, when the object of the verb in the relabeling analysis of relative clauses moves to the complement or the object position of matrix verb, it goes from A through A’ and then to A position again. This movement cannot be permitted due to violating the Chain Uniformity Condition. Therefore, I argue that this movement in relabeling analysis of relative clauses has a theoretical problem. Applying Hicks’ Smuggling Approach (2009) to relabeling analysis can solve this weakness in relative clauses. I show that the smuggled object with a Null OP in the relabeling analysis of relative clauses moves to the antecedent position in the matrix such as the object in Tough constructions which complies with the Chain Uniformity Condition.

11

한국인 영어 학습자가 사용하는 영어 관계사절의 통사적 특징 분석 — 작문 코퍼스 기반 연구

이정준, 신근영

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 3호 2017.09 pp.219-245

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This corpus-based study investigates syntactic characteristics of English relative clauses used by EFL speakers who are Korean adults and focuses on the grammatical function of gaps and fillers which are claimed to influence the acquisition and use of such clauses. The study reveals that although both Korean EFL speakers and English native speakers prefer to use English relative clauses which are positioned at the ends of sentences, Korean EFL speakers use relative clauses where both gaps and fillers are subjects more frequently than relative clauses where both gaps and fillers are objects or complements. Furthermore, Korean EFL speakers do not use English relative clauses with gaps that function as indirect objects. We claim that the way Korean EFL speakers use English relatives clauses is the result of L1-transfer on the ground that similar patterns of use are found in Korean.

12

그림책 전기를 활용한 장르중심 쓰기 기반 초등영어 문자언어 지도

신재욱, 김혜리

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 3호 2017.09 pp.247-272

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This study aimed to explore the effects of using picture book biographies and aspects of written language communication in a Korean primary EFL context by integrating genre-based writing activities into the reading of picture book biographies. The results of data analysis yielded two major findings. First, picture book biographies are effective in personality education and content learning through English instruction. Second, the participants recognized diverse communicative techniques according to the genres of their writing. For example, when the participants wrote a diary, they tried to reflect back on and speculate about the day by addressing to their own selves. When letter writing, they kept in mind the receiver of the letter and tried to communicate in direct ways by asking questions. In writing newspaper articles and biographies, students assumed multiple unknown readers. Implications and suggestions are provided for future studies.

13

The Division System in Sueyeun Juliette Lee’s Underground National

Robert Grotjohn

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 3호 2017.09 pp.273-294

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This essay uses Paik Nak Chung’s theorization of the Korean “division system” to read Underground National, the second collection by Korean American poet Sueyeun Juliette Lee. Paik’s theorization of the key “division” being between the governments, on the one hand, and the general populace of North and South together, on the other, is a useful frame for Lee’s exploratory poetics. The visual images reproduced in “Korea, What is,” the first poetic sequence in the book, resonate with the written text to show how division is imagined by a nation that clings to idealized memories of a unified past. In the second sequence, “Underground National (a priori,” Lee continues her images of division, adding to the North-South division a division between herself as a Korean American and the requirement for ethnic unity sometimes enforced by both Korean nations. Just as Paik insists that national unification can come only through the acceptance of division, Lee suggests that unification of various Korean peoples, diasporic and domestic, may come only through the acceptance of diversity.

14

Holmes’s Failure of Observing in “A Scandal in Bohemia”

Sungjin Jang

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 3호 2017.09 pp.295-312

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This paper aims to offer a different reading of Arthur Conan Doyle’s “A Scandal in Bohemia” by employing labyrinth and maze metaphors to suggest a reason for Holmes failure to apprehend Irene Adler. Whereas the labyrinth has only one right pathway to identity, the maze has various pathways. This difference between the labyrinth and the maze helps us understand why Holmes is outwitted by Alder at the end of the story. Holmes, who sees London as a labyrinth, firmly believes that there is only one way to view Adler’s identity: a submissive and passive Victorian woman. However, Alder, unlike Holmes, regards London as a maze so she maintains various identities: American woman, retired opera singer, single woman, married woman, young man, and a human-animal hybrid. Adler’s multiple identities connote that she cannot simply be defined as a single type of woman, and it is this freedom that allows her to escape capture. Thus, Holmes loses the case against Adler because of his labyrinthine view, while Adler succeeds because she can observe London, and by extension the world, properly.

15

Transnational Voyage Narratives and Cultural Dynamics of Race in Edgar Allan Poe’s The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket and C. S. Lewis’s The Voyage of the Dawn Treader

Seongeun Jin

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 3호 2017.09 pp.313-336

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Psychological journeys surface as geographical explorations in Edgar Allan Poe’s The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket (1838) and C. S. Lewis’s The Voyage of the Dawn Treader (1952). Hitherto, the racial topography across the Atlantic in the two books has not received full attention. Instead, critics have focused on apocalyptic complexities because of ambiguous references to subliminal encounters with redemptive values at the ends of the two stories. Those conclusions culminate in a form of regressive returning to the comfort zone of whiteness. Nonetheless, underneath their voyage narratives, Poe and Lewis center upon the struggles of the human psyche due to racial anxieties. They further illustrate the main characters’ agitation aroused by the terror of darkness. This article uncovers the two authors’ transatlantic perceptions and the popular culture perceptions of the British and northern American imperial territories. These perceptions parallel the moral dilemmas between liberating other races and suppressing the insurgent Other. Thus, the article examines Lewis’s and Poe’s growing awareness of threatened nationhood in the mixtures of Romanticism and racial tensions, mixtures that preface the anti-colonial outbreaks of violence in both 19th and 20th centuries.

16

The Structural Relationship of Factors in Korean Fifth Graders’ L2 Listening Proficiency

Minchae Kim, Seunghyun Baek

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 3호 2017.09 pp.337-364

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This study sought to explore the structural relationships between factors possibly impacting the L2-English listening proficiency of Korean elementary-school students. A total of 201 fifth-grade students from three different schools in a local area participated in this study. The data were collected by means of a series of questionnaires and L2 listening proficiency tests and were analyzed by factor, multiple regression and structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses. First, six potential factors in L2 listening were identified as follows; motivation and learning attitude, cognition and memory, metacognition, compensation, anxiety, and L1 faculty. Secondly, motivation and attitude in L2 was the most significant variable for predicting young learners’ L2 listening ability. That is, L2 learners with positive attitudes and strong motivation were predicted to be the most successful L2 listeners. Furthermore, based on the SEM analysis, motivation and attitude, and cognition and memory which stimulated the use of listening strategies such as metacognition and compensation had significant structural relationships with L2 listening proficiency. In light of these results, discussion and pedagogical implications were addressed.

17

서사에 대한 집요한 탐구와 분석 — 김현아의 『중심과 주변의 정치학』

왕은철

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제30권 3호 2017.09 pp.365-367

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

 
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