영어영문학21 [English21]

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  • 자료유형
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    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
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  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
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    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제29권 4호 (17건)

『에드워드 2세』— 동성애와 정치적 욕망


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 4호 2016.12 pp.1-28

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The homoeroticism between king Edward and Gaveston in Edward II matters not because of its moral aspect but because of its political aspect. We cannot be sure if the relationship of Edward and Gaveston is condemning sin or pure affection. But it is certain that their relationship has great influence on the English political state in the play. Edward is not a common man, but a king. And a king’s homoeroticism in the Medieval and Renaissance society may certainly undermine the absolute authority of kingship. Actually there are many nobles who disobey and ignore Edward’s authority in the play, and Edward’s minion Gaveston’s arrogance and slyness also undermine the authority of Edward’s kingship. Marlowe advocates for neither Gaveston nor the nobles. Rather by revealing their hidden political ambitions and selfish desires, Marlowe pays attention to the political conflicts and the undermined kingship. However, it is Edward himself who undermines the political myth and authority of kingship most. His addiction to love of Gaveston becomes the dramatic means to deny even his own kingship. The three groups making conflicts in this play are all in pursuit of their own desires: Gaveston and Spencer desire power using Edward’s affection; Mortimer and the nobles also desire their political power even threatening the king Edward; and Edward himself desires Gaveston. The minions and the nobles are hypocritical in that they emphasize loyalty to the king and the kingdom. However, Edward doesn’t have the Machiavellian hypocrisy and duplicity, from which Edward’s misfortune derives. The desires of these three groups deny the political ideology of sacred kingship. Although Marlowe deals with homoeroticism in Edward II, what matters is not the result of the moral corruption. Marlowe focuses on the political desire which lies on the other side of homosexuality, demythifying absolute kingship.


흑인 공동체 내 흑인 여성의 몸 — 글로리아 네일러의 『브루스터 플레이스의 여성들』을 중심으로


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 4호 2016.12 pp.33-53

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In American history, black women have been mainly evaluated in the discourse of white men belonging to the white community. This paper examines the significance and role of black women in the black community from a black perspective. It focuses on the position of black feminism in the late 20th century in America. The paper analyzes black women’s bodies with respect to their sexuality and motherhood based on the book, The Women of Brewster Place (1983), written by the African-American writer, Gloria Naylor. The book is set in a lower class black community in the late 20th century. This article examines the physical violation of black women by black men who are proud of their manhood. From the perspective of sexuality in the novel, black men engage in phallocentric thinking. In addition, lesbian black women are considered insignificant and are forced into exile by black society. From the perspective of motherhood, black women whose husbands have abandoned them are perceived to be the caretakers of children. Some of them are regarded as welfare mothers, a term often directed towards black mothers who are single and poor. These women experience difficulties because of their race, gender, and class. However, Naylor suggests that black women look after each other. It helps them heal the wounds of the body and soul. Naylor reveals that black women are often treated in an abusive manner in the black community, and this has been a forbidden issue in the black community. However, she reveals the power of unity of black women and the hope for their future they find by caring for each other.


풍자시로서의 존슨의 「로버트 로쓰 경에게」


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 4호 2016.12 pp.55-71

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This essay purports to read Ben Jonson's “To Sir Robert Wroth” as a satire. The poem has a norm and objects of attack as satire. The poet idealizes the virtuous life of Robert Wroth in the country, which is seen to be the norm. In his country retirement, Wroth avoids the vices of court and city. Wroth is seen to live peacefully at his country house and reject the values of court and city such as ambition and greed. Wroth’s society is regarded as the ideal society where “Freedom doth with degree dispense.” Wroth’s estate is contrasted with the twin corruptions of city and court. The vices of city and court are the poet’s objects of attack. Jonson attacks the vices of court and city from the viewpoint of the norm. First of all, Jonson attacks masquing, which is popular with the nobility. And then the poet goes on to attack city life. He attacks soldiers’ ambition. They are seen to commit sins to win their position. Next he moves to lawyers’ vices. The misers are also attacked for being obsessed with accumulating wealth. The poet moves on to criticize the court. The courtiers are criticized for making a goal of getting a place or honour. Against these twin corruptions of city and court, the poet presents Worth’s virtuous life as an alternative. In his country retirement, Wroth lives carefree and has the functions of providing jobs and hospitality to the tenants and ensuring the peace and welfare of his community. In conclusion, Jonson attacks the twin corruptions of court and city from the norm of Wroth’s virtuous life. But it seems that Wroth’s ideal society cannot stop social corruption. We can say in this poem that though Jonson celebrates Wroth’s virtuous life, ambition and greed become the norm in his society.


『물속의 아이들』 — 진화론의 문학적 수용


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 4호 2016.12 pp.73-91

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The Water Babies by Charles Kingsley reveals the conflict between creation and evolution. It is natural for Kingsley as a clergyman to believe in creation, and as a scientist to accept evolution. In The Water Babies, he tries to solve this contradiction. The book was written for adolescent readers for the purpose of moral education. The first part of the book describes the protagonist Tom, a chimney sweep, who jumps into the river to escape Mr. Grimes, and the second part of the book describes Tom’s journey to the Other-end-of-Nowhere in the water. His journey involves learning moral lessons, and he comes to understand moral evolution through the fairy Ellie, the personified Nature. The moral evolution in this story is the core that decides the direction of evolution. If some creatures refuse to abandon immoral attitudes due to inertia, they would be against evolution. Kingsley insists that there is no direction in evolution, and that it is the morality of creatures that decides the direction of evolution. I believe that Kingsley’s stance on moral evolution comes from his status as a clergyman. He could not deny either the teaching of creation in the Bible or the scientific explanation of evolution as a scientist. In oder to compromise the two conflicting positions, he suggests his own argument that evolution is possible, but that, without good morality, any creature cannot proceed toward better situations. Considering that The Water Babies was written for adolescent readers, we need not criticize the educational intention of this book. Rather, it is better for us to read The Water Babies as a parody of evolution, which had shaken the foundation of Victorian society, and to understand the work as a medicine for the anxiety of the Victorian Era.


베케트와 산문의 윤리 — 『어떠한지』에 대한 바디우의 독해


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 4호 2016.12 pp.93-113

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Samuel Beckett’s How It Is portrays the fundamental problematics of Beckett’s literature through bold condensation and ellipsis while expanding the boundary of the genre of novel into the unknown. The plot and characters are dramatically reduced while conversation and description are completely absent. What remains is an endless monologue without punctuation. What makes critics hesitate is not simply the profound convolution but also images of unprecedented violence and torture. Actions such as thrashing heads or poking the butt with a tin opener may seem like comic relief but in the end they produce an extremely dark and bizarre image along with the situation of the muddy field. One interesting point is that the negative attitude shared by critics is in stark contrast to the reaction shared by some philosophers on this particular work. In particular, Alain Badiou’s view is notable in that it expresses a differing thought from that of general Beckettian studies as well as other philosophers. Badiou suggests that Beckett has moved from the stage of dissolution of the subject to the stage of ‘affirmation’ of the other in the purest sense of the word. As such, it provides the opportunity for not the dissolution but the reaffirmation of the subject. For Badiou, the encounter with the other opens up the possibilities of event. Consequently, the subject is reborn through the fidelity toward the possibilities. What is more suggestive of Badiou’s approach is that such a perspective allows the negativity that has defined Beckett’s literature to transform into an affirmative ethics. Badiou’s analysis of How It Is is carried out through bold philosophical appropriation but can be viewed as the most innovative interpretation of the work.


『위대한 개츠비』에서의 모순어법과 그 의미


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 4호 2016.12 pp.115-135

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This article attempts to discuss Fitzgerald's frequent use of oxymoron in The Great Gatsby. Oxymoron is a representative figure of speech in the novel and closely related to its thematic concerns. The significant ironies and paradoxes are represented and reinforced by oxymorons throughout the novel. First of all, most of the main characters Nick introduces are described as a combination of two contradictory or opposite words, reflecting their positive and negative attributes. Such a doubleness of each characterization represents the struggling of right and wrong, good and bad, east and west, idealism and materialism in America's 1920s. Especially, Gatsby's doubleness is related to his criminal corruption of materialism fronting his romantic “incorruptible dream” of idealism. As a majority of people in the 1920's America pursued the Dream of Success, most of the characters in the novel are caught up in a world of wealth, but they don't end up getting what they want with money. In conclusion, oxymoron is effectively used to prove the doubleness of the characters, especially in Gatsby's dream toward Daisy, and the contradictions of the Dream of Success in 1920's America.


이창래의 『제스처 인생』에 나타난 인종적 패싱과 트라우마


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 4호 2016.12 pp.137-157

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This study aims to examine trauma and passing in Chang-rae Lee's A Gesture life. Through the first-person narrative of Franklin Kurohata(Doc Hata), Lee shows us how both social and psychological forces enmesh the transnational diaspora in a fine web that keeps self-determining choices tantalizingly out of reach. Multilayered complications of identity traumatize Hata. He cannot acculturate fully into either the adopted cultures of Japan or America, making him feel out of place in his environment. In both places, race is the limiting factor that impedes social acceptance. So Hata has no choice but to reject anything that might prevent him from being wholly and thoroughly Japanese or American. The craving to be an authentic member of his local community results in abstracting or hiding the women characters Sunny and K, who prove to be fatal flaws to Hata’s racial purity. Hata has spent his entire life masking his uncomfortable position in society, and his life is structured by the struggle between guilt and desire, between self-erasure and self-assertion. But his introspective journey toward a revitalized and reimagined identity begins with improved relationships with his daughter and grandson. In his seventies, Hata breaks his old tendency of, 'doing nothing' for the sake of his beloved, Sunny and Thomas. Simultaneously, he heals himself, physically and psychologically, from various afflictions he endures. Hata can rectify past ills through explorations of memory and reconnections with history and family. Memories play a key role to cope with loss and provide a chance to discover and promote self-healing.


버지니아 울프의 『댈러웨이 부인』에 나타난 ‘시간 트라우마’ 연구


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 4호 2016.12 pp.159-182

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This essay aims at examining how the trauma related to time is shown artistically in Virginia Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway. The themes regarding ‘time’ have been widely used by a lot of modernist writers including Virginia Woolf, James Joyce, and Marcel Proust. However, most topics are focused on the subjective time based on the stream of consciousness instead of approaching the ‘being of temporality.’ The ‘temporality of time’ has the characteristics of being both undecidable and variable so that it tends to result in the ‘trauma’ that has not been discussed not publicly until recently. Therefore it is needed that how the ‘being of temporality’ and how it brings about ‘trauma’ can be shown in the literary works. When we talk about the topics of trauma in Woolf’s work, we usually pull out the discussions on ‘sexual abuse’ or ‘shell-shock’ especially in Mrs. Dalloway. Woolf has the outstanding capacity to depict how the connection between ‘being of ephemerality’ and ‘trauma’ is represented through the work while creating the main characters like Septimus Smith and Clarissa Dalloway in Mrs Dalloway. Septimus is the key exemplar to show the main ideas about the ‘post-traumatic stress disorder’ namely ‘PTSD’ through his unavoidable suicide. Clarissa also plays an important role to explain her own identity as ‘being of temporality.’ In conclusion, ‘being of temporality’ comes to us as a state of strangeness, making us realize both the essence of being in the present and trauma.


소멸하는 질서와 새로운 질서의 경계에서 글쓰기 — 나딘 고디머의 『보호주의자』


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 4호 2016.12 pp.183-206

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In The Conservationist, Nadine Gordimer creates renewed writing space by implementing ingenious literary styles in the form of the South African traditional Plaasroman genre. This paper demonstrates that Gordimer reveals her knowledge of the situation of South Africa in the 1970s and, by delving into a white man’s dislocated and collapsed consciousness, demands that whites change their way of thinking to conform to the emerging order of black people in South Africa. Although the protagonist Mehring, a pig-iron industrialist and owner of a suburban farm, pretends to be a conservationist of South African nature, he appears instead to be a conservationist of the conventional world instituted by Apartheid. However, Mehring’s ‘actual world’ as a ‘closed system’ experiences irrevocable disrupture when he encounters an unknown black body in the field of his farm, which signifies the Lacanian ‘real’ annulled and eliminated by the laws and languages of Apartheid. Mehring is forced to disclose his lack of awareness of the land and people of South Africa. He is incapable of perceiving other languages beyond Apartheid and fails to make relationships with other people since he cannot escape the order and the language of Apartheid. Mehring’s predicament exemplifies the situation of whites in South Africa who are being enmeshed in an obsolescent order and language system of white dominance. In The Conservationist, Gordimer urges South African whites to recognize the loss of their power of language and order and to prepare to accept the coming new order of black people.


음보 형성 방향성 비대칭


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 4호 2016.12 pp.207-229

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The typology of stress systems shows asymmetries in the directionality of iambic foot paring. Under Optimality Theory, such asymmetries have made some analysts attracted to the asymmetric application of alignment constraints, dispensing with the constraint ALL-FT-R and keeping only the constraint. ALL-FT-L. This study contends that there is a close correlation between the size of minimal feet a language allows for and directionality of alignment constraints cross-linguistically. Focusing on the typology of directionality in unary and binary stress systems, this study tries to show that asymmetric alignment approaches are typologically untenable, considering that the unary systems put top priority on exhaustive foot parsing into prosodic words and as a result, symmetrical foot parsing directionality is indispensable. Binary stress systems showing iambic footing asymmetries, however, place value on achieving eurhythmic goals because the unattested right-aligning iambic patterns include unfavorable initial lapse. Iambic asymmetries are explained by the interaction of *LAPSE constraint with symmetric alignment constraints. The typology of bidirectional stress systems, although they are rarely occur, also gives support to the mutual relation between minimal foot size and alignment directionality.


TBLT 적용 초등영어 교실수업 — 관찰 분석과 실행 방안


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 4호 2016.12 pp.231-252

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This paper aims to discuss the theoretical background of TBLT(Task-based Language Teaching) and analyze a TBLT-applied elementary school English lesson to help teachers implement TBLT in their classrooms. This provides them with an opportunity to recognize and acquire the details of the TBLT lesson including textbooks adaptation, tasks design and sequence, techniques, strategies, etc. under the premise that TBLT is an appropriate approach for realizing core competencies in the curriculum. First, the definitions of tasks and the features, principles and frameworks of TBLT and TSLT(Task-supported Language Teaching) are examined, so teachers can implement them appropriately in the classroom, alongside PPP(Present-Practice- Produce), the main approach reflected in the current textbooks. Then, the observed TBLT-applied lesson is analyzed in terms of Willis & Willis(2007)’s framework. In post-analysis interviews with the teacher C, some points identified in the process of the lesson are discussed as strategies for implementing TBLT in the classroom. In our EFL context, TBLT and TSLT as supplementary approaches to PPP can be usefully implemented in the classroom for higher and lower graders respectively.


거꾸로 학습이 대학생 영어학습자들의 실패내성과 학습태도에 미치는 영향


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 4호 2016.12 pp.253-276

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The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of flipped learning on failure tolerance and English study attitude, and to compare the effects between two groups with different English grammar levels and different aims. One group majoring in English education was at a low level of English grammar, and the other group majoring in airline service in at a high level. The results of this study showed that, first, there were significant differences in failure tolerance and English study attitude for both groups. Among ten subcategories, the English education majoring group showed significant differences in most subcategories of failure tolerance and English study attitude except integrative motive and emotion and behavior scales, while the airline service majoring group showed significant differences in only five scales, none of related to motive. Secondly, there was a significant correlation between failure tolerance and English study attitude in the English education majoring group, but there was not a significant correlation in the airline service majoring group. The results of this study implicates that effects of flipped learning on English grammar class may differ according to English grammar level and study motivation.


L2 단어인지에 관한 요인들의 구조적 관계

지문건, 백승현

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 4호 2016.12 pp.277-297

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the structural relationships of variables having a possible impact on L2 unfamiliar real-word and pseudo-word recognition. To do so, L2 phonological awareness(PA), orthographic awareness(OA), and word recognition(WR) tests were administered to 129 Korean EFL students in grade 4. Results showed that L2 PA basically played a critical role in reading out L2 unfamiliar real words and pseudo words. More importantly, L2 OA profoundly contributed much more significant amount of unique variance to L2 unfamiliar real-word and pseudo-word identification, respectively, rather than L2 PA. These findings are substantially compatible with linguistic structure hypothesis that PA is a necessary condition for WR (Wagner, & Torgesen, 1987) and orthographic depth hypothesis that WR heavily relies more on OA than PA in deep orthographic languages such as English (Katz, & Frost, 2001).


World Literature and Narrative Experimentation in Sok-yong Hwang’s East Asia Trilogy

Eunju Hwang

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 4호 2016.12 pp.299-319

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This article contends that realism is still a valid aesthetic for literature from the periphery of the world literary system through examining Sok-yong Hwang’s East Asia trilogy: The Guest, Shim Chong, and Princess Bari. As a representative writer of Korean realism, Hwang would not give up trying to represent the reality of the voiceless and powerless people and make their voices heard, but he had to develop a more marketable form and content for international readers. His “poetic narrative” is what he has developed as a way to hold the realist spirit in a new form, and the trilogy is its outcome. Despite ghosts’ appearance, the use of shamanistic motifs and ceremonies, and the use of multiple perspectives, his fiction always engages with real politics. By discussing the Sin’chŏn massacre in The Guest, the history of women exploited by capitalism in Shim Chong, and the migrants living on the periphery of the neoliberal world-system in Princess Bari, this article delves into how Hwang’s experiments with realism make the voices from the periphery more accessible to international readers.


Modality and Metaphor of Modality in Constructing the Dialogic Space in Academic Discourse

Ziyuan Xu

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 4호 2016.12 pp.321-342

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Based on M. A. K. Halliday’s modality system in Appraisal Theory and the Theory of Dialogic Space, this paper explores how modality and metaphors of modality are manipulated to the construction of the dialogic space in academic discourse via marking and statistics of the phenomena of modality and metaphor of modality in self-built academic English corpus. The findings of this study reveal that the construction of the dialogic space is subject to the three dimensions of modality and metaphor of modality: orientation, value and polarity. In the orientation of modality, both implicit and explicit expressions can regulate the size of the dialogic space. Although used less frequently, metaphor of modality regulates more degree of freedom in the dialogic space. In terms of the value of modality, it is inversely related to the openness value of the dialogic space. The polarity of modality closes the dialogic space in different degrees.


Developing an English Speaking Placement Test for Low-level College Students

Eunkyeong Park, Jungtae Kim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 4호 2016.12 pp.343-366

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The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of the Novice Speakers' English Language Test (NSELT) as a placement test in order to place low-level Korean college students into required general English courses at a university. The study also investigated the appropriateness of the current placement method of using the students' English grades on the College Scholastic Aptitude Test (CSAT) and high school English records (HSER). The data from 133 first year students’ CSAT and HSER grades were analyzed and the placement results were compared with their satisfaction surveys and English grades. The next semester, native English instructors’ decisions were used for the placement compared with the students’ English grades as well as their satisfaction survey results. Finally, the NSELT, a face-to-face interview form, was developed based on a needs analysis survey with 133 students. 72 of them took the test. The results indicated that the first placement method was inappropriate and the native instructors’ decisions were highly correlated with the NSELT scores. The students were highly satisfied with the test delivery form and results of the new speaking test. Finally, the effectiveness of the NSELT as a placement test was discussed and implications were suggested.


The Relationship between Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Size with Korean EFL College Students

Young Ah Cho, Sooyoung Ahn

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 4호 2016.12 pp.367-388

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This study explores the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size with Korean college students. One-hundred thirty-three participants were assigned to high- and low-level groups, depending on their scores on a vocabulary-size test. For the study, three questionnaires were employed: a background questionnaire, a vocabulary-size test, and a vocabulary learning strategies questionnaire. The results of the study show that there were significant differences between the two groups in all categories of vocabulary learning strategies, including determinative, social, memory, cognitive, and metacognitive strategies. In addition, a positive correlation was found between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size, which suggests a prominent relationship between metacognitive strategies and vocabulary-size test scores. Based on the outcomes, pedagogical implications suggesting ways language instructors can employ these results in their L2 classrooms are made.

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