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영어영문학21 [English21]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
    학술지
  • 발행기관
    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
  • ISSN
    1738-4052
  • 간기
    계간
  • 수록기간
    1967~2018
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제17권 2호 (12건)
No
1

뉴 리얼리즘의 문학적 맥락: 멜빌 소설의 시적/상징적 문제

고창석

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제17권 2호 2004.12 pp.5-24

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

It is notable that Herman Melville's writing style contributes to enlarging the function of prose by making use of poetic and/or symbolic diction to represent a certain reality. This study aims at analyzing Melville's writing style and techniques toward new realistic authorship. It seems valuable enough to discuss the poetic effects through alliteration, repetitious calling, negative prefixes and suffixes, proverbs, allegories, symbols, and narrative shifts as well in his writings. Not only do those narrative techniques partly represent postmodern qualities, but work out for the writer's distinct 19th century American realism. Also, Melville's various narrative techniques have a considerable significance to some extent that produces a meaningful text related with multi-culturalism. I intend to demonstrate that Melville's fiction could suggest a counterpoint of reality by analyzing his narrative subject and object. In fact, his fiction is the record of self-conscious struggle to establish his ideal authorship while not making an appeal to readers' pleasurable reading but representing the ‘great art of telling the truth.' Therefore, it seems invaluable to again estimate how his writing could be a canon related with a new realism.

2

Kenneth Branagh's Cinematic Translation of Shakespeare's Henry V

Kim, Kang

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제17권 2호 2004.12 pp.25-39

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최근 셰익스피어와 영화에 대한 논의에서 케네스 브래나는 매우 중요한 위치를 차지하고 있다. 그가 1989년에 제작한 셰익스피어의 헨리5세는 20세기 셰익스피어 영화사에 있어서 상업적 그리고 비평적 성공을 거두었을 뿐만 아니라 영화화를 통한 셰익스피어 대중화작업에 큰 혁신을 불러온 획기적인 계기가 되었기 때문이다. 브래나는 그의 영화를 통하여 현대의 대중독자도 셰익스피어에게 매우 친숙하게 접근하고 이해할 수 있다는 가능성을 제시한다. 영화는 그 구조와 테크닉을 통한 의미전달의 측면에서 무대와 근본적으로 다른 매체적 특성을 지니고 있다. 따라서 브래나의 헨리5세 영화적 번역에 대한 모든 논의는 영화각색이라는 특수한 범주에 기초하여 진행되어야 하며, 그의 영화적 성공은 상업성이나 셰익스피어 원작에 대한 충실성의 기준에 의해서가 아니라 영화적 기교의 맥락에서 평가되어야 한다. 영화 헨리5세는 단선적 플롯, 짧은 장면, 대사 축소, 구조 및 서사 변용 등과 같은 브래나의 영화적 번역을 잘 보여주고 있다. 1990년대 셰익스피어 대중화작업에 있어서 브래나는 영화라는 새로운 대중매체와 극텍스트간의 상호호환성의 중요성—즉, 할리우드 영화산업의 환경 안에서 셰익스피어의 극텍스트를 영화텍스트로 번역하는 작업의 중요성이 필수적임을 강조한다.

3

디즈니 읽기: 『뮬란』의 이데올로기

김일환

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제17권 2호 2004.12 pp.41-56

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The aim of this study is to reveal hidden strategy in Mulan. The story of Mulan comes from the ancient China, but it is significantly Disneyfied in that Western ideology takes place of that of the Orient. Eventually the scope of Disney's world extended to the Chinese culture. In this appropriation, economic or ideological considerations are involved. Above all, Mulan has more advanced view on woman than any other works in Disney canon. From the feministic viewpoint, therefore, this work can be analyzed good work in which new woman is established. But it has great shortcomings. In this work, male-oriented and conservative social order doesn't allow woman to participate the fight. Heroine(or hero) Mulan decides to display her power in her disguise. And she became a hero(ine) after defeating the enemy. At last, she was depicted as another conservative-minded woman character.

4

『미들마치』에 나타난 도덕적 비전

유종인

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제17권 2호 2004.12 pp.57-85

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This essay is a study of George Eliot's moral vision, specifically the conflict between moral inflexibility and flexibility, which is characteristic of the artistic modernism that depicts reality as it is. George Eliot's moral vision is composed of an inflexibility which insists on absolute moral norms and also of a flexibility which questions the absoluteness of the norms and allows judgements to be determined at least in part by the situation and in part by the inner state of conscience. George Eliot admits the existence of moral norms, but she is skeptical of the norm's absoluteness, for when a moral loses its value, the moral norm degrades into mechanical actions for hypocritical ritual. As the absoluteness of the moral norm fades away through passage of time and change of environment and psychological state of the man, a flexible position of the moral norm is required in reality. Because George Eliot doubts there are absolute moral norms, she does not set a moral standard by which to judge her characters, nor does she give any central character absolute moral authority. Especially, most of her characters in Middlemarch fail to find an ideal moral vision. Instead, they learn the profundity of the morality. Middlemarch concludes that moral norms have value only when a person's emotions and inner state have been cooperated. In this context, we can see that George Eliot recognizes the importance of people's sympathy and understanding of human limitations and emotions. George Eliot's complex and multiple moral visions are informed with such recognition. Since the absoluteness of moral norms on good and evil has been denied, the conclusion can only be relative or ambiguous. This is why the reader can enjoy her novels, even though her works deals with abstruse ethical and philosophical conceptions.

5

젠더와 식민성 극복의 문제-자메이카 킨케이드의 『애니 잔』을 중심으로-

이현주

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제17권 2호 2004.12 pp.87-108

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The advent of Caribbean women's writing started in the nineteenth century and with the 1831 work of Mary Prince. However, the first conference of women writers from the Caribbean officially took place in 1988. The Caribbean, where had been colonized by the western countries for centuries, has been still remained colonial status economically and culturally after the declarations of political independence. These facts show that Caribbean women's literature has consisted in the shadow of the western canon. But Growing postcolonial in various academic fields has exposed of non-whites, marginal, and non-western writings through diaspora, gender, race, and post/colonial lives which marginal women have experienced. Among them, Caribbean women are one of the most downtrodden minority groups in the world. Jamaica Kincaid, born in Antigua, where is one of the small islands in the Caribbean, describes gender relations and decolonialisation of Caribbean women in Annie John. A Caribbean girl, Annie has a great time with her mother in her childhood. However, she begins to recognize her colonial situation in her home, school, and society. Her mother insists her on being a good English lady and on obeying herself. Their home like a paradise has been changed a place flowing tension between mother and daughter. Annie's mother has both western ideology and African tradition at the same time. She teaches Annie as a western lady, on the other hand, she practices obeah in daily life. Annie also experiences colonial situation in English history class. Annie's conflicts between western culture and African tradition result in her serious illness, which cannot been cured by using a western therapy, going to doctor, and taking medicine. Annie's grandmother, living in Dominica, who believes in practicing obeah, comes to cure Annie. Ma Chess takes care of her granddaughter with African ways. Annie's illness has been cured not by her mother's western therapy but by her grandmother's African therapy such as obeah. Annie who is taught western ideologies and regards African tradition as a great part of her life might be an alternative figure in the postcolonial society.

6

필립 로스의 주체 재현의 서술기법-『카운터라이프』와 『오퍼레이션 샤일록』을 중심으로-

장정훈

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제17권 2호 2004.12 pp.109-131

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Philip Roth employs the most complex narrative techniques in his two novels, The Counterlife and Operation Shylock. In the novels he continually alters his angles of vision. In The Counterlife, he introduces a fresh beginning or an alternative in one chapter after another, thus placing a new story, a new version of reality, against what precedes it: a character who was dead and buried suddenly becomes alive; a character who was assumed to be alive turns out to be dead, and so on. In Operation Shylock, there is the shifting reality of Philip Roth, the fictional author, Moishe Pipik, the shadow self or the other, and the real author Roth. Although Roth's self referential strategy he uses is hardly new in postmodern fictions, nor is the use of the double a new device, the combination of the two yields a particularly rich meditation on the discursive construction of subjectivity. And instead of providing a neat conclusion with all the questions answered Roth leaves the end of the books hanging in the balance and open to question. This is not an ordinary Aristotelian narrative that readers are familiar with. In The Counterlife, Roth stimulates the reader's imagination by celebrating the multiple possibilities in life, not a singular certainty. Despite the agony of self-doubt and self-loathing, Roth's protagonists have a powerful desire for self-rejuvenation and transformation; they project their counterlives as best as they can. In Operation Shylock, Philip, a protagonist of the novel, guided by his "Jewish conscience," performs an operation of resistance against Shylock through multiple self-impersonations. If Shylock is the figure for the Jew in Western discourse, Operation Shylock may be in some sense translated as "Operation Represent-the -Jew." The novel literally bears this fact out, in that Smilesburger has asked Philip to represent Jews on a secret mission to find out Jewish backers of the Palestinians. It is required that Philip represent the very Jewish subjectivity in language for himself and his readership. In conclusion, Roth maintains that life doesn't necessarily have only a set course, a simple sequence, or a predictable pattern. To reflect the nature of reality in human life, he takes up complex and speculative situations and offers different paths of life that may be open to the individual. Roth concerns himself with how to defines Jewish identity and the identity of his own self. So he tries to deal with the problem in his novels both ways ― at once exposing and suppressing, representing and claiming the impossibility of representation. Roth reassert postmodern skepticism about identity of the self, about the metafictional aspects of history, and about the many faceted views of factual evidence.

7

「벨트라피오의 저자」에 나타난 삶과 예술

조흥근

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제17권 2호 2004.12 pp.133-151

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An attempt is made in this paper to analyse Henry James's critique of aestheticism in “The Author of Beltraffio”(1884) in relation to his “The Art of Fiction”(1884) published two months later in the same year. Both works have been misunderstood by some critics as the writings supporting the theory of aestheticism. But James had a determined attitude against aestheticism almost throughout his life. Although James was influenced in his search for form and style by his contemporary French realists as is shown in “The Art of Fiction” and “The Author of Beltraffio,” he criticised them for their lack of serious interest in life itself. Of course it cannot be denied that James shows in these writings a certain extent of sympathy with their arduous endeavours to achieve the art of novel, but his sympathy is at an end at this very point. Mark Ambient in “The Author of Beltraffio” has been misunderstood by many critics as an aesthete, but he is evidenced as a genuine Jamesian artist in this paper. An obsessive aestheticism can be found in the narrator of this work because art precedes life in his ‘art for art' point of view. He shows almost always a Wildean attitude to life and art that can be expressed as a sentence “Life imitates art.” His cold aesthetic stance unintentionally causes the horrible death of an innocent child Dolcino. His cold world of aestheticism lacks genuine feelings and sympathy for other people, and thus destroys life itself. This is the core of the Jamesian critique of aestheticism in his writings on French realists.

8

고대영어 반복동사에 관하여

안수영

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제17권 2호 2004.12 pp.154-173

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As Old English is seen to have evolved the Germanic principle with such consistency that virtually all its primary verbs came to be arranged in rigid ablaut series, traditionally OE strong verbs have been classified into seven classes according to the vocalism of their four principal parts, i. e., the present, the preterit singular, the preterit plural and the past participle. The most particular among the criteria for the classification is reduplication. The analysis of the so-called ‘reduplicating verbs’ has been such a slippery business that the origin of the OE preterite formation has been much disputed. The long-standing problem is approached by some linguists including Lehman. According to him, the OE reduplicating verbs and the Gothic counterparts have no genetic relationship within Germanic. Rather, he has attempted to explain these data with the 'mysterious' laryngeals. In other words, the Indo-European antecedents of OE past forms had once the laryngeal in the verbal stem which were later deleted after providing the conditioning for the changes. But by some reason this explanation has fallen into disfavor because of some shortcomings. On the other hand, Voyles have maintained that The OE verbs could be derived from originally reduplicating ones in Germanic. This involved a series of rules had been inherited from Indo-European into early Germanic. According to him, the change of stress has caused the formation of preterite forms in the North-West Germanic languages including OE while during Gothic period the change has never occurred and there was no feeding for the subsequent conditioned changes.

9

영어와 한국어의 부정에 관한 유형적 비교

조경숙

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제17권 2호 2004.12 pp.175-196

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This paper aims to compare the phenomena of negation between English and Korean on the syntactic typological base, especially the phenomena of standard negation as well as quantifier negation and adverbial negation. In standard negation, these two languages show typological similarities of using a negative particle, and of accompanying a secondary modification of inserting an auxiliary verb. However, we can find important differences in two languages: First, in the contraction structures, English language uses the device of morphological negatives, while Korean language uses an auxiliary negative verb. Second, Korean has alternative negative particles, which show complementary distribution depending on the types of predicates and sentences. Moreover, Korean negative particles have much flexibility in their position of the sentences than English negative particle. More typological differences are found in the realms of quantifier negation and adverbial negation. English has four devices of expressing quantifier or adverbial negation; negated quantifiers, inherently negative quantifiers, negated adverbials, and inherently negative adverbials. However, Korean doesn't have any forms of inherently negative quantifiers and inherently negative adverbials. It only permits the devices of negated quantifiers and negated adverbials, in very limited cases, such as in the case of predicate derivation forms. Therefore, the semantic equivalents of quantifier negations and adverbial negations in Korean, are mostly the forms of indefinite expressions or adverbials combined with standard negation.

10

반모음 [j]에 대한 최적성이론적 접근

조학행, 서정민

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제17권 2호 2004.12 pp.197-217

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There have been three kinds of arguments about the status of semi-vowel [j] in Korean within the Korean syllable structure. The three theories, Nucleus Hypothesis, Onset Hypothesis, and Tautosyllabic Hypothesis, consider the semi-vowel [j] in Korean as part of nucleus, onset, and both respectively. Each theory, however, has provided conflicting accounts in reference to analogous evidence. Thus, in this paper we argue that the permission of semi-vowel [j] of Seoul dialect in Korean can be given a functionally grounded treatment by means of *ONSET/X subhierarchy(Smith, 2003: 3) that maintains its universally fixed ranking based on the sonority scale, if the *ONSET/X is defined to be sensitive to the moracity of the segments. And then according to Optimality Theory(Prince & Smolensky, 1993) we will analyse semi-vowel [j] of Seoul and Chonnam dialect in Korean as nucleus. And then the result will be extended to the semi-vowel [j] in English.

11

Using Poetry in English Education

Yeon-seong Park

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제17권 2호 2004.12 pp.219-237

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근래에 들어와 많은 학생들이 영문학 교육이 그들의 영어 실력을 향상시키는데 도움이 되지 않는다고 생각하는 경향이 있다. 또한 교사 입장에서는 10년이 넘도록 영문학을 전공하고도 영어 교육의 현장에서는 애써 배운 지식을 활용하지 않은 모습을 종종 보게된다. 학생들과 영어 교과 담당 교사 모두 영문학에서 멀어지는 안타까운 현상이 나타나고 있다. 이 논문에서는 영어교육에 영문학의 활용에 대한 기존의 찬반론을 살펴본 다음, 영어교육을 위한 도구로서의 문학작품을 선택할 때 유의할 점과 효과적인 활용방법을 고찰하였다. 마지막으로 로버트 프로스트의 시 “눈오는 저녁 숲가에 서서”와 로렌스 퍼링게티의 “말하라!”를 토대로 수업안을 작성하고 그 수업안을 대한영어교육학회의 워크숍과 전남대학교 영어회화작문 수업에 활용한 결과를 제시하고 또한 분석하였다. 그 결과 학생들의 관심과 수준에 맞는 작품을 선택하여 학습자 중심과 의사소통 중심의 방법을 통하여 가르치면 영시가 재미있으면서 동시에 언어학습에 효과적인 도구가 될 수 있음을 확인할 수 있었다. 앞으로 대학영어교육에 영시를 비롯한 영문학 작품을 적극적으로 활용할 필요가 있다고 보여진다.

12

21세기영어영문학회 연혁 외

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제17권 2호 2004.12 pp.239-250

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