영어영문학21 [English21]

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  • 자료유형
  • 발행기관
    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
  • ISSN
  • 간기
  • 수록기간
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제31권 2호 (13건)

셰익스피어 희극에 나타난 타자와 웃음


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 2호 2018.06 pp.5-32

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

In The Merchant of Venice and The Tempest, which are categorized as comedies, it seems certain that the racial others such as Shylock and Caliban become the objects of mocking laughter. Of course, they are not only the objects of laughter but also the threatening and hostile resistants. It is in this aspect that they are different from Shakespeare’s others in other comedies, as they have the particularity as religious and racial others. They are called as devils or monsters, and portrayed as inhuman beings. So mocking and defeating them seems to be necessary for the happiness and safety of the final comic society. However, the mocking laughter that the aliens arouse doesn’t contribute to the comic reconciliation of the final society. playing the role of making the society happy and safe. The mocking laughter rather carries the satirical meaning of realistic social problems, in that Shylock and Caliban are the objects of exploitation. Venetian Christians get their profit and happiness by sacrificing Shylock. They are not so different from Shylock who gets profit through usury. Prospero is the same. He achieves his goal by means of sacrificing Caliban and Aerial. Caliban who wants to take his island back by taking revenge on Prospero and Miranda is not so different from Prospero who wants to take his dukedom back by taking revenge on Antonio and Alonso. The others in the two plays are the objects of laughter and reproach, but Shakespeare satirizes the fiscal and colonial desire of the contemporary society through the monstrous and foolish aliens.


「아일랜드로부터 크롬웰의 귀환에 부치는 호라티우스풍의 부」의 수사학적 구조의 의미


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 2호 2018.06 pp.33-50

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This essay examines Andrew Marvell’s An Horatian Ode upon Cromwell’s Return from Ireland in terms of its rhetorical structure. The poem has been read either as a lament for the dead king or as a praise for Cromwell. When we read the poem in terms of its rhetorical structure, we can see the political meanings of the poem clearly. The poem has a rhetorical structure, divided into six sections: an exordium, a narratio, a propositio, a confutatio, a confirmatio and a peroratio. On the first section of exordium, the poet introduces a “forward youth,” Cromwell who abandons his private life and pursues his active life in society. Then, by way of narratio, the poet examines the political situation in the 1650s. On the third section of propositio, the poet offers an encomiastic portrait of Cromwell. He praises Cromwell for his military abilities, and next commends Cromwell’s political acumen. The fourth section of confutatio deals with a portrait of Charles I. The king he portrays is decorous in that the poet says that Charles did not do any mean thing. Then the confirmatio compares the British republic to the Roman republic, and says that the bleeding head of Charles is taken as an omen of the success of the British republic. The poet counsels support of Cromwell’s republicanism, and expects that the British republic will liberate the suppressed Protestants in Europe. Finally, the peroratio claims that Cromwell will succeed in keeping the cavaliers at bay. In conclusion, when we read the poem in terms of its rhetorical structure, we can see that the poet advises the English people to support Cromwell and his republic, and also tries to convince Cromwell and his supporters to stick to republicanism.


『프랑스 중위의 여자』에 나타난 존 파울즈의 공간 — 실제와 상상 너머의 언더클리프


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 2호 2018.06 pp.51-75

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This paper attempts to support the notion that John Fowles takes on the role of a literary cartographer, mapping the real and imagined spaces of his world in The French Lieutenant’s Woman. It will also suggest that the writer absorbs his readers into the story as literary geographers. The Undercliff in The French Lieutenant’s Woman exists beyond the real and the imagined, and is represented as a trialectic space of the perceived, the conceived, and the lived. Fowles leads his reader to create and follow their own path to uncover the deeper meanings on their literary journey. Following the realistic tradition of the Victorian age, Fowles forms a space for his reader to experience a new reality through this tale. At the same time, he breaks conventions about spaces the reader may be familiar with. As a result, the reader becomes a literary geographer and experiences a new and free space and can interpret it in a way that becomes his or her own. The Undercliff, a place where time is compressed into space and where dead fossils encapsulate stories detailing thousands of years, is a space formed with spatial images like forked paths, a labyrinth, the open and closed space, and trespassing. It is a space that has opportunities for those who desire to evolve and develop themselves. However, not everyone who has experiences Undercliff choose this path. This decidedly points to the idea that we hold our future in our own hands. In the same way, the author invites the reader to freely conclude their own journeys through the narrative as they are presented with plural open endings. The meaning of existence through space can also be found in this part.


윌리엄 카를로스 윌리엄즈의 초기시와 모더니티의 시적 표현


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 2호 2018.06 pp.77-100

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William Carlos Williams discovers significant sources of inspiration in the revolutionary avant-garde movements, in particular, Dada and Surrealism. He tries to pursue the experimentalist innovations in them for his own poetic needs. Williams’s desire to establish an indigenous American poetic work is compatible with his avant-gardist experimentation with objets trouvés. Williams puts forth his greatest effort into dedicating himself to hearing the voices and understanding the lives of marginalized people he comes across, and he translates his observations with poetic language freed from their instrumental contexts. His early poetry written from the 1910s to 1930s betrays American social ruination, and his goal to give voice to the conflictual and fragmentary character of modernity is carried out by the Surrealist formulation of montage. In that formulation, the dialectical image not merely becomes a central trope for deciphering the myth of modernity, but it functions as both subject and object in the historiographic narratives of Walter Benjamin and Williams. Objets trouvés and dialectical images become the most pivotal tropes that do justice to the diverse facets of social reality Williams attempts to disclose throughout his career as a modernist poet.


토니 모리슨의 폭력묘사 — 사실성과 현장성의 구체화


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 2호 2018.06 pp.101-125

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This study discusses Toni Morrison’s depiction of violence in terms of facticity and on-the-spot sense. She doesn’t depict violence through indirect or figurative language and explanations. She also doesn’t organize nor edit violence into a system of morality. She depicts Macon’s domestic violence in Song of Solomon, Sethe’s infanticide in Beloved, white people’s predatory violence in Beloved and Home, the predatory violence of black people who have copied white people’s racism in Paradise, Mr. Leigh’s sado-masochistic violence in God Help the Child, and the violence of Milkman, Florens and Frank as rites of passage for self-conscious growth in Song of Solomon, A Mercy, and Home. In depicting these kinds of violence, she has a tendency to depend on facticity- and on-the-spot sense-based intuition and language. She doesn’t position violence within the existing framework of representation that leads readers to imagine and infer about the facticity and on-the-spot sense of the event spoken by a narrator’s limited point of view and language. She captures a violator’s anger, rage, brutality, cruelty, destructiveness, perversion, and obscenity, adding nothing and concealing nothing, regardless of whether it leads to a negative effect or not. Therefore, her depiction of violence may be criticized by ethical critics and moral philosophers who place an importance on the didactic and moral impacts of literary description on individuals and sociaty. However, Morrison’s aim is to give readers a close view of the impacts of violence as it really is.


에밀리 디킨슨의 패시클 19에 수록된 시체시 연구


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 2호 2018.06 pp.127-166

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During her most productive period, 1861 to 1865, Emily Dickinson compiled her poems which were no more than bundles of papers on which Dickinson scribbled haphazardly when inspired. The poems which were dispersed mindlessly in the Homestead for a long time were clean-copied and carefully placed into 40 small packets. They are now termed “fascicles” by the critics who want to find out whether they are formed by her design or not, taking account of the supposition that making the collection could be her hurried response to the “September terror,” anxiety and dread caused by the Civil War. Even though she never tried to design consciously any artificial patterns, a common denominator in the fascicles can be differentiated: her opposition to the Puritan ideology which persisted that it was the holy war that could precipitate the advent of the millennium in the New World. Her imaginative experimentation in the fascicles scrutinized all the elements of the scriptural and historical significations which legitimized the sacrifice of individual lives in the violence and cruelty of the War. This paper, by the exploit of thematic coherence of the urgency of the war, analyzes the corpse poems in the fascicle 19 which deal with the voices of the dead. It proves that she intentionally developed the argument on the matter of eternal life through such artistic devices as superseding multiple voices, the tension between evolution and Puritan epistemology, diverse images from economy, science, and traditional faith, allusions of the Bible, subtle breakings of some lines, sense of unending and so on, to destabilize the contemporary Christian ideology that the nation could be glorified by the War dead, the martyrs serving to expedite the upcoming New Jerusalem in America. The artistic plasticity dominating the fascicle 19 succeeds in widening the “Circumference” of poetic vistas by shaking the foundations of the Puritan typology which represents God’s only presence in the history.


대학생의 학습스타일에 따른 영어 플립러닝 효과


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 2호 2018.06 pp.167-192

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The purpose of this study was to examine aspects of college students’ preferences for English learning styles. In addition, it aimed to explore how English learning styles, academic achievement, and satisfaction correlated with flipped learning in college English courses. This study of 97 college students used the Learning Style Survey (Cohen, Oxford & Chi, 2001) to measure students' learning styles, a questionnaire to measure satisfaction levels with flipped learning, and mid-term and final exams to measure academic achievement. It was found that: (1) According to English ability, high level students preferred particular and field independent styles, and low level students preferred global and field dependent styles. (2) There was no significant difference between learning styles and academic achievement with flipped learning. However, there was a correlation between field dependent style and academic achievement. (3) There was no significant difference between learning styles and satisfaction with flipped learning. However, there was a correlation between visual and reflective styles, and satisfaction level. More pedagogical and research implications are suggested.


A Bangladeshi Muslim Woman Wearing a Sari and Ice-Skating in London in Monica Ali’s Brick Lane

Heejung Cha

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 2호 2018.06 pp.193-213

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Monica Ali’s immigrant family saga, Brick Lane (2003) has been praised as an important novel about Muslims in Britain and has been a huge success for a realist narrative with a postcolonial story. Ali’s diasporic narrative poignantly capsizes the prevailing images of Muslims in the contemporary world and switches the plot from London to Dhaka to narrate the stories of Bangladeshi sisters, Nazneen and Hasina. In terms of Muslim diaspora genre, this paper explores Brick Lane which portrays Bangladeshi immigrants and the second generation in an East End community in London, where after 9/11, Islamophobia much aggravates racism and marginalization of ethnic minorities. Also, the transforming process of the subaltern Muslim sisters from 1967 to 2003 is discussed. Nazneen in the East End immigrant community transforms herself into a self-willed independent worker in London; likewise, Hasina becomes a battered wife, a factory worker, a prostitute, and a housemaid but keeps fighting for her own happiness against a patriarchal society in Dhaka. Ultimately, both Muslim women come to develop political consciousness, sexual awareness, and a sense of belonging in their own ways.


William Wordsworth’s Poetic Response to the French Revolutionary War : Reconsideration on His Political Sonnets

Bora Im

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 2호 2018.06 pp.215-231

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In this essay I would like to discuss the productive impact of the French Revolutionary War on the creative flow of William Wordsworth. The war was one of the most important events in Europe in the eighteenth and nineteenth century. Therefore it would be fruitful to examine the interaction between the French Revolutionary War and English literature written during the conflict. In so doing, I will read Wordsworth's two sonnets, titled “It is not to be thought of that the Flood” and “October, 1803.” This essay aims to construct a historical framework by examining the French Revolutionary War in detail. The understanding of the war is essential in interpreting the two sonnets, as the latter were composed in response to the conflict. Therefore, I will examine the social and historical implications of the war. Wordsworth's patriotic enthusiasm was stimulated by the invasion crisis of 1802. The national crisis led Wordsworth to compose those belligerent and militant sonnets. This essay aims to recognize Wordsworth's patriotism and pro-war sentiments in the two sonnets.


Metaphoricity of the Phrasal Verbs Get through, Get along, and Get by

Ekaterina Chon, Yoon-kyoung Joh

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 2호 2018.06 pp.233-251

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This paper looks at the phrasal verbs get through, get along, and get by in the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA). It attempts to explain how their non-literal meanings are created through combinations of metaphor and metonymy - and shows that different senses of the same phrasal verbs, especially the rigid forms, can have different degrees of metaphoricity. This study shows that phrasal verbs with the same verbal component can have different meanings, depending on the meaning of the particle and on the semantics of the collocates the phrasal verb is used with. The discussion suggests that a combination of corpus search and analysis based on the semantics of prepositions should be used to define the processes of generating the metaphoricity of phrasal verbs.


A Convergent Class Model Development and a Study of Evaluation Method for Critical Thinking Formulation : Through a Consideration of Hardy’s Tess and Foucault

Kwangsoon Lee

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 2호 2018.06 pp.253-275

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This study explores the effect of a humanities-based convergent class model (HBCCM) on critical thinking (CT) when Kakao-Talk is utilized as a virtual learning space to acquire new knowledge using flipped learning (FL). Its objective is to promote EFL undergraduates’ (n=51) participation in face-to-face discussion activities by getting them to prepare before coming to class. The preliminary learning contents and conceptual knowledge organized into specific argumentative topics based on Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles and Foucault’s philosophical perspective of Sexuality, Madness and Power were provided via Kakao-Talk. Students could experience a self-regulatory learning process outside of class and develop their ideas with peers' through in-class discussion. While the collaborative learning through group activities promoted social interaction, interdependence and critical analysis, the students self-evaluated their ideas clearly. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies including Watson-Glaser's (W-G) CT assessment were conducted to evaluate the change of CT skills. The results showed the significant interaction of the CT skills. In particular, the students improved the skills of recognizing assumption, deductive reasoning and evaluating arguments as they experienced CT-efficacy through this learning process. Accordingly, HBCCM may contribute to the higher education for activating CT and the improvement of a teaching and learning method.

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