영어영문학21 [English21]

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    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
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  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
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    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제25권 4호 (18건)

셰익스피어 부흥과 여성 관객의 역할 — “셰익스피어 레이디스 클럽”


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 4호 2012.12 pp.5-26

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 모든 이용자에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

This paper examines the development and the activity of a group of the female audience, frequently referred to as “the Shakespeare Ladies Club” in the mid-eighteenth century England in terms of the Shakespeare revival and restoration. Many of theatrical records inclusive of theatre playbills published in the period spaning 1736 to 1738, advertising that Shakespeare plays are performed “At the Desire of several Ladies of Quality,” clearly demonstrate that the Shakespeare Ladies club had considerable influence not just in putting more Shakespeare on the stage but on the type of play performed, on restoring neglected Shakespeare play to the theater, and on reinstating Shakespeare in the original. Therefore, it is plausible that their efforts on behalf of Shakespeare also paved the way for David Garrick's championing later in the century. It is believed that among the members of the club were Elizabeth Boyd, Mary Cowper, and Susanna Ashely Cooper, the countess of Shaftesbury as the leading light. They did make a great effort to restore Shakespeare's presence on the London stage, trying to increase the number of his original plays in the theatre and to erect a monument in memory of the author whom they regarded the spirit of Englishness. This study on women's responses to and constructions of Shakespeare proves that they were instrumental in determining the way that Shakespeare was perceived in the long eighteenth century and beyond.


용서와 화해 — 『추락 이후』


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 4호 2012.12 pp.27-46

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This study is to investigates all the responsibilities and forgiveness and reconciliation among human relations. For Miller, the Holocaust is one of the most central events of twentieth century, and one from which everyone can learn much about human nature. A number of Miller's plays have a close connection to the Holocaust, some like After the Fall using the Holocaust as an important symbol. By the dominating symbol of the “blasted stone tower of a German concentration camp” on the stage Miller wishes to convey the continuing, dark presence of the Holocaust in the minds of the cast and audience. In the play, the concentration camp is not only a metaphor for other peoples's betrayals, but Quentin's own sense of separateness, his own guilt about betraying others who depend on him. Louise was Quentin's first wife. He first begins to take her for granted and then, when she becomes more independent, he realizes how little they have left in common. Although through Quentin's eyes she is regarded as cold and self-centered, She is also shown to be an intelligent woman who comes realize she no longer has any place in her husband's list of priorities. She sensibly decides to take charge of her life, no longer waiting for Quentin to fix everything. Since he believes in the sanctity of marriage and because they have a daughter together, he tries to resuscitate their marriage, but his efforts are neither consistent nor totally sincere. Her second wife, Maggie offers him the chance to be needed, which Louise has long since refused, and an active sex life. But Maggie offers something of the “tyranny of innocence.” Her dependency on others and their opinions is so extreme that she has no real concept of self. Quentin tries to teach her self-respect, but it is a lesson she is incapable of learning. She made a number of suicide attempts to gain attention, but finally Quentin refuses to help her, insisting she take responsibility for her own life. But She refused and ended by killing herself, leaving Quentin with the burden of guilt that this is something he may have prevented had he been a more careful man. Quentin is still unsure how much blame he should shoulder for this, but accepts that he was partly at fault. Quentin's final discovery is that no one can be totally innocent, as we are all willing to betray others to save ourselves when placed in such a position. Quentin sees that blame for an event like the Holocaust needs to be accepted by everyone, for we are all capable of acting as the Nazis did. In the face of such knowledge, the only remedy is not to give up hope, and it is this aspect of Holga's personality that draws Quentin. Her greatest strength is that of self-knowledge. He decides to take a chance and allow himself to love again. After the Holocaust, Miller realized that everyone is capable of evil, and so demands that everyone be partly responsible for any evil that is performed in the world. Miller emphasizes the moral responsibility of the human being as an evil creature. He asks people to accept guilt for the world's atrocities through After the Fall. Quentin confesses his sins and conquers denial, reconstructing his life based upon love and responsibility and finds a self-identity with which he can continue to live. He learns what Miller sees as the lessons of the Holocaust: Self-acceptance, forgiveness and reconciliation.


존 파울즈의 자연 — 과학과 예술의 융화


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 4호 2012.12 pp.47-71

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One of the criticisms of John Fowles (1926-2005) that considers him as an ecologist who has a deeper understanding of nature appeals to those bewildered by the rapidly changing natural environment. Fowles's reputation as a great authority in metafiction and a existentialist writer is being rediscovered from a ecologist point of view. Through his understanding and interest in nature, he did not consider nature just surroundings or an aid for subjects or narrative techniques but made it meaningful new space and let it play provocative roles in his writing. He fulfilled his artistic fruits not only through describing nature as realistically as possible from scientific point of view but through getting his readers to see it unfamiliarly. He tried to arbitrate the relationship between nature and humans by narrating nature vaguely, mysteriously, and more realistically than any other photos from a double, scientific and artistic point of view. Nature in Fowles's novels is not just a surrounding of each plot but a landscape which has culture, civilization and history. Fowles's nature has had an effect on the characters in his novel, readers, and even himself, a writer. He has said that nature is obscure and its very vague aspect stimulates his interest more. Fowles has been a writer who considers life mysterious like nature and he found nature suitable for configurating the mystery of life. His novels have the effect of maximizing both existential subjects and material of nature by trying a variety of narrative techniques. Fowles has checked the possibility of coexistence between nature and humans through his novels. He has made an effort to recover a balance between science and art, reason and sensibility through his writings. In The Collector, he has served to impress upon how difficult coexistence between nature and humans is by expressing nature's loss of life due to human's arrogant scientific stance through Miranda's death. The Magus has shown again that it is difficult to coexist with nature through Nicholas selfish but incomparable to Clegg in The Collector. In The French Lieutenant's Woman, Fowles offers a clue for coexistence between nature and humans through Charles who is similar to Clegg as a pseudo scientist but has evolutionary potential for the growth of self or recognition of others. Humans have separated themselves from nature due to spectacular progress on science and excessive growth of reason. Humans have instinctively recognized the profound thought that human beings are different from nature, which has been evolved. However, we contemporary humans, who recognize that the harmony of the ecosystem is the foundation for preserving human species, can understand ways we can coexist with nature through listening to stories of writers such as Fowles. Now, the new recognition about nature through a proper reconciliation of science and art in Fowles's texts will be a way to coexist with nature without alienating humans in nature from nature.


존 그리샴과 미국의 인종문제 — 흑인의 원죄, 백인의 원죄


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 4호 2012.12 pp.73-90

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This essay scrutinizes racism and its related issues in John Grisham’s novels, A Time to Kill and The Chamber, and later compares them with Ernest J. Gaines’s A Lesson Before Dying to exemplify the difference between the perspectives of white and black peoples on race issues in the United States. Grisham, who is better known as a popular legal-thriller writer, attempts to describe the irony of “the original sin” of a black man in a white-centric society through Carl Lee Hailey who kills two white rapists of her daughter in A Time to Kill, while in The Chamber he portrays white people’s inescapable dilemma from the ideologies of racial prejudice. Grisham argues that the social and political situation of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries did not allow white people to be ideologically independent from racism in the latter novel. Even though A Lesson Before Dying conceives a similar topic to that of The Chamber, and was published in between the two Grisham novels, Gaines never attempts to excuse white people while he is diligently working to establish autonomy and human dignity in black men’s mind. The dissimilar approaches prove a gulp between blacks’ and whites’ thought in terms of perceiving race issues in America.


화이트 디아스포라 vs. 네이티브 디아스포라 — 디아스포라 담론에 대한 비판적 고찰


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 4호 2012.12 pp.91-122

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This study aims at critically reviewing contemporary discourses of diaspora. In doing so, this study reformulates the contemporary world order as a site of battleground between what I would define as “white diaspora” and “native diaspora.” This reformulation has two distinct purposes: first, to criticize the Eurocentricism inherent in contemporary diaspora discourses; second, to illuminate the seamy side of politico-economic globalization and the proliferation of discourses and practices of diaspora, which causes the social division between diasporic and nondiasporic classes. This study shows that diasporic practices are not always liberatory, especially when they are articulated with the discourse of imperialism. And I also attempt to conceive of the “mobile” native beyond the imperial-diasporic network of Empire. That is to say, what is important is that nondiasporic subjects do not remain passive victims of the global system; they emerge as another kind of diasporic subjects that are opposed to their bourgeois counterparts, or what I would call “native diaspora.”


D. H. 로렌스의 극작품 『다윗』, 『노아의 홍수』— 구약성경의 연극적 재창조


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 4호 2012.12 pp.123-143

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This article is intended to examine the process of dramatic recreation and theatrical performance of D. H. Lawrence’s plays, David, Noah’s Flood adapted from biblical stories of Old Testament, and to review the religious characteristics and literary esthetic value of the two works. These works are written in the time of Lawrence's much more serious tuberculosis suffering. Lawrence seeks the real, true, eternal life against death beyond his body's destruction in these two works. Biblical stories about David and King Saul in ‘Samuel I’, and Noah and his three sons saved from Flood Judgement by God in ‘Genesis.’ are dealt with in the two works, and follow the original stories, but the Christian religious natures are in some degree changed into a new dimensions and appearances with the primitive, ancient American Indian religion, which is pantheistic, animistic natural faith, which are strange to the western modern people. Lawrence finds a new revelation in this primitive religion of American Indians. Therefore the special complexity and intertextuality produced from two religious types of Christianity and paganism are included in the two theatrical works. This paper reviews Lawrence's Christian background, its growth and developments from early childhood through adolescent period to later life along with his great concerns about old primitive religious passion and ancient various mysterious strange life in pre-Christian, pre-Flood age. In this analysis all these informations and knowledge are used to understand Lawrence's religious vision, its peculiarities, wish-fulfillment, and self-realization.


근대 고딕소설의 괴물 사냥꾼과 폭력의 이미지 —『프랑켄슈타인』과 『드라큘라』를 중심으로


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 4호 2012.12 pp.145-166

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While exploring the historical, cultural, political contexts of the Victorian society, this paper pays a special attention to monster hunters in relation to monsters in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein (1818) and Bram Stoker's Dracula (1897). As the world's first industrial nation, Britain in the 19th century was tremendously diverse and complex. The society underwent the agricultural and industrial revolutions resulting in a burgeoning middle class which triggered major changes to the social strata itself. Thus, the Victorian era was understood as a time of peace, prosperity, social, political and religious movements, great imperial expansion, and unprecedented demographic increase. Culturally, various artistic styles and literary schools flourished. The popularity of the Gothic revival architecture grew rapidly, and the novel continued to thrive through this period. Interestingly, the Gothic pervaded Victorian literature. Even though the definition of the Gothic novel as a mixed genre has long been debated, without a doubt, it is strongly associated with something uncanny. Shelley's Frankenstein and Stoker's Dracula based on the supernatural phenomena and the prevailing morbid atmosphere are representatives of the Victorian Gothic novel in which Gothicism is closely related to romanticism. In spite of the fact that the Gothic novel has been disregarded as “un-academic,” indeed, the influence of these most well-known Gothic romances are still evident today in modern popular culture. In essence, the fascinating and horrifying novels full of violent images ask the religious, political, and cultural question, “what is a human being?” While Frankenstein's creature and Count Dracula become the archetypes of gruesome monsters which evoke a sense of anxiety, fear, and dread, Bourgeois white monster hunters are admired for their gentlemanship, goodness, cultivation, and faithfulness. Meanwhile, Victorian women are objectified and terrified by horrible violence exerted by both the monsters and monster hunters. Eventually, this paper demonstrates that in these novels, the uncanny monsters and rational monster hunters, who embody the images of modernity and justify their violent work, are grotesquely ambivalent in terms of monstrosity, violence, morality, and humanity beyond the religious boundaries of good and evil.


영어 ‘Tough-구문’에 관한 연구


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 4호 2012.12 pp.167-188

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The structure of sentence like (1a) has been one of the topics of many articles. (1) a. John is easy to please. b. It is easy to please John. This paper aims to examine two conflicting analyses about Tough Constructions: one is that (1a) is a deep structure and the other is that (1b) is a deep structure. This construction includes these adjectives: easy, tough, hard, difficult, impossible, pleasant, convenient etc. ‘Tough-Movement’ which was first introduced by Postal (1971), is a transformational rule that raises a deep object in the complement sentence to the surface subject position, while Objection Deletion is another rule which deletes the Equi-NP in the subordinate clause as proposed in Lasnik & Fiengo (1974), Chomsky (1981). In addition, Chomsky (1977) explained this construction as ‘Wh-Movement’ and Browning (1987) analysed this construction as the movement of ‘null operator’. Historical approach supports this view: ‘Tough Movement’ in Old English was NP Movement but in Middle English (from 1400 years) this structure was changed from NP Movement to Null Operator Movement owing to losses of some Cases. Finally, I introduced Contreras (1989)’s analysis by ‘revised strong crossover’. From this, I have drawn that the analysis that the subject NP of Tough Construction originally existed is much better than that the subject NP was derived by NP Movement.


영어 이중목적어구문 습득과 어휘제약전이

최영주, 최세일

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 4호 2012.12 pp.189-210

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Through an experiment with adult Koreans learning English as a foreign language, this study gives evidence to the hypothesis that lexical constraints are transferred to interlanguage in learning English double object datives. Previous studies dealing with L2 acquisition of English double object datives largely focus on whether or not L1 transfer occurs at the morphological level. This study attempts to demonstrate that the lexical differences shown in these previous studies reflect the differences in the lexical constraints of Korean and English. For example, observation of the experiment results in Oh & Zubizarreta (2003) reveals there is a lexical difference between whisper and shout. This seems to reflect the grammatical contrast shown in their Korean counterparts when they occur in Korean dative accusative constructions realized as ‘-eykey –lul –hata’. Thus the experiment for this study was constructed under the hypothesis that when an adult Korean learns English as a foreign language, L1 transfer occurs at the level of lexicon rather than morphology. The subjects of this experiment were 69 university students majoring in English Language and Literature. They were asked to determine, on a scale of one to five, the grammaticality of twelve sentences, which were divided into four sets of three; sentences that were grammatical in English and Korean, sentences that were grammatical in English but ungrammatical in Korean, sentences that were ungrammatical in English but grammatical in Korean, sentences that were ungrammatical in both English and Korean. However, when the results between sentences that were ungrammatical in English but grammatical in Korean and sentences that were grammatical in English but ungrammatical in Korean are compared, the former has a higher acceptability than the latter, showing that there is a lexical constraint transfer.


예측 가능한 패턴이 있는 이야기 활용 초등 영어 교수-학습법 개발에 대한 연구


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 4호 2012.12 pp.211-240

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The purpose of this study is to develop teaching-learning method using predictable patterned stories for primary English instruction. Two tasks—the analysis of the patterns of predictable stories, and developing teaching-learning method for the use of the stories with patterns—were set up to accomplish the purpose of this study. The results of the study emerged in two steps. First, to understand patterned stories, the different patterns of predictable books were classified into three types—simple, dialog, and cumulative pattern—and analyzed with example texts. Then, teaching-learning methods for English learners were developed. For example, the study suggested how to develop oral language skill using stories with a dialogue pattern, how to develop written language skill through diverse writing activities using stories with a simple language pattern, and how to extend imagination using stories with a cumulative pattern. Based on the results, the study suggests that teachers try to apply methods and techniques to other predictable stories with patterns in the teaching of English in EFL settings.


음소단위의 파닉스와 라임단위의 파닉스 비교연구

백승현, 정상희

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 4호 2012.12 pp.241-264

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As a follow-up study (Baek, 2009), the purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy of phoneme-based phonics in L2 early literacy skills such as L2 phonological sensitivity and L2 word recognition in comparison with that of rime-based phonics. Furthermore, the relationship between L2 phonological unit and L2 word recognition was also examined. The phoneme-based phonics approach group performed better on L2 phonological sensitivity and L2 word recognition skills than the rime-based phonics approach. Moreover, L2 nucleus (medial vowel or vowel cluster) across the two groups was closely related to L2 word recognition and was a critical precursor of L2 word recognition skills. The current findings propose that L2 phonemic awareness be first introduced to L2 beginning readers rather than L2 rime awareness.


요약활동을 통한 대학생 영어 읽기 수업 효과


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 4호 2012.12 pp.265-287

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This study aims to analyze the effects of summary tasks on college students' reading comprehension ability, integrated reading and writing skills, and reading strategies in a Korean EFL college reading class. Summary instruction was carried out for 2 weeks at the beginning and subsequently both a reading text and a summary task were given every week for 8 weeks. The data were collected through a 30-item reading comprehension test, a collection of each student's 8 summaries, and a 15-item questionnaire of reading strategies. The score comparison of between a pre and a post reading comprehension tests, between the first and the last summary, and between a pre and a post questionnaire of reading strategies were conducted and statistically analyzed. The results indicated that the experimental class had an effect on the development of reading comprehension ability, integrated reading and writing skills, and using of cognitive or meta cognitive strategies.


웹기반 영어 학습 환경에서 중재프로그램이 듣기전략사용과 학습동기에 미치는 영향

조진현, 이승은

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 4호 2012.12 pp.289-314

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an intervention program for supporting students' self-regulated learning (SRL) skills in web-based listening activities on students' listening strategies and motivation. Fifty-eight Korean university students were divided into two groups for this study. The experimental group was asked to keep self-reflection reports before and after listening practice. The intervention program consisted of monitoring the students’ self-directed WBL activities with the self-reflection reports. Before and after treatment with the intervention program, students in both groups completed the TOEIC test and a listening strategy questionnaire. They also completed a motivation and attitude questionnaire (MAQ). Related to the effects of different self-directed WBL activities, the participants in the experimental group showed a significant increase on the use of metacognitive strategies. For this reason, the finding means that they could be taught self-regulating strategies through an intervention program and encouraged to plan, monitor, evaluate and reflect on the learning processes. After the participants finished the intervention program, there were statistically significant improvements in the mean scores in three out of four of the MAQ scales. It means that they became more responsible for their own learning, more intrinsically motivated and believed that their efforts to learn made a difference in their learning and led to positive outcomes. With regard to the relationship between strategy use and motivation, it was found that the more self-efficacy, intrinsic goal orientation and control of learning belief, the stronger the positive correlations with the cognitive and metacognitive listening strategy use. This study implies motivation and strategy use can be promoted with scaffolding students' metacognitive self-regulation by providing them with timely, honest, and explicit feedback in collaborative environment amongst peer learners.


Her Posthumous Hope in George Eliot’s The Mill on the Floss and Edith Wharton’s The House of Mirth

Man-Sik Lee

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 4호 2012.12 pp.315-332

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This study is to understand some literary solutions to feminist questions with two English novels, Geroge Eliot's The Mill on the Floss and Edith Wharton's The House of Mirth, which was published in 1905, some forty years later than The Mill on the Floss, in order to study the differences made on women's position in society and also to find out any progress or development has been accomplished in this area through the so-called brilliant industrialization achieved for the mankind during this period. In spite of several differences such as agricultural landscape in St. Ogg's, and industrialzed metropolitan area of New York, The Mill on the Floss and The House of Mirth are not quite different in their feminist statement. Even though the message of Edith Wharton is clearer, we cannot tell whether there is any progress between The Mill on the Floss and The House of Mirth.


Ecocritical Reading of Auden’s Poetic Works —With a Focus on His Austrian Days

J. Douglas Stuber, Yeon-seong Park

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 4호 2012.12 pp.333-351

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When we delved into Auden's poetry written during his Austrian days, his ecological concerns emerged. Emig has paid attention to the ecological aspect in Auden's poetry. However his judgment of Auden's stance in regard to ecology—“Auden is anthropocentric”—is true as far as English and American Auden is concerned. Austrian Auden (1958-1973) expanded his perspective to include a new concern for the environment. Poems in this last period show over and over again, though humans may be superior in intellect and reason, that animals do not mistreat the planet. They cause less damage, act more consistently, and are thus a better inhabitants of planet earth than humans. Considering many poems which showed ecological concerns, Auden moved on a path from “a selfish pink liberalist” in the 1930s through “a secular greyish Christian” in the 1940s to “a selfless light-green ecologist” in the 1970s. By metamorphosing from a anthropocentric, complicated, academic poet to a lyrical, emotional, issue-driven poet, Auden added to his spectrum with a warning about how humans had treated their ecosystem. These last poems are significant precisely because he had skills to take such a new tack, and chose to do so at the end of his life.


English Relative Clauses : Are Korean ESL Learners Avoiding Them?

Jaemyung Goo

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 4호 2012.12 pp.353-372

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This study examined Schachter’s argument (1974) on ESL learners' avoidance behavior likely caused by L1-L2 differences. In this study of avoidance, eight Korean graduate students carried out two types of production tasks over four sessions: oral and written production tasks in Korean as well as in English. Five native speakers of English attending an American university and five native speakers of Korean living in Korea at the time of the experiment and receiving no structured English instruction also participated in the experiment as the English control group and the Korean control group, respectively. Results showed that the experimental participants had avoided using English relative clauses. The argument of their avoidance of English relative clauses is based on the evidential data that mirrored two compelling observations: (a) the rare occurrence of English relative clauses in the contexts in which they produced quite a few Korean relative clauses, (b) the rare occurrence in the contexts in which native speakers of English produced English relative clauses. Finally, it was also observed that such relative clauses as SU and DO relative clauses, which are higher on the accessibility hierarchy (Keenan & Comrie, 1977), accounted for the overwhelming majority of the relative clauses produced in all tasks, reaffirming the reliability of the accessibility hierarchy.


A Study of English Learning Motivation for Korean High School Student in a New Town

Jaehwang Shim, Jooyun Kim, Heeseok Park

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 4호 2012.12 pp.373-394

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The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between English learning motivation and gender for high school students. The 163 students at S High School in Gyunggi-do participated in this study. The students completed the questionnaires: 14 items of English learning motivation and proficiency and interest in English. As shown other studies of university students, high school students relied on more instrumental motivation than integrative one. In the instrumental motivation, they tend to concern with practical purposes such as their future job, good grade, entrance of university, and so on. In the integrative motivations, they tend to be motivated in the items such as listening and speaking in English, and knowing various culture and people. Some factors have correlations depending on items and types of motivations. First, gender does not have any correlation to other three factors such as grade, English proficiency, and English interest. However, grade is significantly correlated to English proficiency, and English proficiency is significantly correlated to English interest. Second, two types of motivation correlate each other. Third, students’ grade indicates correlation to instrumental motivation. Fourth, English proficiency correlates to the instrumental and integrative motivation. Fifth, English interest correlates to two types of motivation. The results imply that the more interest in English students are, the more motivation they have in learning English.


Identities of a Researcher and Participants in SLA Research

Jina Lee

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제25권 4호 2012.12 pp.395-417

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Recent studies on language learning and teaching consider the relevance of psychological and social factors, relationships of individuals leading and idealizing learner-centered approaches, and reconstruction of world and social view, for examples, poststructuralist, sociocultural, and language socialization approaches on SLA (McKay & Wong, 1996, Norton, 2000, Pavlenko. 2000, 2001, 2002; Miller, 2000; Wenger, 1998 and etc.). This paper is a research to problematize what the researcher’s role in any research and its subjectivity. Throughout this research, my own identity has been shifted by destructuring myself as a researcher who shares same nationality with the participants. It was both of the participants and myself who experience sites of struggle during two-and-a half weeks of the class observation. The teacher also has changed her thought about her students. Identities were, therefore, renegotiated by the situation and interaction. Through out this study we can find how identities were co-constructed in the ESL classroom via interactions with others and via language itself.

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