영어영문학21 [English21]

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    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
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    인문학 > 영어와문학
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    KDC 840 DDC 820
제18권 2호 (11건)

『베니스의 상인』과 『몰타의 유대인』에 나타난 반유대주의의 전복적 양상


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제18권 2호 2005.12 pp.5-24

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Christopher Marlowe's The Jew of Malta and William Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice surely show a similarity in that they represent a wicked Jew derived from the contemporary Anti-Semitism for the purpose of inciting the audience's interest. It seems certain that the popularity of the two works resulted from the excitement of crying out against the Jew and of applauding at his downfall, but the works include some ironical elements that evoke subversive meaning against the traditional anti-semitism: 7he Jew of Malta reveals not so much the Jew's wickedness as Christians' hypocritical aspects; The Merchant of Venice persuades the audience that the cruel Jew is also a human being. The dual aspects of the two works may create some dramatic effects that criticize the political and religious conflict between the Catholic and the Protestant in the Elizabethan English society. However, it is remarkable that Marlowe's voice sounds different horn Shakespeare's in revealing the prejudice and hypocritical contradiction in Christian society, even though they share the same voice in condemning the Jew's cruel and wicked aspects that reflect anti-Semitism. The Christians in Marlowe's work reveal their contradictory and hypocritical desire for money and women, and are completely mocked, despised, and ruined by Barabas. And this seems to be the result of their unjust desire to take Baraba's property which was gained by his excellent commercial technique. On the contrary, the Christians in Shakespeare's work never get ashamed by Shylock Although Antonio and Bassanio borrow money from Shylock, Antonio risks his own life and never lose his dignity even when he is about to lose his life. Rather the Christians have the chance to enjoy mocking Shylock's cruelty in virtue of Portia's wisdom. While Marlowe focuses on criticizing the Christians' hypocritical double standard through the Jew's perspective, Shakespeare is focusing on the exclusion of the dangerous Jew and its invalidity at the same time. While Marlowe shows the boldness to represent his critical view against the contemporary political and social reality in his work, Shakespeare is quite careful in his representation. Although Marlowe drives Barabas the wicked Jew into destruction, he plainly reveals his desire to transgress the ruling order of his society displaying his political view. But Shakespeare, unlike Marlowe, doesn't express any single political voice. Rather by suggesting the contradicting plural voices at the same time without transgressing the establish ruling order, he attributes the judgement to the audience.


셰이머스 히이니의 "빛으로 향한 문": 『현장답사』와『스테이션 아일랜드』


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제18권 2호 2005.12 pp.25-42

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Seamus Heaney's early poetry reflect historical or political events and traditional crafts in the Nothern Ireland catholic community. Also, he emphasized that he identified with the craftsmen who created or fixed something in his community. But in Field Work, Heaney's fifth book, his poetic style changed. His new poetic style showed the anxiety about the conflict between responsibility for the community and the freedom of poetry in his mind. The doubts and questions on what role poetry has in history are condensed in Field Work and especially in the six elegies. In the next book, Station Island, Heaney pilgrimaged emblematically to meet and discuss with ghosts that were killed by sectarian murder through the sequence, "Station Island." In the last chapter of this sequence, Heaney met the ghost of James Joyce and he advised Heaney that he should write poetry with his own style. After accepting Joyce's advice, Heaney flew towards the freedom of poetry, or "door into the light" never forgetting the Nothern Ireland catholic community.


과학기술 시대의 디스토피아 비전: <블레이드 러너>와 『앤드로이드는 전기양 꿈을 꿀까?』


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제18권 2호 2005.12 pp.43-68

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Philip K. Dick's novel, Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? and Ridley Scott's film, Blade Runner, well known adaptations of the novel, raise some serious philosophical questions on the futuristic vision in the age of technology and science. While the film drops many important details of plot and character of the novel, it conveys the main theme mostly. that is the nightmarish futuristic dystopia. On the contrary, it is the film that suggests and embodies the rich vision of dystopia on human nature and identity issues in the future world. In both texts technology has advanced to the point of manufacturing artificial human beings. These genetically engineered androids/ replicants are virtually identical to human beings. They pose dangers to society because they come to the Earth from the off-world colonies to live lives of their own, or to prolong their life-span. So the bounty hunter/ blade runner is assigned to track down and retire them. In his dealings with androids, Rick Deckard, the bounty hunter/blade runner, gradually loses his humanity. Empathy, the ability to empathize with the sufferings of others, is the ultimate criterion of humanity in both the novel and the film Due to the inhuman callousness of humans and empathic responses of androids, the criterion is called into questions. The androids who are not supposed to have empathy seem to be able to have real emotions. And they represent the oppressed victims exploited by capitalist pursuit of mankind. The film takes a more inclusive stance on androids. While, in the novel, Deckard ends up having enhanced empathy for androids, in the film, he moves on further and plans a life with a replicant. By blurring the boundaries between replicants and humans, the film suggests replicants deserve as much right and respect as humans. With backgrounds in a dark futuristic society, both texts lead us to ask questions on such issues as humanity, identity and the real, futuristic world we live in. and to reflect those issues. Thus, the two texts are crucial in leading us to pay more attention to how we can be inhuman and mechanized in the age of technology and science.


살만 러쉬디의 『자정의 아이들』에 나타난 탈식민 문화적 혼종성


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제18권 2호 2005.12 pp.69-88

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In Midnight's Children(l981), Ahmed Salman Rushdie represents the complex condition, the aftermath of colonial condition in India. At that time, Indian people desire to forget the colonial past and to build a new postcolonial identity or nation. In this decolonising process, the anti-colonial nationalism or fundamentalism are emerged in India. They reject all the British colonial influences and admit the Indian culture before the British colonial occupation as the only pure native culture. The emergence of anti-colonial and ethnic nation after colonialism is frequently accompanied by a desire to forget the colonial past. This will-to-forget, that is postcolonial amnesia, is the symptom of the urge for historical self-invention or the need to make a new start. But the mere repression of colonial memories is never emancipation from the colonial subordination. For the real decolonising, postcolonial subjects have to do the task of revisiting, remembering and interrogating the colonial past. Saleem Sinai, a narrator in Midnight's Children, is an allegory of the nation of India. His biography runs parallel to the Indian history. In Midnight's Children, Rushdie interrogates the British colonizer who conducted the overwhelming and lasting violence of colonization, and rethinks the Indian colonized who conspired with the colonial ruling. Rushdie thinks the British colonizer were failed because they enforced only their traditions and customs on India. And anti-colonial nationalism and fundamentalism in India were failed too, because they rejected all the British colonial influences and admitted their homogenized religion and culture as the only pure one. In Midnight's Children, Rushdie thus offers multiculturalism as a real decolonising device for Indian postcolonial subjects.


Prospero's Land of Enchantment and Caliban's Hard Rock: A Postcolonial Reading of The Tempest

Nam-Son Shin

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제18권 2호 2005.12 pp.89-114

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셰익스피어의 『폭풍우』(The Tempest)는 다양한 관점에서 해석될 소지가 있는 작품이다.본고에서 필자는 『폭풍우』를 탈식민주의적 관점에서 이해하고자 하였다.그 이유는 셰익스피어의 자전적 희곡으로 일컬어지는『폭풍우』의 두 주동인물,프로스페로와 캘리반의 극중에서의 성격 때문이다.비평가들은 이미 1950년대부터 탈 식민주의적 관점에서 『폭풍우』를 보기 시작하였는데, 이것은 제국주의의 지배권력 (제1세계)으로서의 프로스페로와 피지배 원주민(제3세계)으로서의 캘리반의 ‘양극’ 및 ‘적대적’ 관계성은 일종의 탈식민주의 담론 형성의 촉매제로서의 소재를 제공하고 있기 때문이다.본고는 탈식민주의적 관점에서 논의되어온 『폭풍우』와 관련한 담론들을 배경이론으로 하여 『폭풍우』에 등장하는 프로스페로의 ‘독단’와 캘리반의 ‘저주’에 내재되어 있는 심층적 언어의 상징적 의미를 모티프로 하여 영연방으로 대변되는 유럽 제국주의의 역사적 상황과 관련하여 흄,마노니 등이 제기한 유럽 제국주의의 본질과 제국주의의 진행과정에서 등장하였던 『폭풍우』 (l610)를 통하여 작가의 관점,즉 식민주의 시대의 작가의 상상력을 함께 추적하고자 하였다.아울러 커모드,래밍 및 소잉카 등이 주장하고 있는 『폭풍우』 의 극중 인물들의 대사 속에 함축된 상징적 의미에 대한 분석 또한 필자의 논지를 뒷받침하는 이론적 배경이다. 과거 식민주의의 상황에서 써진 『폭풍우』는 탈식민주의의 상황 하에서 다소 변형된 형태로 묘사되고 있음은 탈식민주의 담론과도 무관하지 않을 것이다.관점에 따라 다소 차이는 있겠으나 과거 제국주의 시대의 『폭풍우』는 서구 식민주의의 선전도구로서의 성격을 담고 있었다면, 현대의 무대에 올려진 『폭풍우』는 과거 식민주의의 불합리성을 지적하면서 동시에 탈식민주의적 담론을 이끌어내고 있다는 평가를 받고 있다.즉 1993-94년 왕립셰익스피어극단의 『폭풍우』에서는 프로스페로의 충직한 부하이자 정령인 에어리얼은 그의 절대 권력의 상징인 프로스페로의 얼굴에 침을 뱉는다는 역설은 그 한 예가 될 것이다.


Inversion of Roles in The Mayor of Casterbridge

Kil-Ho Sung

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제18권 2호 2005.12 pp.115-126

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토마스 하디의 소설은 자주 주요인물들이 관련된 비극적 아이러니의 상황을 절묘하게 창출한다. 『캐스터브리지 시장』에서 마이클 헨처드의 삶과 죽음에 관한 비극적 이야기에는 아이러니가 짙게 배어 있는데, 이는 그와 다른 인물들 사이의 관계에서 반복적으로 드러나는 역할의 전도로부터 크게 기인한다. 관계전복의 유형은 헨처드와 도널드 파프레 사이에서 가장 뚜렷이 나타난다. 사업과 개인적 인간관계, 그리고 사회적 지위에서 그들의 역할은 철저하게 뒤바뀌고 만다. 이러한 전복의 양상은 많은 다른 인물들, 예를 들어 수전, 루세터, 엘리자베스제인, 좁, 휘틀, 뉴슨, 밀죽 파는 여인 등과 헨처드의 관계를 통해 더욱 두드러진다. 헨처드와 그 밖의 인물들에 의하여 연출되는 이러한 역할의 전도는 "세상의 방식"과 인생살이에서 "예기치 못한 것들의 집요함"에 대하여 독자들을 깨우쳐 준다.


부사어의 하위범주와 의미기술에 관한 연구


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제18권 2호 2005.12 pp.127-146

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The purpose of this paper is to explore the subcategorization of adverbials; There are two syntactic category of adverbs such as predicate adverbs and sentential adverbs. However, it is not enough to classify all the adverbs into two categories, because some semantics characteristics of adverbs could not be treated as the same type even though they belong to the same category. So it is necessary to subclassify the sentential adverbs into a illocutionary, evaluative, evidential and hearsay adverbials. All the adverbials can be. described by the subatomic semantic which is well known to be a devise for the treatment of entailment between the sentences with adverbials. However, there are some residual problems such as the lexical ambiguity and semantic functional hierarchy of adverbs, and adverbial selectional constraints.


The Processes of Listening and Factors That Affect Selecting of Listening Activities

Jonathan Boot

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제18권 2호 2005.12 pp.147-158

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This article will discuss what is known about the processes of listening, by explaining what Top-down and Bottom-up processing refers to. As well as, it will discuss the factors that affect the selection of listening activities for second language learners. With those factors being as follows: listening should be relevant, material should be authentic, opportunities to develop both top-down and bottom-up processing skills should be offered, the development of listening strategies should be encouraged, and activities should teach, not test. It will also discuss tasks which, you can use to developlistening skills such as; doing, choosing, transferring, answering, condensing, extending, duplicating, modeling and conversing. It will also explain about the three steps that should be used when creating lesson plans that develop listening ability; pre-listening task, do the listening task and the post-listening task Listening, which is a key part of language acquisition is a complex process that involvesmany factors that need to be taken into account to maximize the learner's language acquisition. As teachers it is our responsibility to recognize the factors that affect listening and help our students meet their goals and improve their listening ability.


Effectiveness of Bilingual Education: Implications to English Education in Korea

Minjung Joyce Kim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제18권 2호 2005.12 pp.159-184

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The purpose of the present paper is to review a variety of bilingual education programs mainly in the U. S. and Canada, then to examine the effectiveness of these programs in order to gain insights which may aid enhance the quality of the English Education in Korea. Research findings of bilingual education show that though not all bilingual education models are equally successful, a valid amount of research evidence prove that a well-organized program is an effective way to teach a new language rather than merely treating a 'language as a second/foreign language.' A prudent understanding of these results focusing on the effectiveness of bilingual education may provide us with both positive and negative aspects from which we can seek out necessary methods to implement present Korean English education for the better.


Pragmatic Implicatures and Disjoint Reference Condition

Sun-Hee Kim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제18권 2호 2005.12 pp.185-200

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대용어의 해석문제는 지배결속이론이나 최소주의 이론 등으로 대표되는 통사적 이론의 범주 안에서는 만족할 만한 설명을 이끌어내기 힘든 여러 특징들을 가지고 있다. 그 대표적인 문제가 바로 재귀대명사와 일반 대명사 사이의 비상보적 분포성이다. 본 논문은 통사제약 중 하나인 지배결속이론에 큰 부담을 주고 있는 영어 대용어의 해석문제를 Grice적 대화함축이론의 틀 안에서 설명해 보려는 시도이다. 특히 대용어 해석에 있어서 꼭 필요한 조건인 상이적 지시 조건(Disjoint Reference Condition)이 통사적 제약으로 기술될 필요 없이 화용론적인 일반 대화원리로부터 자연스럽게 도출될 수 있음을 보인다.


21세기영어영문학회 연혁 외

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제18권 2호 2005.12 pp.201-213

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