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영어영문학21 [English21]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
    학술지
  • 발행기관
    21세기영어영문학회 [The 21st Century Association of English Language and Literature]
  • ISSN
    1738-4052
  • 간기
    계간
  • 수록기간
    1967~2018
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 820
제31권 1호 (16건)
No
1

스토파드 극에 나타난 영화적 기법

윤정용

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 1호 2018.03 pp.1-30

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Tom Stoppard’s interest in cinema started long before he began writing plays, and has exercised a far-reaching influence on his playwriting. Therefore, it is very important to study the cinematic elements in his plays to examine the world of Stoppard’s works. On one hand, he brought an exact sense of sophisticated dialogue from theater into film. On the other hand, he brought an exact sense of structuring scenes from film into theater. In other words, he took good advantage of cinematic techniques to enhance his plays. Likewise, he instilled theatrical elements into his films. In short, to Stoppard, theater and film are not separate and different, but interdependent and coexistent. In Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead, Stoppard made the minor roles Rosencrantz and Guildenstern into main characters and reproduced dramatic events which are not enacted in Hamlet. Ultimately, he opposed the conventional world of Hamlet by reading and understanding the play from a different angle, and thereby questioned unquestionable universal truth. In Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead, Stoppard did not subvert Hamlet so as to destroy the dramatic narrative and point out the unjustifiable sacrifice of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. As stated earlier, what he intended to subvert is not so much Shakespeare himself as the unquestioned cultural and political authority granted tests such as Shakespeare’s. Stoppard’s textual revisions from a different viewpoint are consistent themes of Stoppard’s works. He makes good use of cinematic techniques to represent those alternative viewpoints effectively. Arcadia, which is hailed as Stoppard’s most brilliant and fascinating play, is not only a story of two contemporary researchers who try to find out what really happened in Sidley Park, but also an intellectual discourse about a variety of scientific, mathematical, and philosophical arguments. In Arcadia, Stoppard uses two different historical periods to elaborate plots and demonstrate that it is impossible to know what happened using fragments of the past. Arcadia abounds in contrasting or symmetrical characters. Through the symmetrical characters, he does not overtly show his own opinion of “who is right” or “who is wrong.” Instead, he metaphorically describes the modern world where there exist various ideas. He not only fosters audiences’ or readers’ dramatic interest but also stimulates their intellectual curiosity through contrasting, versatile ideas. The real intention of Stoppard’s writing is not to intentionally lead audiences or readers to disorder but to show them the diversity of our world where versatile theories are mixed with confusing human relations.

2

버지니아 울프의 『세월들』에 나타난 ‘역사적 서술방식’ 연구

이상규

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 1호 2018.03 pp.35-53

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This study examines how ‘the method of historical narration’ is displayed in Virginia Woolf’s The Years. It considers two main points regarding Woolf’s views of the historical novel or historiography. First, Woolf’s book is not a history but a creative historical novel composed with Woolf’s creative method of historical narration. She combines the explanation of one family history with the characteristics of modernism like ‘consciousness’ and ‘dreams.’ No other of Woolf’s works can equal The Years with reference to ‘the method of historical narration.’ This work gives us realistic facts along with artistic achievements. Second, Woolf tries to show the background of existentialism in order to deliver the feelings and attitudes of the main characters. Especially Eleanor and Peggy have the self-awareness of their beings while they wonder what their place in the world might be. It is very valuable that these attitudes also give other characters as well as themselves the possibility of energetic activities. For this reason, Eleanor tries to keep the tradition of the Pargiters in spite of giving up the role of ‘angel of history’; Peggy wishes to develop individualism for the sake of the younger generation. Therefore, this essay argues that The Years is a superior work for inspiring readers with the artistic vision and dreams of the main characters when compared with other historical works.

3

영어 복합문의 시제 해석—Reichenbach 이론의 재해석

신근영

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 1호 2018.03 pp.55-78

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This paper proposes a new account of the interpretation of tenses in English complement clauses by extending and revising Hans Reichenbach’s tense theory. English embedded tenses are not always interpreted relative to the matrix tense or the speech time, as Reichenbach originally proposed, and their interpretations are often affected by the speaker’s information and context. The seemingly-inconsistent interpretations of embedded tenses can be explained in a systematic way under the assumption that the reference time of the matrix clause is interpreted as the reference time of the embedded clause or its speech time. It is argued that the two reference times of a complex clause are not identical when the reference time of the embedded clause is determined by pragmatic factors such as previous discourse and conventional implicatures.

4

‘생명’과 관련된 신체관용구 — 영어와 한국어의 ‘머리’와 ‘목’ 관련 관용구를 중심으로

최영주, 김의산, 김혜민, 정선주

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 1호 2018.03 pp.79-98

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The fact that our body parts seem to be closely related to certain concepts has drawn a lot of attention from researchers. Therefore, body-part idioms have been scrutinized, demonstrating how a certain body part is utilized in conceptualizing several concepts. Moreover, languages have been compared to reveal variations in constructing concepts using body-part expressions. However it is not easy to find research focusing on how different languages use different body parts in conceptualization, except for concepts related to emotions such as anger, happiness, or sadness. In order to bridge the gap, this paper compares head and neck related idioms in Korean and English, observing how the two languages differently utilize the two parts in conceptualizing the concept of LIFE. It turns out that in Korean, neck alone is used to indicate the concept LIFE, while in English, both head and neck are used. In addition, this paper reveals that the same body-part idioms related to the concept of LIFE are further extended to designate CAREER, in both languages, supporting Lakoff’s claim regarding inheritance hierarchy.

5

단기 해외 연수에 따른 한국 대학생의 문화간 민감성 변화 분석

박은정, 박매란

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 1호 2018.03 pp.99-120

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The purpose of this article was to investigate the effect of Korean college students’ short-term study abroad on intercultural sensitivity according to their genders, grades, and experiences of living in different countries. Seventy-nine college students from various majors in P University participated in this study. They took a culture and language program in the Philippines, offered by their university, during their summer vacation. Chen and Starosta’s Intercultural Sensitivity Scale (ISS) was administered as pre- and post- questionnaires before and after studying abroad. The ISS is composed of five sections: interaction engagement, respect for cultural differences, interaction confidence, interaction enjoyment, and interaction attentiveness. Analysis of the data using t-test showed that the variables such as short-term study abroad, gender, grades, and experience of living in foreign countries have a statistically significant effect on participants’ intercultural sensitivity. The implications and limitations of this study were discussed.

6

Modern Asian Poets under Western Gaze : Bei Dao and Yosano Akiko in World Literature

Jiyon Byun

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 1호 2018.03 pp.121-143

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Although anthologies from Norton, Longman and Bedford have begun to encompass literatures from other countries and cultures under the category of world literature, they are often criticized for their Eurocentric perspective in introducing, describing, and selecting the works in their anthologies. In this paper, I will examine the ongoing discourse on world literature, and attempt to place Asian literature, especially modern East Asian poetry in this context by looking into two anthologies. I am mainly focusing on the poetry in The Longman Anthology of World Literature (2009) and The Norton Anthology of World Literature (2012) in order to examine how they explain world history and represent East Asian poets, and finally to question the validity of that representation. Both of the anthologies guide the readers through the modern history of the world in a rather Eurocentric way, largely focusing on modernism and its movements along with two world wars. It is not surprising therefore, when modern Asian poetry is either missing or unfitting to the theme under which it is explained. The Norton especially does not include any East Asian poets in its modern poetry section, and its editors might be the reason why. Although The Longman includes two East Asian poets, Bei Dao from China and Yosano Akiko from Japan, they are squeezed into the context of modernism and war narrative not for their writing style but for their political and cultural positions. While the anthology is often acknowledged as a marketing product, it also plays significant role in guiding the students academically, reflecting and contributing to the discourse on world literature. Such characteristics of the anthology necessitate editors and anthologists to mediate and interact more with unfamiliar non-Western scholars and authors in order to avoid Eurocentrism and include literatures outside of Europe and America without the risk of misrepresentation or negligence over distinctive poetics.

7

The Spatialization of London’s East End and Irishness in C. S. Lewis’s The Chronicles of Narnia

Seongeun Jin

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 1호 2018.03 pp.145-161

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The mythic aspects in C. S. Lewis’s The Chronicles of Narnia have mainly attracted critics to discuss Lewis’s view of theology. Nevertheless, his birth origin of Anglican Irish seems to complicate the sense of masculinity and nobleness in Narnia in relation to Englishness and gender. Hitherto, many critics have asserted that whiteness in Narnia reinforces the lost power of Christianity in England. Yet Englishness in Narnia still calls into question many cultural reflections of nationhood, class, and gender. More specifically, in this paper I explore a gendered notion of Irishness and veiled references to the excluded locality of London’s East End in The Chronicles of Narnia. Social mobility of the urban poor and neglected female positions are related to the historical site of the East End and occupational changes among Irish women during the World Wars. Thus, Lewis’s background of Northern Ireland unveils his backward or nostalgic portrayals of a utopian world in Narnia. I suggest that otherness and ambivalent Englishness should further display the long history of exclusion of Irish people and the evolving values of class and gender in English society in Lewis’s The Magician’s Nephew and The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe.

8

“The Progress of Painting” : Leigh Hunt’s Progress of Visual Sense

Jeongsuk Kim

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 1호 2018.03 pp.163-181

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This essay examines the progress of Leigh Hunt’s visual sense to reconsider his cultural identity within the wider context of the metropolitan visual culture of the Romantic era. By paying close attention to Hunt’s visual experiences, especially during his adolescence, this essay argues that the juvenile Hunt’s strong admiration for the visual certainly affected the novel attempt to realize his ekphrastic aspiration with a pictorial method, as has been actively discussed by recent critics. First, along with a close re-reading of primary sources, including Hunt’s autobiography and letters, the essay examines how the schoolboy Hunt developed his visual consciousness inside and outside of Christ’s Hospital School. Subsequently, reading Hunt’s adolescent work, “The Progress of Painting” from Juvenilia, the essay especially focuses on the aesthetic interrelationship between Hunt and West, who affected the young Hunt’s visual knowledge of art and ekphrastic interpretation. Although there are limitations in attempting to fully decipher the young Hunt’s visual sense, this essay can be a cornerstone to reconsider the aesthetic value of Hunt and his literary works in relation to Romantic visual culture.

9

The Absence of the Uncanny in Fanon’s the Other and Badiou’s Event

Hyun-Joo Yoo

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 1호 2018.03 pp.183-203

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Fanon’s black slave is the uncanny and phobic object (a problematized double) belonging to Lacan’s the real. However, in Fanon’s Black Skin, White Masks, subversive political aspects of the uncanny are absent. Fanon constantly describes the black slave as merely a victim/fetish, who always suffers an inferiority complex and a sense of alienation. Yet the black skin, unable to be completely covered with white masks, can be reappropriated as a strategy of political subversion to contaminate purity and authenticity in colonial discourses and white authority. Fanon does not seem to consider the possibility that black skin in white masks, remaining outside the signifying chain, has the revolutionary potentials to destabilize the master’s authority and colonialist discourses, and bringing about political transformation in society. In the politics of identification based on psychoanalysis, the impact that a return of the gaze of the uncanny/ambivalent Other has on the colonizer cannot be ignored, which might not be Fanon’s concern. Assuming the colonized as entirely knowable and visible, Fanon does not seem to calculate the traumatic impact of the return of the repressed. Badiou’s event, which refers to the incalculable, irreducible, surplus element (i.e., void), reveals a gap or a rupture with the symbolic order, or more specifically, exposes undemocratic political systems within a democracy. In this respect, Badiou’s void or event recalls Lacan’s “the real.” Badiou claims that a true event can bring about a dramatic and unforeseeable political change in the situation. Yet, like Fanon, in spite of the indebtedness to Lacan’s the real, the visible presence of subversive power embedded in the uncanny is also absent in Badiou’s philosophy. The uncanniness, whose political meanings are significantly dealt with in psychoanalysis, evaporates in Badiou’s political project of theorizing political revolutions and transformations. This paper raises the question about whether it is truly appropriate to refer to either the radical in Badiou’s radical reconceptualization of politics, or Fanon’s radical concept of psychological decolonization, as radical at all.

10

Two Types of Korean Light Verb Constructions

Yoon-kyoung Joh

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 1호 2018.03 pp.205-226

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Kearns (1988) has previously proposed two types of Light Verb Constructions in English: True Light Verb Constructions and Vague Action Verb Constructions. This paper claims that the Korean Light Verb Construction without an accusative marker corresponds to the True Light Verb Construction in English, while the Korean Light Verb Construction with an accusative marker corresponds to the Vague Action Verb Construction in English. Joh (2017) has claimed that, for the former, we can apply the Type Coercion mechanism, while, for the latter, a Co-compositional process takes place. Extending this analysis, this paper claims that the two types of Korean Light Verb Constructions can be explained by the two different generative mechanisms. One of the biggest advantages of this paper is that it finds that the two types of Light Verb Construction observed in Korean is not an isolated phenomenon but provides clear and concrete evidence to the claim that there are two different types of Light Verb Constructions in natural languages by showing that they can be morphologically evidenced.

11

Cross-Language Transfer of Phonological and Orthographic Awareness in L1-Korean L2-English Early Literacy Acquisition

Seunghyun Baek, Moongun Ji

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 1호 2018.03 pp.227-254

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The current study explored the cross-language transfer of L2 word recognition (WR) among 129 Korean EFL students. Participants underwent measures of L1-/ L2 phonological awareness (PA), L1-/ L2 orthographic awareness (OA), and L1-/ L2 unfamiliar-/ pseudo word recognition (WR). Findings showed that (a) the significant predictors of L1 unfamiliar WR were L1 PA-/ OA; (b) L1-/ L2 PA and L2 OA played an important role in L2 unfamiliar WR; and (c) L2 PA-/ OA were positively predictive of L2 pseudo WR. These results support the linguistic interdependence hypothesis that literacy skills can be transferred from one language to another (Cummins, 2000). The findings of the current study suggest the importance of L1 phonological components in L2 early literacy acquisition. Specifically, the present results propose that knowledge of L1 phonological elements such as syllable onsets, nuclei, codas, and bodies may play a crucial role in successful L2 WR among, at least, early Korean-English readers.

12

Korean College Students’ Conceptions of Language Learning and Self-regulation in L2 Acquisition

Young Ah Cho

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 1호 2018.03 pp.255-276

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The present study investigates the relationships between EFL students’ conceptions of learning English and their self-regulated language learning strategies and compares both variables to English proficiency levels. A total of 161 college students were assigned to low-, intermediate-, and high-achievement groups based on their English levels. Then, students were given questionnaires that asked about their general information, conceptions of studying English, and self-regulated learning processes, and a reading comprehension test. The findings of the study revealed that those in the high-achievement group were better at increasing their knowledge factor and understanding and seeing in a new way factor. In addition, the high-achievement group reported significantly more use of internal orientation, cognitive strategy, and metacognitive strategy factors in terms of self regulation than the other groups. Based on the results, pedagogical implications and teaching suggestions are offered at the end of this article.

13

Unresolved Issues in CLT and Native-Speakerism in Korean English Language Teaching Contexts

HyeJin Lee

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 1호 2018.03 pp.277-295

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This report provides an overview of English education policy in Korea following the sixth national curriculum, which focused on promoting the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) ethos. Considering the complexity of implementing CLT in English as a foreign language (EFL) contexts, this paper focuses on native-speakerism in CLT as a framework of inquiry to shed light on how language ideology interacts with English education policy in Korea. Given that the direction of educational policy typically reflects the educational priorities of the national government, this paper first maps out the educational landscape in Korea with a focus on the College Scholastic Ability Test (CSAT). Then, drawing on previous scholarly work, It examines the persistent divide between the issues affecting native and non-native English teachers as reflected in educational policies guided by CLT principles. In identifying the key factors that influence language policies involving CLT, this paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of the dichotomy between native and non-native English teachers and with suggestions for the direction of future research.

14

Discussion of Intrapsychological Speech in L2 Reading

Jina Lee

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 1호 2018.03 pp.297-320

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This is a qualitative study of the close analysis of L2 speakers’ intrapsychological speech from the Vygotskyan perspective of mediation. The term ‘intrapsychological speech’ in this study embraces the forms of private and inner speech that occur as a result of cognitive processing during an L2 reading task. Seven Korean L2 speakers of English majoring in biology in a U. S. college participated in one session of three hours self-study activity that mainly involvesd L2 reading. Reading aloud is one of the noticeable patterns of intrapsychological speech observed in this study. In detail, we were able to note several types in reading aloud; such as, the forms of repetition in L2, manipulation of L2 pronunciation, use of L1, oral translation of L2 text into L1, and note-taking. The higher incidence of reading aloud occurred when the reader had difficulty understanding the text, and reading aloud facilitated participants’ resolving problems of comprehension of the difficult text. Therefore, we can conclude that the use of intrapsychological speech during L2 reading provides us with an insight into the readers’ meaning-making process.

15

Korean Speakers’ Sensitivity to Temporal-aspectual Prototypes in English

Eunjeong Oh

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 1호 2018.03 pp.321-342

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The early production of temporal-aspectual features in English-speaking children is typically biased; they prefer telic perfective past combinations and atelic imperfective present combinations. Wagner (2009) replicated this finding with adult native English speakers. The current study explored the question of whether such a preference for these prototypes would persist into second language acquisition with Korean speakers. Given that the tense-aspect system is part of semantic universals shared by all languages, it was predicted that Korean speakers would show an influence of such prototypes. Korean speakers indeed judged prototypical temporal-aspectual combinations to be better than non-prototypical ones. Along the lines of Wagner (2009), we argue that the driving force for the preference for prototypes is information processing demands: The prototypes are favored because they are easier to compute and process.

16

Writing Improvement through Critical Literacy Practices in the Korean EFL College Classroom

SoYoung Yang

21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 1호 2018.03 pp.343-364

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Despite the recent increase in studies on perspectives of critical literacy-based classes in EFL contexts, only a few, whose findings have mainly depended on self-reporting by study participants, have examined writing improvement through critical literacy practices. This empirical study investigates the effectiveness of these to improve the writing ability of college EFL students by using a mixed methods approach. The results of a statistical analysis of students' essays were supported by findings derived from surveys, classroom observation and interviews with students and their instructor; critical literacy practices, including problem-posing education with guiding questions and dialogic engagement, found writing ability in terms of content and structure was improved by student participation in class. The application of a new classroom approach with authentic topics to a college English writing course promoted student engagement and motivation. Critical literacy practices with guiding questions can be a promising pre-writing strategy in EFL writing classes.

 
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