정토학연구 [Journal of the Pure Land Buddhism]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
  • 발행기관
    한국정토학회 [The Korean Society of Pure Land Buddhism]
  • ISSN
  • 간기
  • 수록기간
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 불교학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 220.1 DDC 294
제8권 (15건)

雪山스님 近影 외


한국정토학회 정토학연구 제8권 2005.12 pp.1-3

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.



한국정토학회 세미나 모습들


한국정토학회 정토학연구 제8권 2005.12 p.4

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 개인회원에게 무료로 제공됩니다.




한국정토학회 정토학연구 제8권 2005.12 pp.5-6

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 개인회원에게 무료로 제공됩니다.


불교의 자력과 타력 문제


한국정토학회 정토학연구 제8권 2005.12 pp.7-19

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

Buddhism is a vivid religion. Buddhist discipline is a vivid discipline. Hence, Buddhism does not only include the philology and the philosophical logic but also embrace the total activities of current cultural phenomena which accept Buddha as the founder of the religion and follow his teachings in a real life around various places. Even though the basic backgrounds of Buddhism such as accepting the same founder of the religion and making efforts for enlightenment are identical, Buddhist practice methodology could be varied according to different places and different times. This is what we called as expedience for the promulgation of Buddhism. Thus, we might say that all kinds of practices and ceremonial forms that attempt to attain Buddhist's purpose are Buddhism. Faith in the other-power of Buddhism is a belief of the cause and effect theory which illustrates all kinds of truthness, henceforth, it is a belief of Darmakaya. Faith in the other-power of Buddhism is a belief of the immeasurable virtue which is attained by countless number of practicing Buddhist lifes, henceforth, it is a belief of Sambhogakaya. Faith in the other-power of Buddhism is a belief of immeasurable compassion power of all Buddhas and bodhisattvas, henceforth, it is a belief of Nirmanakaya. Thus, devotion for self-illumination is a belief of pure Vairochana. Sincere prayer to Buddha for entering into the world of Elysium and occupying pure-land is a belief of fully-attained Vairochana. Sincere pray for compassion power of Buddha in a current life time is a belief of numerous incarnations of Shakyamuni Buddha.



淨土思想에 있어서 自力과 他力에 관하여

강동균, 법상

한국정토학회 정토학연구 제8권 2005.12 pp.21-47

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

The other-power in a pure-land doctrine indicates the original vow of Amitabha. So called the original vow concept or so called the original vow doctrine does not arise from Mahayana Buddhism. Its origination can be observed from an ancient thought of India too. And also we can find out its origination from an ancient Buddhism as well as Many-schools Buddhism. Especially, it is observed that the evolutionary transformation of Many-schools Buddhism Buddhism's initial thought into the Mahayana Buddhism's original vow. Then, we can observe the similar type of the original vow concepts from both ancient Buddhism and Many-schools Buddhism, comparing to that of the Mahayana Buddhism. Those are, however, not identical to that of the Mahayana Buddhism. First of all, there is a big difference between Mahayana Buddhism's bodhisattva concept and that of an ancient Buddhism as well as Many-schools Buddhism. For both ancient and Many-schools Buddhism, they stipulated a previous existence of Shakyamuni Buddha as a bodhisattva. But they did not accept any other existence as a bodhisattva. Secondly, we can not observe the special explanations about the pure land of Buddha from ancient as well as Many-schools Buddhism to the extent of what the Mahayana Buddhism provided. Then, we can find out that there are not ample contents of the original vow from ancient as well as Many-schools Buddhism. We can find out the peak of the original vow doctrine from the 48 vows written in the Immeasurable Bliss Sutra. The Immeasurable Bliss Sutra shows the super natural power of Tathagata in its introduction part already. And it indicates the obvious aspect that sentient beings should be only sentient beings. There is, however, Tathagata's great grief vow to save all sentient beings behind the aforementioned statement. The original vow doctrine shows the Tathagata's great grief power which is established by awakened compassion and wisdom of Shakyamuni Buddha. And then it turns out to be concrete feature representation such as the Amitabha's original vow. If this is the manifestation of Tathagata's great grief power, human beings are to be saved when they only happen to rely on the Amitabha's original vow. The sentient beings do not have the salvation cause but Tathagata has it. Wonhyo pointed out such fact and stated following way “Everybody talks about the Birth in the Pure Land. However, human beings do not have the sufficient ability to be an Amitabha and give a birth to the Pure Land. It is only possible to enter into the world of Buddha if and only if the sentient beings happen to rely on the mystic function of Tathagata's original vow power. It can not be accomplished by the power of one's own karmic cause only.” The original vow is the pure life as well as the absolute worth that can provide a faith and a relief at the bottom of desperate situation for the sentient beings. Sentient beings are unawakened and powerless in front of truth. But the tathagata's original vow is to embrace such state of sentient beings unconditionally. Signification of the original vow comes to exist clearly when sentient beings have a faith in the tathagata's original vow and take a rest upon it. It happens to understand the pure-land doctrine when someone takes a step into the other-power world without accepting the self-power.



禪思想의 자력과 타력 문제

이법산, 화랑

한국정토학회 정토학연구 제8권 2005.12 pp.49-74

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

It is meaningless to argue whether, in Seon Buddhism, one attains salvation through his own effort or through the help of another. The reason is that the teaching of Seon presents that everything in the world is beyond the relationship of the assistant and the assisted. As a matter of the fact, it does not make any sense to talk about the salvation through the help of another. The essence of Seon is the practice, which is a method of leading yogis to the world of moksa. As well known, Buddhist teaching has the idea of the salvation by the help of another. It is known as amitabha belief. One may reach the Buddhist heaven when he continuously chants the name of the amitabha Buddha with attention and without intervention. However, it presupposes that one should chant by himself. So, the amitabha belief has no actual difference from Seon in the sense of doing by oneself even if they are distinct ways of salvation. Therefore, this paper concludes as follows: 1) there are many ways of salvation in Buddhist thoughts. 2) All ways of salvation requires the self effort to attain. 3) it is meaningless to insist whether any way of salvation is through the help of another or through the self effort. 4) The important thing is not the fact that one chooses a particular way of salvation but the fact that he is eager to practice it.



화엄 교학에서 본 자력과 타력

이도업, 정엄

한국정토학회 정토학연구 제8권 2005.12 pp.75-118

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

There are various practice divisions in carrying on a faithful Buddhist life. For example, mantra sect's tradition emphasizes on a practice of enchantment, Zen sect's tradition emphasizes on a practice of contemplation, Avatamska sect's tradition insists on a practice of bodhisattva way, Pure Land sect's tradition insists on a practice of a prayer to Amitabha. These ways of practicing Buddhism are able to be classified into two divisions, that is, the one is a self-power practice division and the other is an other-power practice division. It is said that the practice of enchantment, that of contemplation, and that of bodhisattva way are included in the self-power practice division while the practice of a prayer to Amitabha belongs to the other-power practice division. From ancient times, they called that the self-power practice division as the holy path of Buddhism or hard way, while they called that the other-power practice division as the pure land division or easy way. This research paper studies on the following four issues arising from the controversy between the self-power practice division and the other-power practice division from a view of the Avatamska Doctrine. The Avatamska doctrine based on the Avatamska Sutra is a thought of philosophy, logic and self-power practice division. The doctrine of Amitabha Pure Land based on Three Name Sutras of Pure Land could be mentioned as a thought of religion, faith, and other-power practice division. It seems that the above two thoughts are taken opposite side to each other. Hence, the first question is whether the seemingly conflicting two thoughts could be comparable to each other in the realm of the Avatamska Sutra or that of the Avatamska doctrine. There are following phrases such as a prayer to Amitabha, an invocation samadhi, a primal vow, a west pure land of elysium, a pure land, an Amitabha, an immeasurable bliss, an immeasurable light, and etc. in the Avatamska Sutra. What are the contextual meanings of these phrases? Are these phrases described in a context of the Amitabha Pure Land thought that belongs to the other-power practice division? Or, are these phrases described in a context of the Avatamska doctrine that belongs to the self-power practice division? The second question is to study the contextual implications of the phrases described in the Avatamska Sutra.



四明知禮의 天台淨土思想

이병욱, 최동순

한국정토학회 정토학연구 제8권 2005.12 pp.119-158

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

In this paper I will show two point. Firstly the expression that this mind has all existence and this mind makes all existence, is connected with the expression that this mind makes buddha and this mind is buddha. The former is a high contention, and the latter is a lower contention. Secondly the salvation from outside and salvation from inside are combined skillfully in T'ien-t'ai Ching-t'u thoughts of Ssu-ming Chih-li.



부적응 장병들에 의한 심리치료 사례연구


한국정토학회 정토학연구 제8권 2005.12 pp.159-198

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

Korean men in their twenties must serve the mandatory service. prior to the enlistment. we conduct KMPI psychological test to check recruits' mental states. only the ones without any mental problems are enlisted. However, we see many cases that the recruits cannot adjust to the military environment after the enlistment and show latent abnormal mental state. In order to find maladjusted recruits, ROK Army conducts several psychological tests, but I usually conduct K-H-T-P test and sentence completion test. After I conduct above tests on soldiers, especially on PSCs (Private Second Class). I was able to find many maladjusted recruits easily. After I find those recruits, I try to help them to adjust to the military environment or give them psychological therapy by counseling them. By finding those maladjusted recruits in an early stage and counseling them, I could help many recruits.



現代社會에서 佛敎의 죽음 準備敎育프로그램 開發(Ⅰ)


한국정토학회 정토학연구 제8권 2005.12 pp.199-240

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

Life premise that man is mortal. So hunan being have agonized over death and all religions provide answers in their own way. Buddhistic preparation for death enables man to understand the meaning of death. In particular, Buddhism has numerous services regarding death and its Sutra teaches people to face up to death as it is, live honestly in order to encounter death peacefully, and describes the world after death. Buddhist doctrines and services offer lots of teachings for death preparation such as the Elysium(Sukkavati), teachings of Zen, belief in Kstitigarbha(Earth Womb), punya-ksetra, Saengjenyoesuje(Building up Buddhist merit while one is alive) and Providence Service. But these teachings have not been fully used. I would like to present a modern way of death preparation by examining two aspects of Buddhistic preparation for death, its teachings and services. First, Buddhism teaches how to prepare for death includes  Buddhist Elysium presenting a hope of living in a paradise if one does good deeds in this life, teachings of Zen stating that life and is the arising and ceasing of the mind, causationism by means of a reward in accordance with a deed, and  punya-ksetra encouraging people build up bless and escape from the result of evil deeds by offering a service for a Buddha saints at a temple or by cultivating virtue. The second, as the aspect of Buddhist service, I have examined Saengjeonyesuje (Building up Buddhist merit while one is alive), Providence Service, Tibetan Bardo Service and lmsa chaehum(experience a time of death). Especially I present two kinds of death preparation programs, one for the person dying himself and the other for his family.



정토삼부경에 나타난 불화도상의 연구


한국정토학회 정토학연구 제8권 2005.12 pp.241-264

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

This is the study of the icons of Buddist art that relates to Amita's belief which has the significant place in the Buddhist art history of Korea until now. By going through above method of the study, the summing up content of Amita's Buddhist art study can be described as below. Firstly, the bibles that describe the history of Amita & the abode world of perfect bliss are called, 'Muryangsu-kyung', 'Kwankuryangsu-kyung', 'Amita-kyung', and they're called 'Chungtosambu-kyung' which was used as 'Soeuikyung-chun'- the basic bible of the Buddhist religion. The art of Amita's belief are the paintings that have produced based on those 'Chungtosambu-kyung' along with their religion. Secondly, the reason why the Amita's Buddhist art history study mainly focusing on icon's background is because the Buddhist art is religious art as formed art from the text-bible content. An inquiry into meaning and truth of finding out how the Buddha's look & his preach was the priority knowledge to understand even before the study of Buddhist art as well as simply giving appreciation to those art pieces. Upon the research of Buddhist art that was created as the subject of Buddhist religion, it is specially essential task to study for the fact that how it influenced the generations & societies then as well as religious doctrine, and the pattern of Dalma in those days which were the basic background to the creation & the foundation of the religion. This treatise's main purpose was based on the icon's background of 'Chungtosambu-kyung', but it might not be perfect enough for it had been written in the level of re-sorting though already existed information & the references available on this subject. Further more, the expectation is there for more systematic & in depth study for Amita's Buddhist art by going thoroughly through the related bible's content.



喪徒契輓歌에 나타난 念佛淨土信仰과 터미널 케어


한국정토학회 정토학연구 제8권 2005.12 pp.265-302

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

In modern society, many people are singing the praises of material prosperity and the comfortable life. There is still, however, a long way before being totally liberated from all kinds of pains and anxieties experienced by every human being. Those pains and anxieties of men have continued to exist up until the modern day since the history of humans began. Among them, the physical and mental suffering of those who are faced with death is beyond description. It is also necessary to take care of a family that is just about to lose one of its members, so that they can overcome their suffering and come back to their daily lives. Such a service, designed to heal the anguished minds of patients on their deathbeds as well as their families, is called terminal care people in charge of terminal care consist of medical specialists, Hospice providers, social workers, and men of religion. In order to mitigate the despairs and sorrows of dying people, rehabilitative terminal care is in great demands rehabilitative care facilities and Hospice providers are gradually being reinforced. The Pure Land Faith especially, in which one prays for rebirth to the abode of perfect bliss(極樂淨土), can be considered as true character of Mahāāna Buddhism which encourages dying people to have great hope. The Pure Land Faith as such had a great influence on Korean Buddhism. The Venerable Wonhyo, in particular, educated the mass of people and popularized Buddhism with the aid of Pure Land thought. Nevertheless, nothing much has been known about the result of his popularization of Buddhism. Regarding this problem, I looked into The Collections of Korean Man-ga, and discovered the vivid traces of Buddhism that remained in Man-ga(輓歌) funereal songs that were sung by Sangdogye when the coffin was carried away.



징관이 新十玄門을 채택한 이유


한국정토학회 정토학연구 제8권 2005.12 pp.303-320

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

In the study of Hua-yan, the doctrine of Ten mysterious gates(shin shi-xuan-men) is important. Zhi-yen(智儼, 602~668), the second patriarch of the Hua-yan school suggests the old Ten mysterious gates(shin shi-xuan-men) while Fa-zang(法藏, 643~712) develops the new Ten mysterious gates(shin shi-xuan-men). In addition, Tu-shun(557~640), the founder of the Hua-yan school explains Ten mysterious gates in his book "The Meditation of Hua-yan Dharma-dhatu(法界觀門)". The difference between the new Ten mysterious gates and the old Ten mysterious gates is that the wei-xin-hui-zhuan-shan-cheng-men (唯心廻轉善成門) is deleted but Xhu-ban-yuan-ming-ju-de-men(主伴圓明具德門) is added. The reason for deleting the wei-xin-hui-zhuan-shan-cheng-men is understandable in two points. Firstly, Fa-zang criticizes the yogacara school. Secondly he clarifies eka-yana(一乘) in Hua-yan sutra in order Hua-yan scholars not fall into the doctrine of mind only. Cheng-guan(澄觀, 738~839), the fourth patriarch of the school, adopts the names and order of Ten mysterious gates of Fa-zang. Cheng-guan has a different view of the omission of the wei-xin-hui-zhuan-shan-cheng-men(唯心廻轉善成門). He holds that the doctrine of Ten mysterious gates is based on Mind only. He takes wei-xin-suo-xain-gu(唯心所現故) as the foremost basis for establishing Ten mysterious gates. This is influenced by his contemporary thought trend. His order of Ten mysterious gates shows that in terms of general and particular way, he considers mutual embracing, mutual contact, mutual penetration, no-limit, and so forth which results in the "Unhindered interpenetration of all phenomena dharma-dhāu(事事無礙法界)." Here he accepts wide inclusion and generals in the Meditation of Hua-yan Dharma-dhāu(法界觀門).



三學兼修와 禪敎融會의 漢巖思想


한국정토학회 정토학연구 제8권 2005.12 pp.321-345

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

Master Bahng Hanam Sunim has taken an unique position in modern times of Korean Buddhism. He was the First Chief Master Sunim of Cho-Gyeo sect in 1941. His doctrinal feature was different from that of the traditional Korean Buddhism. Master Bahng Hanam Sunim tried to keep guard around the sect group during his role of Chief Master Sunim of Cho-Gyeo sect Buddhism. That is, his activities pursued a protection of the Cho-Gyeo sect Buddhism spirit. We can find out his efforts in the Buddhist Monk's Five Principles and the Temple's Clear Rules stipulated by himself. The Buddhist Monk's Five Principles show his suggestion of the rules that Buddhist Monk should be obeyed. The Five Principles consist of the practice of Zen meditation, the silent reading of the sutras, the prayer to Buddha, the Buddhist ceremony, the protection of a Buddhist monastery. The Buddhist Monk's Five Principles were coherently emphasized toward the Buddhist Monks stayed around Odae mountain practice division which includes Woljung Temple, Sangwon Temple, and etc. Master Bahng Hanam Sunim emphasized those principles in order to protect the traditional Korean Buddhism from the invasion of the Japanese Buddhism during the period. And we can find out the uniqueness of Zen meditation practice in his suggestion of the Temple's Clear Rules, which were addressed in the meditation practicing room of Gunbong Temple. The Temple's Clear Rules show the detailed indications of Zen meditation practitioner's attitudes, rules, and etc. We can find out the special feature of his doctrinal aspect from his suggestion for the combined practices of Buddhist trivium and for the unification of Zen and Doctrine sect Buddhism. He emphasized the combined practices of Buddhist trivium, which consist of the practice of commandment, the practice of equanimity, and the practice of wisdom. And he made his efforts in unifying the Zen sect tradition of Buddhism and the Doctrine sect tradition of Buddhism. These special features of his doctrinal aspects were inherited from his Master Sunim, Kyung Heo who emphasized the combined practices of the equanimity and the wisdom. Furthermore, again, Master Bahng Hanam Sunim's doctrinal aspect were inherited from that of Mater Sunim, Bojo Jinul. Namely, Master Bahng Hanam Sunim's doctrinal aspect was the modern transformation of Mater Bojo Jinu Sunim's suggestion for the combined practices of the equanimity and the wisdom. This modern transformation was represented by the association center of the three mountain practice divisions. The association center was founded for the re-education of the main body of Buddhist monks who stayed in Woljung Temple, Youjum Temple, and Gunbong Temple. It was obviously shown the succession of Mater Bojo Jinul Sunim's suggestion for the combined practices of the equanimity and the wisdom in the purpose of that association center's education schedule. Thus, Master Bahng Hanam Sunim's doctrinal aspect represented by emphasizing the combined practice of Buddhist trivium and making efforts to unify Zen and Doctrine Sect Buddhism. Therefore, we can say that, it was the modern transformation of traditional Korean Buddhist doctrine which has been inherited from the doctrine of Mater Sunim, Kyung Heo and that of Mater Sunim, Bojo Jinul.





한국정토학회 정토학연구 제8권 2005.12 pp.347-360

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.


페이지 저장