정토학연구 [Journal of the Pure Land Buddhism]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
  • 발행기관
    한국정토학회 [The Korean Society of Pure Land Buddhism]
  • ISSN
  • 간기
  • 수록기간
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 불교학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 220.1 DDC 294
제5권 (13건)

정토학회 강동균 회장의 논문발표 모습 외


한국정토학회 정토학연구 제5권 2002.12 pp.5-6

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한국정토학회 정토학연구 제5권 2002.12 pp.7-8

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淨土信行 方法論


한국정토학회 정토학연구 제5권 2002.12 pp.9-33

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Buddhists understand that Sakyamuni Buddha, who entered parinirvana in the past, does not exist in the world, that Maitreya is not yet present, thus the Buddha who should lead people is not existent here. It means 'the age without Buddha,' and a bitter consciousness has been prevalent. It may mean that it requires the appearance of the saving Buddha who can replace the Buddha in the world. Regarding this, it is Damran's significant contribution that puts Amita Buddha in front who only concerns about saving people by his original wish so that the border of faith disappears and opens a new gate of faith. In the Pure Land text, it says "Although lay people is in defilements, they can be born in the pure land the karma of the three worlds does not follow; thus, without eliminating the defilements, one can attain nirvana." Likewise, the reason that the wisher can be born in a pure land while having defilements, and again attains non-retrogressive strength is that "If one wishes to be born in a pure land by believing the Buddha, he can do that depending the power of the Buddha. With the Buddha's power he enters the right practice of Mahayana. The right practice means reaching out the other land ." It makes the 18th and 11th vow of Amita Buddha realize an increasing karma, and by the 22th vow, one can already become a buddha. As above, Damran puts an emphasis on the three vows among those of 48, and develops a transferred practice which makes the other's power an increasing one; he definitely distinguishes it from one's own power of keeping the precepts, meditation, and extraordinary abilities. It is a final goal for the buddhists to be born in a pure land. In order to do that, one first of all should know what a pure land is secondly, how to be born there. When these are explained in a logical and reasonable way, the structure of the Pure Land faith may be expounded. The original vow of Amita Buddha is to save sentient beings, which is to develop the spirit of compassion among Sakyamuni Buddha's wisdom and compassion. However, it is not a true faith to chant for the purpose of being born in a pure land, not to mention praying for one's present wishes. A genuine religion is to seek one's change, the revolution of life. The vow to save people is vast, yet it requires the faithful mind and chanting. The faithful mind has also a variety of steps and seems different with a true belief. The faith and wish to acquire present benefit is commonplace today, and in many cases it is for selfish purpose. Even chanting sometimes exposes a self-centered desires to be born in a pure land only focusing on oneself. A true religions should make one's mind transformed and revolutionary.



經論과 淨土敎史에 나타난 念佛의 種類

이태원, 김재일

한국정토학회 정토학연구 제5권 2002.12 pp.35-74

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The kinds of chanting differ according to the name of the buddhas and bodhisattva. Sutras in the first stage mentioned 'Namo-buddha,' which comes from a ritual returning to Sakyamuni Buddha In Lotus Sutra of Mahayana Buddhism, there is a name-chanting, which refers to the specific 'Namo Sakyamuni Buddha' In Three partssutra of Pure Land, the faith of the chanting for Amita-Buddha appears. The sutra of Bhaisajyaguru-Buddha declares that by chanting Bhaisajyaguru-Buddha, one can attain present benefits. Thus, chanting with the names of the buddhas is various. Besides that, chanting of the bodhisattva appears in the chapter of 'Bomun' in Lotus Sutra, which defines the merit of chanting the name of 'Avalokitesvara' in Ksitigarbhas Sutra, the merit of chanting the name of Ksitigarbha is to attain present and future benefits. With these impact, there are many forms of faith in Korean temples, chanting of the names Navanjonja, Hwaumseonjung, Chilwonseongkun, Sanwangdaesin, Jowangdaesin, etc. Next, there are chanting of the Buddha's body, Dharma-body, Reality, and Ten-name also, chanting the Buddha's merit and objects includes chanting of name, observing the forms, observing the consciousness, and reality, and so forth. Regarding the numbers and time, there are chanting of designated day, six-time, members with the attitude of the practitioners, chanting of regret, keeping sila, disperse thought, and concentrated mind. To chant a name is called outloud chanting, and not to chant a name is silent chanting. When the sound of chanting the name is high, it is called high-sound chanting, if low, it becomes low-sound chanting.



稱名念佛에 대한 硏究

박화문, 원병관

한국정토학회 정토학연구 제5권 2002.12 pp.75-97

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Name-chanting is calling the names of the Buddha and bodhisattvas outloud. In the Pureland sect., chanting means the name-chanting, the right karma which enables one to be born in the pure land. It is the infuluence of Mater Sundo that makes the name-chanting the right karma. Therefore, this study is to examine the specific meaning of the name-chanting by reviewing how Master Sundo interpreted chanting, especially in [Intreptrtation of Sukha vativyuha] and [Th prasis for good birth]. The main contents from the study are as follows First, the name-chanting is for the final age of the dharma, deeply recognizing all of the wrongdoing easy to make in common life of the birth and death, and the belief of saving humans by developing one's Buddha nature with the power of original vow of "Amita Buddha." Second, the name-chanting, which is illuminated by the 18th origianl vow of the Amita Buddha in [Sukha vativyuha], is declared as the only right karma to acquire being born in the pure land. Third, the name-chanting is the practice for lay people, with its easiness to conduct and ultimateness to be compared with other method of practice. Fourth, it is the belief that gives the hope even for the blunders with five severe sins, which offers them the chance to be born in the pure land only by ten chanting 'Return to the Amita Buddha' with sincere mind. Last, the name-chanting is the firm belief that all the common people are able to develop their own Buddha nature by the right practice of calm mind and raising practice and conducting work with name-chanting.



念佛禪의 修行方法

한보광, 최법혜

한국정토학회 정토학연구 제5권 2002.12 pp.99-130

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This study deals with the fundamental subject of what the 'chanting seon' is, the definition and different kinds of it, and specific method for practice. First, Master Sungae's Seon sect. of South mountain chanting appears in the documents. His method valued the existing image, so in order to be absorbed into it, the method for reaching the previous 5th consciousness, 6th consciousness, 7th consciousness, and 8th consciousness. Those method may be categorized as an observing chanting. Yet before Master Sungae, the original form was found in the Baekryun association by Master Nosanhaewon. He started the association depending on the Banjusammae kyung. His method for chanting is considered as mainly Banjusammae or observing chanting. The method for observing chanting includes observing the shape, thought and image chanting, which embraces all method except name-chanting. The reason that chanting and Seon practice are the one is that both share similarities in their method. Besides that, there is a practice method of both Seon and Pure land, practicing Seon and chanting together. It is not necessary for even a Seon practitioner to exclude religious chanting. It was Master Yougmyongyeunsu who declared it, who insisted that practicing both Seon and Pure land is the most ideal method for practice. Conducting both, or exclusively Seon meditation, or chanting alone is the case. While the chanting method above is similar to the observing chanting, koan chanting is as same as inquiring a koan in the Hwadu Seon. It is understandable because chanting meditation is a kind of master seon. The practice of chanting may be cogent as a new method for practice it could be a fresh alternative which overcomes the limit of Seon only valuing enlightenment and forgetting social engagement or religiousness, and that of chanting easy to go into mysticism.



『法華經』方便思想에 나타난 해석학적 관점


한국정토학회 정토학연구 제5권 2002.12 pp.131-164

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Throughout its long history Buddhism discovered several unique hermeneutical methods in order to interpret the dharma within the different cultural environments. Among these methods the idea of upāa is the most unique one. Upāa is most commonly understood as a sort of expedient method invented for the purpose of teaching people of low capability. However, Upāa is not merely a simple technique of teaching or a type of magic performed by the Buddhas it is rather the hermeneutic foundation for the interpretation of the dharma from a comprehensive perspective. Paradoxically, although it is considered to be the truth, it is also utilized in order to interpret the truth, which cannot be explained in its ultimate sense through language. The meaning of upāa as such in the Lotus Sūtra is based on the metaphysical assumption of the transcendence of the truth. Again, this metaphysical assumption represents the fundamental ontological basis for the entire content of Mahāāa Buddhist thought, which promises universal salvation for all sentient beings. The spirit of upāa in the Lotus Sūtra serves to free human reason from dogmatism. Upāa is not an absolute truth but represents provisional and partial truths which are designed for specific people in specific circumstances. Therefore, a upāa in one circumstance may not be the truth when preached for someone else in different circumstances. The Lotus Sūtra posits that language cannot be a mechanical carrier of the truth. Since the truth is absolute truth, it cannot be reflected through any particular words. While the truth possesses numerous faces and incorporates the contradictions of diverse phenomena, language interprets it through a reflection of the perspective of an individual self. Thus, the one truth can be revealed in numerous ways, complying to the various natures of an individual. The Buddha preached in different languages, as languages differ depending on people's cultural traditions. People understand differently not only due to their different cultural heritages but more likely due to their varying natures. Thus, the Buddha must have preached in various languages not only because his listeners lived in different countries, different cultures, different times, and on different intellectual levels, as has been explained in Early Buddhism, but also because they possessed different personalities: thoughts, desires, natures, and deeds.



三階敎와 지장신앙


한국정토학회 정토학연구 제5권 2002.12 pp.165-189

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Since its opening, teaching of Three steps is good at practice depending on the view of a final age which proclaims to acquire evil sentient beings in the disordered and wicked age by relating Ksitigarbha ten-wheel sutra ( Ten-wheel sutra below) to the thought of Tathagata-garbha and developing universal buddha and dharma. It was a milestone in the history of Three steps saying 'Three steps and Ten-wheel sutra have had a favorable karma since its opening,' and 'Master Bang is a teacher of Three steps . First, this paper intents to explain why Three steps quoted Ten-wheel sutra so much( It is quoted over 100 in four {Three worlds dharma} ) It is considered that the meaning of Shinbang's saying 'Ten wheel sutra is a teaching of the final age in this land,' and 'In the disordered and wicked age without buddha, sentient beings are acquired, and the original vow makes evil sentient beings liberated,' are the same as the purport of Three steps. That is, Shinbang's saying 'The Ten wheel sutra is a teaching of this world in an final age,' and Ten-wheel sutra, the teaching which supports the people living in the final dharma age, and the fundamental spirit,of Three steps which 'acquires even evil sentient beings' share same root of thought. Among three Ksitigarbha sutra, with Ten-wheel sutra and Prediction sutra, this paper examined how Ksitigarbha faith, which was spread into various sect. together with flourishing of the final age dharma, was related to Three steps. Unlike other sects. in which nobody refereed to, it is the characteristic of Three steps which developed Ksitigarbha sutra into its official sutra. As above, the process of Ksitigarbha faith raised a practical method for practice; it had been certainly affected by Ten-wheel sutra and Prediction sutra. Thus, along with the thought of Tathagata-garbha and Ksitigarbha faith, the spirit of Mahayana Buddhism concerning people had made a social impact in northeast Asia, which is shown in culture and art.



唯識學의 阿賴耶識種子說 - 成唯識論을 중심으로 -


한국정토학회 정토학연구 제5권 2002.12 pp.191-224

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Humans are different in many ways such as their physical conditions, personality, and intellectual abilities. What makes these diversities exist? In Buddhism, especially vijnapti-matrata, an answer to this subject comes from Bija(seed) theory. A seed is the one into which mental and physical behaviors are planted in Alayavijnana with the from of habituated memory. All of present experiences are, without exception, learned and habituated, resulting in seed. Then, the seed makes effects on one's future thoughts and behaviors in direct or indirect ways; with its functioning as a potential power which determines what one will be like in the future, ones's all thoughts and behaviors, under the impact of previously accumulated experiences, remains in the limit of learning and habit of the past. Therefore, a seed is a trace of the past experiences as well as a power to make results in the future. It connects the past, present, and future, relating the karmic power of the past to the future.



징관의 전기 및 화엄학계


한국정토학회 정토학연구 제5권 2002.12 pp.225-258

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The object of this study is to examine the life and circumstances surrounding the Fourth Patriarch of the Hua-yen School(華嚴宗), Cheng-guan(澄觀, 738~839), who played an active role in the Buddhism of the mid Tang Dynasty. Therefore this paper will examine his biography, the formation of his thought, and how the society of the day, together with his scholarly linage, influenced him. First, I would like to examine the reasons that Cheng-guan visited the Wutai Mountains in Shanxi Province. It appears that he went there to develop his spiritual practice and to write the Hua-yen-jing-shu(華嚴經疏) and the Yen-yi-shu(演義鈔). This is according to the biography of Cheng-guan, the Miao jue ta ji(妙覺塔記), which was written by Pei xiu(裴休, 787~860?) on the orders of the emperor following the death of Cheng-guan. According to this record, Cheng-guan went to the Wutai Mountains because he wanted to understand a phrase in the Zhu pu sa zhu xu chapter (諸菩薩住處品) of the Hua-yen Sutra that said, "The Bodhisattva Manjusri can be seen among the five peaks." He said about his journey, "When faith is present, even a journey of a thousand miles isn't long." He also said that the reason he wrote Hua-yen-jing-shu and Yen-yi-shu was because he felt called to correct the errors of the great Hua-yen propagator Fa-zang(法藏). Second, during Cheng-guan's(澄觀) life, Chinese society had been thrown into chaos by disasters and events such as the An-Shi revolt. It was a time when the established order was changing rapidly; the new Zen school was growing dramatically and the Tian Tai(天台宗) school was experiencing a revival. The emperor's household favored these two schools in particular. Further, it was a time of competition between the three major religions of China: Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism. Cheng-guan became the Fourth Patriarch of the Hua-yen School and in his Hua-yen thought was the successor of the great Hua-yen propagator Fa-zang(法藏). Cheng-guan was Fa-zang's direct descendant and although he criticized parts of Hui-yuan's(慧苑) thought, Cheng-guan also accepted other parts. However, later generations removed Hui-yuan from the Hua-yen linage. Not only did Cheng-guan accept areas of Hui-yuan's thought, but it was Hui-yuan's disciple Fa-xian(法銑) who taught Hua-yen thought to Cheng-guan. It was through his practice at Wutai(五台) Mountains that Cheng-guan directly penetrated the meaning of the Hua-yen Sutra and inherited the Hua-yen lineage; and although it is said that Li tong xuan(李通玄) formed Hua-yen thought by himself, it is clear that he was influenced by the thought of Cheng-guan.



『선문염송』의 편찬에 관한 연구


한국정토학회 정토학연구 제5권 2002.12 pp.259-292

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This thesis studies about the compilation of The Seon Mun Yeom Song(禪門拈頌) which is a basis for the Korean Buddhism during The Military Regime. The Seon Mun Yeom Song(禪門拈頌) contains the thought and view of literature of Hye Sim(慧諶, 1178-1234) who was a disciple of Chinul(知訥, 1158-1210) and expanded and deepened the idea of his master. The Seon Mun Yeom Song(禪門拈頌) led so many disciples to the state of an excellent dharma by the symbolic language of Yeom(拈) and Song(頌). I studied about publications of seon books which was based on The Seon Mun Yeom Song(禪門拈頌) and about how The Seon Mun Yeom Song(禪門拈頌) has been used for seon disciples, how it has influenced them, what kinds of processes seon thought has been formed. The Seon Mun Yeom Song(禪門拈頌) was published with 30 volumes, 1125 cases in 1226, Hye sim(慧諶) asked Gak Yun(覺雲) to write stories. But a war between Mongolia and korean caused The Seon Mun Yeom Song(禪門拈頌) to disapper, therefore, The Seon Mun Yeom Song(禪門拈頌) was re-make with adding 347 cases. However, The Seon Mun Yeom Song Shul Hua Hui Ben(禪門拈頌說話會本) was published with 1463 cases, so many people doubt where other 9 cases are. In 1243, With The Man Zong(萬宗)'s economic supports, reprinted Yeom Song Jip(拈頌集) was included in Tripitaka Korean. The Seon Mun Yeom Song(禪門拈頌) was analyzed as consistency in its formation and characteristic. ① The Seon Mun Yeom Song(禪門拈頌) is consisted of the system of three treasures of buddha, dharma, and sangha. ② In the system of treasures of dharma, the sutra is related to the sutra of seon sect. ③ In the system of treasures of sangha, patriarches from Xi Tian (西天) and Xi Tian(西天)'s enlightened saint with no relation to Zhuan deng(傳燈) appear. ④ The Seon Mun Yeom Song(禪門拈頌) considers Yeom(拈) and Song(頌), contents of questions and answers more important than Zhuan deng Si Shu(傳燈史書)



十境에 대한 十乘觀法의 적용 구조


한국정토학회 정토학연구 제5권 2002.12 pp.293-324

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Tien-tai Chih-i(天台智顗 538-597) had tried organization for buddhist practice through his lifetime. Before he entered into Tien-tai Mount(天台山), he missioned buddhism in Waguansi Temple(瓦官寺) in Jinling(金陵), and there he had systemized Seon practice, Cidichanmen(次第禪門), in translated Chinese Sutras. But because he was aware of a boundary to himself to teach Seon practice to his followers, he entered to Tien-tai Mount(天台山), and there he represented deeper buddhist experience for 10years at there. After he entered the Tien-tai Mount, he renewed buddhist practices called Tien tai śmatha-vipaśanā(天台止觀). He assorted the śmatha-vipaśanāinto a Gradual śmatha-vipaśanā, Uncertainty Chih kuan, Perfection śmatha-vipaśanāas an outward form in how to practice. And he rebuilt the unique śmatha-vipaśanāPractice through the setting Four Forms of Samāhi System that is made up by Chih-i and he developed to the detail practice. The Great śmatha-vipaśanā(摩訶止觀), preached before three years, represent mature teaching systems in his lifetime. The Great śmatha-vipaśanāpossess a precise śmatha-vipaśanāpractice system in The Ten Yana Contemplation(十乘觀法) and The Ten States(十境). And it explains śmatha-vipaśanāpractice that is assorted with Five Abstract and Ten Extension(五略十廣) and The Ten Yana Contemplation(十乘觀法) and Ten States(十境) is explained in detail in the seventh Correct Contemplation. The Great śmatha-vipaśanāexplains Ten States in detail that is able to appear to an ascetic. And The Ten Yana Contemplation(十乘觀法) describs a number of 3000, a theory of three thousand in one mind, through the contemplation a mysterious things(不思議). The system of The Ten Yana Contemplation(十乘觀法) represents a precise contemplation which remove the passions for trainners to have right perception. And The Ten Yana Contemplation(十乘觀法) contemplate the contemplation a mysterious things(不思議) and erect the mercy heart, erect the skillful śmatha-vipaśanā, and continued a part of the break passions. In method of contemplation, though all states are broken with a system of assistance, a trainner just enters first step in bodhisattva's ten grade.





한국정토학회 정토학연구 제5권 2002.12 pp.325-339

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