정토학연구 [Journal of the Pure Land Buddhism]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
  • 발행기관
    한국정토학회 [The Korean Society of Pure Land Buddhism]
  • ISSN
  • 간기
  • 수록기간
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 불교학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 220.1 DDC 294
제6권 (14건)

한국정토학회 세미나 모습들


한국정토학회 정토학연구 제6권 2003.12 pp.5-6

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한국정토학회 정토학연구 제6권 2003.12 pp.7-8

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淨土信仰에 있어서 儀禮․儀式의 意義


한국정토학회 정토학연구 제6권 2003.12 pp.9-22

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The ceremony and ritual in religion is formalization of praise and hope for something having power beyond cognition or the sacred, and trying to escape from horror of awe. In ancient times, the sacred and great power was a phenomena of the nature, which was most rough and aggressive. The religious rituals began at the time when primitive hunting period almost ended, considered to pray for satisfactory animal hunting and human safety. The religious ceremony and ritual developed in various ways as human wisdom made progress. The religious form changed from primitive worship for nature, animism, ancestor worship, shamanism into modern diverse faith as Buddhism. Today the ceremony and ritual in Korean Buddhism is based on the Pure land and esoteric Buddhism. Adding faith of Hwaum and Buphwa, it was mixed with mountain worship as Korean traditional faith, and taoism such as Chilsung faith. Buddhist ritual begins with admiration of the Buddha and confession for oneself. It is that is formalization of it. All Buddhist ceremony and ritual is included in it. It is easy to understand seeing the example of buddha worship which is being done morning and evening. Present Korean Buddhist worship follows the model of Jogye Order, yet it succeeded to the Seon sect, and becomes simple. Being simple, shamanism, faith of nature, and mountain faith which are included by people. Even in India and China, at the early ages, faith related with mysticism could not be denied. It was in China where the ceremony and ritual were formalized. The ceremony and ritual in Pure land proceed with consistent admiration and confession. The most clearly essential of it is citing yeumbul-Namo Amita Buddha. Through Namo Amita Buddha, daily living is done by admiration of Amita Buddha, and reflection of oneself who needs confession. Amita Buddha expresses her compassion for sentient beings by promise of salvation all beings full of karma and daily living can be happy due to that promise. As such, people can be a practitioner of yeumbul, and basic mission of religion for creating human future can be achieved.



『禪苑淸規』에 나타난 淨土儀式

최법혜, 이범홍

한국정토학회 정토학연구 제6권 2003.12 pp.23-62

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Ten books of Seonwoncheunggyu, written by Jagakjongsaek of wunmujong in Chinese North Song, is the oldest book of precept which succeeded to Bai-chang Huai-hai(720~814)'s GoCheunggyu lost in between the end of Dang and Five Countries. Seonwoncheunggyu broadly consists of precepts, meditation, and Pure land so that it has been known as the most standard book of precept by which Seon practitioners should follow. It was that the precepts of Seon Sect which represents self-faith accompanied with the rituals of Pure Land following salvation by faith. The rituals in Seonwoncheunggyu can be found in the yearly large and small size of the activities of Comprehensive training monastery, console for the sick monks, and funerals for the dead monks. The most important among them was the dharma talk by an eminent monk and mantra recited by all the people. In particular, mantra was done as ten mantra which is for reciting the three treasures of Buddha, dharma, and sangha. Next, during console for the sick monks, and funerals for the dead monks, there was a pray for blessing and the dedication of merit with ten reciting of Amita Buddha and praying for being born in the Pure land, as well as ten mantra. Such rituals of funerals has much influenced the late Seon sect. Jongsaek's books present many contents of combining Seon and Pure land however, there is no esoteric mantra of great compassion, Shurangama mantra or for being reborn the rituals in the rituals in Seonwoncheunggyu, as appeared in the late other books of precepts. It unites Seon and Pure land only for a way to the liberation.



淨土諸師의 禮懺에 대한 小考

이태원, 김용환

한국정토학회 정토학연구 제6권 2003.12 pp.63-127

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Nāgārjuna, who completed the thought of Mahayana, pays respect for all Buddhas Damran recognized only Amita Buddha and the people of Pure land Seondo first vows Sakyamuni Buddha an three treasures, then focusing Amita Buddha, clearly designating sixth time a day. The next vow is done with reciting the names of Bodhisattvas of Pure land. All the vow is based on penitence. the characteristic of which comes from the recognition of the evil of world, people, view, and passion, and no good people. Modern Jawun who was under influence of modern Buddhist thought, vowed the three treasure existing all universe, with focus on Amita Buddha. What made him special is that he also mentioned 25 Bodhisattvas of Pure land, who did not appear on Damran or Seondo, and Manjusri, Maitreya, and those who were in existence such as Nāgārjuna, Acvaghosha, and Cheonchin, and Sakyamuni's disciples like Kasyapa, Ananda and Sariputa. He was different with other Pure land Masters like Damran or Seondo and Dojak, in that his thoght includes moving the dead into Pure land by Samsigaeyumbulsa, and that he conducted esoteric mantra.



淨土禮佛文에 관한 연구

한보광, 곽만연

한국정토학회 정토학연구 제6권 2003.12 pp.129-163

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This paper is to examine the contents of Pure land worship in the worship literature by which Korean temples conduct daily worship service. First, Hyangsuharye was much done Between late Choseon and beginning of the modern time; Obunhyangrye can be the origin of Chiljeongrye which practices today. Present Chiljeongrye was edited after 1955, worshiping the three treasures of Buddha, dharma, and sangha in harmony; it seems to be comparatively well presenting the utmost teaching of Jogye Order representing Seon sect. Regarding some insufficient parts, each temples conduct with addition and subtraction. Hyangrye was edited by master Bak, yongseung, is precious in that it is the first worship literature written in Korean. One of the worship literature in Pure land is Saseungje; it is for Amita Buddha, Avalokitesvara, Mahasthama-Prapta, and Cheungjungdaehae in Pure land, and it also seems to have been done in the beginning stage of yeumbul. It has been regarded important as a worship literature in Pure land since ten mantra is necessarily done for each buddha and bodhisattva. However, it is regretful that it is not done today. Next, Kekrakjeon worship literature is for the special hall, Kekrakjeon in the Comprehensive training monastery or other Big temples. Lately discovered Master Uisang's Tusarye encompasses all buddha and bodhisattva, but is near to a worship literature in Pure land since there is pray for being reborn in Pure land at the later part. There is a trace using “All the Buddhas in the three world Amita …” which is mainly used in the Pure land yeumbul. Yet according to each article, some differences appear so that they are compared and analyzed. Finally, Jawun, who widely spreads Pure land yeumbul lately, conducted Pure land rituals for worship which was based on the Jiui's four theories of Pure land.



喪葬禮에 나타난 往生彌陀淨土행법 - 한국 所傳行法의 형태적 측면을 중심으로 -

문정각, 김재일

한국정토학회 정토학연구 제6권 2003.12 pp.165-211

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Sentient beings in this SahāWorld generally have polluted, scattered by suffering, fear and dread. That's why the beings who aspire to be born the Pure Land, where free from the cycle of suffering, fear and dread. The term Sukhāatīrefers etymologically 'the place of pleasure'. Generally speaking, it is the usage for the Buddha Amitāha presiding over Pure Land is designated as Western Paradise. Here, the word Amita is derived from the beverage of immortality, i.e., Soma. Hence it is that the term Amita in the sense of infinite life and deathless, then the word Mara can be used the opposite sense of death. At the time of death, people can be utilize two different junctions for life. One gate that he enters once again the state of the cyclical life. Whereas by following another junction, he may able to enter the realm of Sukhāatīin which beings are to be free from all Samsaric sufferings as it explained in thought of Western Pure Land or the Amitāha faith. The present author has studying about the Buddhist way of funeral rites which includes the ceremony for rebirth in Sukhāatīof Amitāha Buddha which includes in the 'Transmitted Korean Traditional Ritual'. In the 'Ceremony for Rebirth in Amitāha's Pure Land', I found the following lines. Deathbed ceremony is regarding to the Amitāur-dhyāa-Sūtra and ritual norm of 'Ceremony for' A twelve-fascicle commentary on Shabun-ryul' by Dosen and 'Explaination for a Rebith in Sukhavati through Right Awarness' by Seondo. By the bases of those texts 'Yebulyangsaengmun'(禮念往生文) in 'Yimjongibnyembulsig'( 爲臨終人念佛式) stands to attain its establishment in the period of Joson Dynasty, The funeral rites which is known 'Sitarim' has performed in relation to the five Buddhas - the four Buddhas in the four directions and Mahavirocana, who occupies the central position -with the five directions by paying homage. There was practice for death man in term of reciting sutra, invoking twelve different names of the Buddha Amitāha. In case of 'the traditional Buddhist way of funeral rites'(茶毘儀禮) 'Dubukmyunsu'(頭北面西), ceremony for the five directions of Buddhas, Amitāha' twelve name and ten recooection popularly have been taught and practiced. The use of attending Amitāha in 'wonbulyeun'(願佛輦) and 'Inrowangbun'(引露王幡) at the funeral rites of 'dabi'(茶毘) underlay the thought of 'Amitāha holy company will manifest themselves in front of the deathbed'(臨終來迎). Moreover, the invoking Amitāha by means of chanting, teachings regarding how to make offerings as well as the verse of rebirth in the Pure Land, verses used to sing the praise of the Buddha and the thought of immediate rebirth in the Pure Land can be found in our contemporary in Korean Buddhist ceremonies.



김탄허의 교육과 그 성격


한국정토학회 정토학연구 제6권 2003.12 pp.213-243

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This paper summarizes Kim, Tanhur's activities of education and its characteristics. The main point is to analyze the contents of Kim, Tanhur's Sambonsayunhap monk center, monasteries in Odaesan and Youngeunsa. Yet considering the weight that the center and monastery have in Kim's life, the characteristic in this paper can be general for Kim's education. Main points are as follows. First, Kim, Tanhur's education succeeded to the spirit and Buddhist thought of Bang, Hanam in a micro point of view. It comes from Sambonsayunhap monk center which was established during the Japanese ruling. The direction which practice both meditation and sutra also follows Bang, Hanam's tradition. So does his emphasis oftemple management and labors. Second, Kim, Tanhur's balance between meditation and sutra, and success of Bang, Hanam signifies recreation of Jinul's compact of samadhi and prajna. This is presented that the doctrine of the Odaesan monastery was practice of samadhi and prajna. That is, it means the present transference of the compact of samadhi and prajna. Third, Kim, Tanhur's education put an emphasis on balance between meditation and sutra. Adding the importance of precept in the Odaesan monastery, it becomes balance of the three, precept, samadhi and prajna. Fourth, Kim's balance accompanies making progress of monks' qualification during the purification period under Japanese ruling. It was that Kim took charge of the education of monks, which was supposed to be taken by the Buddhist order those days. Fifth, it was Hwaum sutra which was regarded most important in Kim, Tanhur's education. Although he read and taught various sutras in the monasteries, he regarded Hwaum sutra as significant; It was realized in the monasteries, and his relation with Hwaum sutra lasts for his whole life. Sixth, Kim, Tanhur's education made Hwaum sutra basis, but his thought comes from the east studies. It is because his thought is said the mixture or total of confucianism, buddhism and seon. Seventh, Kim, Tanhur's education exposed elite consciousness. What was consistent in the center and monastery was elitism. Eighth, Kim, Tanhur's education was characterized by its openness. He was confident in that he gave education priority rather than emphasis on precepts. Above are the summaries of characteristics of Kim, Tanhur's education. However, analysis and interpretation needs more various approaches.



불교의 생명윤리사상 연구 - 뇌사와 장기이식을 중심으로 -


한국정토학회 정토학연구 제6권 2003.12 pp.245-315

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Today, as a result of medical technology, views on death have changed. Conventionally when the breathing and the beating of ones heart stop, it was considered as dead. Once such essential functions stop, immediate breakdowns in all other organic systems follow. This meant when one came close to death, it was appeared as a complete death of that individuals entire body to the observers. Within the current few decades, this kind of common view has been challenged by the development of machines to artificially maintain body organs. Use of such machines put an end to the breakdown of both breathing and heart beating at the same time. This kind of situation is commonly found in the cases of almost every patients receiving concentrated medical treatment. These patients are getting artificial pressure from various mechanical devices. A complete breakdown of the entire body organs is the basis of the conventional view on death. But if it doesnt involve all the organs of the body, the question is that functioning of which organ plays the main role in deciding the time of death. In problems regarding brain death, Buddhist beliefs also show accordance with the brain death and this can be illuminated through various concepts in Buddhist beliefs. For instance, human philosophy in Buddhism related to the concept of selflessness no doubt supports the idea of organ transplant. Confucian idea of human body have dominated the root of Koreans minds and values for a long time and many positive elements can be found in their own way however they, can also be seen as hazards particularly regarding brain death and problems associated with organ transplant. To overcome various existing elements of hazards at a principle level, an introduction of new values were suggested. The idea of mercy in the Buddhists ethic was presented for that. The fundamental mind of Buddhism lies in the thought of removing pain. Illness is perhaps the most painful of all. Therefore, in this paper the organ transplant will be seen as a positive solution to remove illnesses at a fundamental level.



대승장엄경론(Mahāyānasūtrālaṃkāra)의 삼성설 연구


한국정토학회 정토학연구 제6권 2003.12 pp.317-360

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Ālaya-vijnāa and tri-svabhāa is holding out the base theory in vijnāti-māra-vāin. This study looks into tri-svabhāa of two theories. Especially, this study focuses on 38․39․40․41 verse which discusses systematically tri-svabhāa in the 11th chapter dharmaparyeṣṭ-adhikāa of Mahāāasūrāaṃāa, early vijnapti-matra-vadin book. tri-svabhāa of Mahāāasūrāaṃāa(1) only deals with 38․39verse that treat something to be imagined(parikalpita-svabhāa). This part exams tri-svabhāa centering around comentary of Mahāāasūrāaṃāa, (Sthiramati) and Asvabhāa with 40․41verse which explain something to depending others (parikalpita-svabhāa) and something to be completed (parinispanna-svabhāa). The present writer is specially interested in bringing forth philological basis through the correction of basic text and comments so, the writer didn't concentrate his energy on abstraction study.



『法華宗要』에 나타난 元曉의『法華經』이해


한국정토학회 정토학연구 제6권 2003.12 pp.361-380

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Pŏphwa chongyo is Wŏhyo's only extant work among his writings on the Lotus Sutra. This book reflects well those issues raised by the traditional East Asian scholars who wrote commentary works on the Lotus Sutra. The East Asian scholars mainly focused on the two topics: understanding of the idea of upāya in the logic of turning the three into the one, and evaluation of the Lotus Sutra from the perspective of the universality of emancipation in Mahayana Buddhism. With regard to the first one, Wŏhyo believed that the core idea of upāya lies on the assumption that all the doctrines, including voice hearer vehicle, self enlightened vehicle, and bodhisattva vehicle, are non other than the ultimate truth. He also considered the Lotus Sutra as the preface which put all the sutras with various doctrines in one sutra with the logic of turning the three into the one. As it were, Wŏhyo thought that the Lotus Sutra provides a perspective through which the readers understand all the sutras in unity. Wŏhyo's all-comprehensive interpretation of Buddhism seems to be the outcome of his understanding of the Lotus Sutra as such. The traditional East Asian scholars disputed over the issue of how many vehicles are supposed in the Lotus Stura there three or four vehicles. Unlike these scholars, Wŏhyo conceded that the Lotus Sutra itself allows the both suppositions, and matched each of them with the extra vehicle theory and integrated vehicle theory respectively. This is a typical example of his all-comprehensive interpretation of Buddhism. With regard to the second, Wŏhyo provided a well-established theoretical structure for single vehicle, by incorporating the lately developed concepts, such as Buddha nature, dharma, Buddha-kāya, and tathāgata-garbha, into the idea of universality of emancipation, which supports the logic of turning the three into the one. According to Wŏhyo, single vehicle is not a mere doctrine but the universal principle of the world. Single vehicle implies the unity of the world. Other scholars also utilized the concepts of Buddha nature, dharma, and Buddha-kāya in interpreting of the Lotus Sutra. However, the use of the word tathāgata-garbha is Wŏhyo's unique idea. Since tathāgata-garbha has the two aspects, the truth itself and the arising and ceasing, it acknowledges different capabilities of sentient beings as well as the universality of emancipation.



火葬의 역사, 화장로 시설관리 실태분석 및 방향


한국정토학회 정토학연구 제6권 2003.12 pp.381-414

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This paper is intended to examine the management of crematoriums especially focused on metropolitan area and to suggest the way of the improvement. Long traditional burial custom has been decreased in recent years since 1998. By contrast, the number of cremation is rapidly increasing due to the limited land, the easier way of care and the cheaper cost fee of funeral compared to burial custom. For example, the ratio of cremation to death in seoul exceeded 57.1% in 2002. Also this trend in funeral sector is getting supported by funeral culture improvement campaigns initiated by various citizen groups, nuclear family system and so on. Although the demands for cremation sharply increase, the facilities and services which supplied at crematoriums are still sticking to past. Because everything is changed very rapidly in a very short time, the culture for cremation hasn't made yet. Thus, it is very difficult to figure out the dignity, respect and consideration for the deceased people and their bereaved. Under this circumstance, this study is firstly aimed at analyzing the management and facilities of crematorium as a director working at seoul city crematory. Secondly, it is purposed to suggest the useful data that examined the whole part of cremation never studied before to promote the more creative and specific work in this field. Thirdly, this is to propose the standard of the order and service supplying at the crematoriums.



日本近世末期의 葬法과 墓制에 관한 硏究


한국정토학회 정토학연구 제6권 2003.12 pp.415-440

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Historical changes of Japanese graveyards are dealt with in this study, with focuses brought into some major turning points throughout the history. Amid an influx of Japanese culture in various fields today, this study lays weight on exploring the method of treating mortal bodies during the Japanese ‘EDO(江戶)’ era which has been thought to have a relatively advanced burial system. Such a study, I am sure, will definitely help contribute to correct orientation of Korea's burial policy in more desirable manner. Under the section “A Study on the burial methord and the grave system of the last stage of Morden ages, the cloing days of the ‘EDO’ era”, features of burial system and method in the cloing days of the ‘EDO’ era, emergence of ‘SOSIKI(葬式)’ Buddhism and ‘DANKA(檀家)’ system, and details of RYOBOSAI(兩墓制) and SOBOSAI(總墓制) are reviewed. From the review, it was found that interment, a way of burial in soil, was the main method employed during the era under the influence by Confucianism as state religion in place of Buddhism which was prevailed in the near modern pre-EDO era. It must be noted, however, that Japanese unique burial system such as RYOBOSAI and SOBOSAI started to take forms when ‘SOSIKI’ Buddhism and ‘DANKA’ system were instituted in spite of the widely practiced tendency of burial after cremation. It is anticipated in the future that, not only in Japan but also in Korea, so-called ‘natural method of burial’ or ‘ash scattering’ will be adopted as official policy for reason of its environment-friendliness for the visitors who come to graves. It is, thus, advised for Japanese government agencies to reorganize various concerned systems in a try to induce bereaved family members to visit graveyards without hesitation. The policies in this regard may include immediate disposition of neglected graves, development of new types of graves and new strategies for grave management etc.





한국정토학회 정토학연구 제6권 2003.12 pp.441-455

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