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Even though the purpose of the Pure Land Buddhism is to preach the rebirth in the Pure Land, we need to notice that the Pure Land Buddhism particularly depicts the grandeur of the Pure Land, the beautiful scenery of the Pure Land, to lead unawakened sentient beings to the Paradise.
In the Pure Land, are there sevenfold corals, sevenfold rails and nets, sevenfold roadside trees, and the Land is decorated with four gems. In addition, there is a pond with seven precious gems, and the water with eight merits is flowing there. In the pond, lotus flowers are in blossom, blue lotus flowers give out blue light, yellow lotus flowers emit yellow light. Moreover, heavenly music keep on being played without stopping, so many birds including white cranes, peacocks, and kalavinka etc. are singing in beautiful voices day and night, and their voices become the very ones
which deliver Buddha's Teachings. Hearing these voices, all sentient beings come to think of the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha. When the breeze blows, branches of trees decorated with four jewels sway in the wind and make various sounds and the harmony of different sounds sound like a beautiful orchestra. From the above mentioned passage, it seems that the Pure Land is not the ethical world but the sensuous world. Hence, the sense of beauty which the Pure Land belief owns is regarded as a significant issue. In other words, the Pure Land thought comes to stir up a strong sense of beauty in the heart of people and let them make a great contribution to art development. Event if I compared Heart Sutra with Jeongto Sutra, according to a Chinese-translated Sutra, we are often confused because the Pure Land is mentioned in the Heart Sutra as well as in the Jeongto Sutra. However, it should be noticed that while Jeongto(淨土 the Pure Land) of Heart Sutra is the abbreviation of Jeongbulgukto(淨佛國土 the Pure Buddha Land), that (淨土) of Jeongto Sutra means the abbreviation of Geukrakjeongto(極樂淨土 the Land of Supreme Happiness).
That's why we apt to understand these two Jeongto as the same in view of the abbreviation of both of them, but in Sanskrit, both of them are really understood as a different concept respectively. We can identify the fact in that both of them have a different etymology: while Jeongbulgukto(淨佛國土) in the Heart Sutra is parisubuddi, Geukrakjeongto(極樂淨土) in the Jeongto Sutra is sukhavati.
When we compare the thought of Heart Sutra with the characteristic of Amitabha belief, we can find that such a different etymology of the above two Sutras results in the fact
that while Heart Sutra thinks much of the Dharma, Jeongto Sutra thinks highly of belief, the Buddha. In particular, in the structure of these two sutras, the Heart Sutra stresses the process of establishing the pure Buddha Land, and centering around great Boddhisattvas, Boddhisattva's cultivation effort is emphasized as well, but the figure of the Pure Land made by Boddhisattva's cultivation merit doesn't attract people's attention. On the other hand, while Amitayur Sutra explains roughly that Bopjang Boddhisattva's process of constructing the Pure Land already existed, it also mentions the sublimity(beauty ) of the Pure Land concretely which was established by Bopjang's vow and practice. The fact sheds a light on that all sentient beings are saved by Amitabha Buddha. Such a Paradise or the Land of Supreme Bliss attracts our attention because it is actually depicted as the supreme of beauty. That is to say, the feature of the Land of Supreme Bliss does much for saving sentient beings by arousing our deep sense of beauty. To be short, the characteristic of Amitabha-Jeongto Sect lies in making the opportunity to develop a variety of Buddhist art.
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This paper is to investigate the relation between the thought of pure land and the formation of the grammar of Korean poetry. It does not intend to assert that all the Korean way of thinking has come from the thought of pure land, and that the grammar of Korean poetry has only made out of the thought of pure land. This study is to review what kind of organic relations do exist between the Korean way of thinking and the thought of pure land, and the grammar of Korean poetry and the thought of pure land. Hence, some of the subjects which are explored in the paper are as follows.
First, the Korean thought of pure land, from its beginning, seems to relate to the Korean way of thinking and the circumstantial logic. The tendency that the indian pure land
thought is based on "Banjusammae" sutra, Chinese on "Kwan muryang su" sutra, and Korean on "Muryangsu" sutra, may be a counterevidence of the matter.
Second, Korean popular way of thinking and the compact of the invocation seem to be related to each other in a structural aspect of the way of thinking, and the Korean compact of the invocation has a characteristic of Korean way of thinking. In the Korean compact of the invocation, the number of days such as 'ten-thousand day' is regarded to be important, because in the Korean way of thinking, 'ten-thousand day' is a symbolic word for modesty and endurance, representing the 'consistent repeat and incessant continuity.' In addition, the limited Buddhist concept of time may bring the numbers.
Third, in the Korean thought of pure land, there are coming pure land and going pure land, the former is considered as Mireuk pure land, the latter as Mita pure land. In such a way, was the 'Dosolga' for the coming pure land created, and 'Wanwangsangga' and 'Jaemangmaga' for the going pure land.
Fourth, the Korean thought of pure land has made some contribution in expanding the Korean 'I' thinking to 'you' and 'we' thinking. Such clues are present in the Buddhist words for saving the people in many songs.
Fifth, in the Korean thought of pure land, the horizontal thinking as 'west' seems to play a role in expanding the width of Korean symbol of utopia to the side. As such, the Korean thought of pure land has made Korean's power of imagination much more extensive and be theorized as well.
Sixth, the Korean thought of pure land created a new grammar of Korean poetry, and it may be called the grammar of 'eye-placing word' in Korean poetry.
Finally, the Korean thought of pure land created 'continually spreading to the side' in the method of Korean poetry.
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One of the most representative temple frescos which exist in Korea is the fresco in Muwee temple in Kangjin, Chullanam-do.
In it, the white-clothes Kwaneum at the rear fresco is different from the figure of the ordinary Suweol Kwaneum; what is interesting at the right-upper part of it is that You, Jaryang(Koreyo Dynasty, 1150～1229)'s praise for the Naksan Kwan-eum was written a little differently from the poetry in the "Dongmunseon" or "Sinjung-Donggguk yeojyseungram." In the past, this letter has been interpreted differently according to the interpreter with some errors in writing, and the apprehension of the drawing has not been enough as well. The fresco, recognized to be created in 1430, was made by three people two of whom were at the position of the seon master, according to the precise analysis of the record of art history.
They are recognized as artists, Haeyeun and Seonyee who did their best in the reconstruction of the Muwee temple which preceded under the support of the royal family and upper class.
A new study is needed for the two artists, who were the great seon masters. Next, in the composition, the Suweol Kwaneum, which was based on the section of the 'entering the dharma world' in Hwaum sutra and 'wide listening' in Lotus sutra was widespread around 10th century, depending on the resources in Donhwang; the composition of the white-clothes Kwan-eum in the fresco in Muwee temple is not significantly different from
the ordinary Suweol Kwaneum, but quite different from the characteristics of the Koryeo composition which places the twin bamboo in the dark cave. Instead of the apparence of Seonjae, who is the subject of the 'entering the dharma world,' the old bhiku is placed, presenting the Ven. Euysang's tale of 'naksan Kwaneum.' In addition, the poetry of You, Jaryang(Koreyo Dynasty) which was written at the right side of the fresco provided with much help in understanding of the composition.
However, the difference between the praising poetry at the fresco and the record in "Sinjung-Donggguk yeojyseungram." is only given the explanations of the context regarding the truth or falsehood about the poetry, it was hard to ascertain, only giving more weight on the fresco. It seems to be the unique characteristic of the fresco that the apparence of the old bhiku with folded hands is compared to Ven. Euysang. Since the old bhiku here is to present Ven. Euysang's meetimg with Naksan Kwaneum, the fresco is a new model for the Korean Suweol Kwaneum, quite different from the ordinary Suweol Kwaneum, so its meaning is of significant importance.
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I examined the folk songs derived from Buddhism in the book "The study of the history of Korean Buddhist music." It seems that the reason to recite the Amita-buddha and in the words of the folk songs still has not been researched.
The most of the words of the folk songs derived from Buddhism have been changed to as same as the ones of the common songs yet it is much interesting to recitd the Amita-buddha and Avalokitesvara on the burden.
This paper is to put the 'Hayngga' which was recorded in the document, into the category of the folk songs, and to investigate the contents related to the thought of the pure land, and to study the present words in regard with the thought of the pure land.
The Buddhists want to be born in the pure land thanks to the merits of the buddhas and bodhisattvas. The method for the practice to achieve their hope is reciting the Amita-buddha. It is the reason for the apparence of the name of the Amita-buddha in 'Hayngga' and folk songs.
It has been examined that the act of reciting the Amita-buddha coincides with the music act (reciting and sound, buddha and music) but reciting the Amita-buddha in the folk songs is because the people recite the Amita-buddha by the songs. It is obvious from the fact that the present words in the folk songs(san invocation) have been all changed into the ones in the common songs, but the recited the Amita-buddha still remains on the burden part.
I suggest that the pure land sect which is included in the invocation sect is the music sect. If it is so, not only the folk songs but also all buddhist music including the ones in the worship ritual are invocation, and music which is based on the thought of the pure land.
It is hard to imagine for the Buddhism without invocation. The buddhist music, from worship ritual to daily living, is the Buddhism itself. In the future, the invocation sect should lead in the deeper study and development of the Buddhist music from traditional to creative ones.
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The "Uranbun ritual" was created in the Shilla and Koryeo Dynasty when the Buddhism came from China flourished, and transmitted to the Choseon Dynasty. The "Uranbun ritual," which was made for the dead in the royal family had developed into the rite for the common people as well in the Koryeo Dynasty, and in the Choseon Dynasty, the "Mokryun Sutra" was published and read widespread among the people of the country.
During the Choseon Dynasty, due to the acceptance of the confucianism and exclusion of the Buddhism, Buddhist rites were almost abolished. Thus, the "Uranbun ritual" was changed into "Bakjung play," celebrated on the fifteenth of July in the country. After opening to foreign nations, the "Uranbun ritual" was represent in a small scale, ending up making a new zenre, the "Mokryun drama."
Of seven or eight already presented dramas and plays, the representative "Mokryun dramas" are as follows: "Uranbun" (1932), by Kim, So-ha(1899～1989), "the hell and life"(1947) by Jung, Dong-min(1924～1998), "the world of Lotus"(1967) by Lee, Kwang-rae(1908～1968), "Mokryun and Lady Chungjae," by Lee, Sung-beop(1929～ ) and so on. Reviewing the above four, it is obvious that the center of the drama lies the scene of the hell, and the quality of the drama follows how to express the scene.
"Uranbun" by Kim, So-ha was the first "Mokryun drama" in Korea, which was published on in the monthly journal of "Buddhism" in Aug., 1932. Since both Kwun, Sang-ro who led founding the "Buddhism" in 1925, and Han, Young-wun who undertook the journal in 1930 considered the play as the fastest way of propaganda, this drama got into light.
"Uranbun" established the great hell, and Mokryun met with
his mother and saved her, but she was captured again in the small dark hell. Mokryun helped her again with the Buddhist power, only founding her become a dog in Wangsasung castle.
"The hell and life" by Jung, Dong-min was played most frequently since 1947, and "The world of Lotus" by Lee, Kwang-rae was the first attempt as a Buddhist music symphony drama in 1967. Both play designated the great hell in the center of the stage, but different from "Uranbun," it had the knife hell and boiling hell at the right side of the stage, and ice and grief hell at the left side. In "The world of Lotus," the mother was saved only in the great hell.
"Mokryun and Lady Chungjae," the most recently written one, explained the scene of the hell in detail because the writer was a senim, yet could not express it on the stage. Mokryun helped Lady Chungjae, but she went to the hell again. Reborn as a dog, she finally went up to the heaven and be born again by the rites of "Uranbun".
While "Uranbun" and "Mokryun and Lady Chungjae" are mainly composed by conversations, "The hell and life" and "The world of Lotus" are full of dramatic characteristics. "The hell and life" is similar to the popular plays in the 1940th, combining dance and songs, and uniquely contains the song of the main subject.
All three except for "Uranbun" make use of the mirror of karma; it goes down during the play, and changes the time and space to the scene of reflecting the past. While "The hell and life" is full of romantic atmosphere, it is worth paying attention to "The world of Lotus," in that it applies a new-expressionism , and makes a new form of the music drama, a symphony drama that utilizes the percussion instrument. The "Mokryun drama" has been changed from "Uranbun ritual" to "Mokryun's petition"- "Mokryun Sutra"- "Kangchang" and "Mokryun drama" through the Shilla, Koryeo, Choseon and the present.
The present "Mokryun dramas" are all indoors-scripts written by the method of western modern play.
In order for the "Mokryun drama" to develop, first, it should be played in the temple, indoors or outdoors, on the "Uranbun" day (July. 15) half of it is the ritual, and the other half is the play.
Second, the "Mokryun drama" should make the hell more concrete; studying the ten kings, the positions in the hell are to be expressed in more detail.
Third, the "Uranbun ritual" or the "Ten kings ritual" should be performed by the method of the traditional Buddhist ritual.
On the "Uranbun" day, with the "Uranbun ritual" or the "Ten kings ritual," the "Mokryun's petition" may be taught; from July the 13 to 18, the "ghost period" of opening the gate of the hell and feeding the ghosts, the "Mokryun drama" should be performed in the big temple.
If those above are possible, the "Uranbun day" can be changed into a bigger event than the one for the Buddha's day.
And the adolescence problem would disappear, contributing to making a more peaceful country; the "Uranbun" day is a day for reverence for parents.
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This study is to examine the founding background, management, removal and characteristics of the Odae Mountain Monastery, which was established in the Weoljung temple in Odae Mountain, April of 1956. It was founded to commemorate the Buddhist purification, specifically intending to improve the qualification of the monks.
This monastery was established by the lead of Kim,
Tan-huh, the abbot of Woljung temple, yet with the support of the head office of the order at that time. Starting with about 30 people, the monastery designated the five-year period of education, and mainly taught the Buddhist philosophy.
Its ideology of education was to learn the three subjects. sila, samadhi and prajna, in the background of which lies the modern succession of Ven. Ji-nul's compact of the samadhi and prajna.
The monastery, however, was voluntarily closed in the winter of 1957, due to the repeated conflicts between the Bhikus and monks with wives, and financial difficulties. Kim, tan-huh, who was leading the monastery, moved to Yuong-eun temple in Samchuck, and tried to reconstruct of the monastery he founded the monastery a second time in Young-eun temple.
Since 1959, Kim collected his fellow monks and those who had come to him hearing what he was trying in Young-eun temple, and devoted himself in the education. At that time, the main subject was Hwaum sutra.
In there, the bhikus and bhikunis studied together. The monastery was closed in November of 1962, when Kim came back to Weoljung temple in order to take the abbot.
The Odae Mountain monastery has a meaning of significance in that it was the first educational Buddhist work which the Chogye order made after the purification of Buddhism. The important points are the reflection of purification movement, the basics works for Kim's translation of sutras, and representation of Ven. Ji-nul's compact of samadhi and prajna. Later, the monks who studied at the monastery played important roles in the Chogye order.
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Since the beginning of the human history, the grave culture seemed to start. The dolemen in Gochang and the royal tombs in Kyungju, both of which were recognized as a world cultural heritage some years ago, are valuable cultural heritage for Koreans. In particular, religions have valued the remains of their leaders, making those remains the objects to be worshiped. In Buddhism, the pagodas in which the relics of the Buddha are placed, were built and respected as the objects of belief. Budo-pagodas in which senims' relics were kept, have been preserved for a long time as the object for worship.
Recently, the culture of cremation has been widespread, yet there is no standard for the lay people, causing much confusion.
Therefore, this paper is to examine the form, standard and roles of the pagoda and Budo-pagoda, and to propose a new suggestion for the form of the pagoda for the lay people. Such suggestion should meet the criteria of the Buddhist teaching even though the form of pagoda for the lay people shares the basic idea as a pagoda, there should be a difference in the form for Budo-pagoda. However, Buddhist community and order have not yet proposed a new method or form, so the lay people have built the one similar to the Buddhist pagoda and Budo-pagoda.
From now on, the Buddhist order should present a new form of pagoda for the lay people. It seems already somewhat late, but in that sense, this paper could be an attempt for the subject.
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It is necessary to have a right understanding of the Choseon Buddhist Chogye order in order to clearly apprehend modern Korean Buddhism. Therefore, to understand the founding process of the Chogye order and its leading parts is an important subject directly connected with the modern Korean history.
This paper is to examine two characters who played significant roles, yet have been ignored, in the Choseon Buddhist Chogye order: Ven. Hanam as a head, and Ven. Jiam who was a general manager of the same order. By exploring their positions and roles in modern Korean history, this study investigates their contributions and characteristics as a
practitioner and person in charge.
Ven. Hanam and Ven. Jiam were the representatives of both practice and management in korean Buddhism under Japanese occupation. They consolidated each other's merits, and saved the Weoljung temple in Odae mountain which was about to be closed. Ven. Jiam, in order to obstruct the Japanese Buddhism in amalgamating the Korean Buddhism, went about the construction of the headquarters of Korean Buddhism in earnest; he achieved the legal reconstruction of the Buddhist order in hundreds years by establishing the Daewoongjun(大雄殿) of the Chogye temple, and founding the Choseon Buddhist Chogye order. The Chogye order allowed only the descendent of Ven. Taego-Bow to be able to assume its head, representing the dharma tradition, and was approved as a legal system of order, which could follow the orthodox lineage of Korean Buddhism under Japanese occupation. Considering the fact that the essence of the Japanese colonial policy was to obliterate the Korean national characteristics, even though it was firmly controlled by the Japanese government-general of Choseon, to reconstruct and preserve the original Buddhist order which was maintaining the Korean Buddhist tradition was itself of deep historical significance.
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Korean Seon Master Taego Bou (1301-1382) visited Yuan China from the spring in 1346 to the spring in 1448. After he spent time at the Grand Sight Temple in Beijing, the great capital of the Yuan empire, for meeting and preaching people including imperial family, Taego headed for South China in 1347 to call on Ch'an (Zen) masters there. Taego went to see an eminent Ch'an master Shiwu (1272-1352), the Ch'an Patriarch of Linchi School. When Taego showed him Taegoamga, a poem of his enlightenment at Primordial Hermitage, Shiwu was greatly impressed and questioned him closely. After he was made certain of Taego's enlightenment, Shiwu transmitted his Dharma to Taego. The meeting between Taego and Shiwu has had the historical significance in Dharma Transmission of Zen traditions both in China and Korea. A half month later, Taego returned to Beijing, where he was invited to Eternal Peace Zen Temple as abbot by emperor and given a golden robe as a mark of honor. Taego gave a Dharma Talk there were attended by imperial family and high nobility, whom he prayed for their long lives and then reminded of their obligations to society and to Buddhism.
Taego returned to Korea in 1348 with bring Admonishment for Buddhist Monastic Community, a collection of writings for Buddhist practitioners, that has been used as a basic text in the traditional Buddhist seminaries in Korea. Taego served his country as a Royal Preceptor and National Preceptor. He established a Department of Integrity and Harmony for syncretizing and cooperating Buddhist schools in Korea. He has been recognized as a religious model for people who respect and aim the open-minded personality and universalism beyond the sectarian views and exclusive manners. Nowadays in the age of globalization, Taego should be appreciated as a religious giant in terms of spiritual leader not only in Korea but also in the East Asia and the world.
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The theory of Amita-Buddha's Buddha-ksetra is interpreted by the system of teaching in the each Buddhist sect in China, Korea and Japan in history.
This paper is to illuminate Vasubandhu's theory of Amita-Buddha's Buddha-ksetra in which he systemically improved and organized the content so that it should be a basis for the theory of the pure land sect, and to explore its relation with the theory of Ven. Eejuck, who was the only one in Shilla influenced by Vasubandhu. Vasubandhu's theory of
Amita-Buddha's Buddha-ksetra may be summarized by the relation with the one in "The interpretation of Mahayanasamparigaha-sastra" and the thought of Amita-Buddha's pure
land vyuha in "The interpretation of Samsarati." That is, it is the theory of the three bodies(dharma-kaya, sambhoga-kaya, nirmaha-kaya) in "The interpretation of Mahayana-samparigaha-sastra," yet in the interpretation of sambhoga-kaya, the theory of vyuha in "The interpretation of Buljikyung" and "The interpretation of Samsarati" are the same.
Therefore, it seems that Vasubandhu's view of the theory of Amita-Buddha's Buddha-ksetra is the one of sambhoga-kaya.
The theory of Ven. Eejuck, influenced by Vasubandhu, was based on the concept of sambhoga-kaya from the Buddhaksetra in "The interpretation of Buljikyung," and the thought of vyuha in "The interpretation of Samsarati." Hence, Ven. Eejuck's theory of Amita-Buddha's Buddha-ksetra is based on the concept of sambhoga-kaya.
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Although the appearence of the competence of the order in modern Buddhism resulted from the enactment of the temple law in 1911, the competence at that time was not given to the order but to the government-general of Choseon, who was in charge of personnel and financial affairs. Later the national consciousness developed, and the movement of abolishing the temple law was started the headquarter of the order, the general affairs section was established in 1922 with the participation of about 10 head temples. However, the pro-Japanese abbots separately founded the foundation of instruction section of Choseon Buddhism, combining the general affairs section.
The unification movement of Buddhism had continued despite confronting conflicts Choseon Buddhist Chogye order, the first Buddhist order approved by Japan was established in 1941 the Taego temple law of Choseon Buddhist Chogye order, which granted the headquarter Taego temple the right of personnel and administration, was enacted yet the rights were still not complete due to the requirement of the government-general's approval.
After the liberation of Korea, the constitution for Choseon Buddhism was made, but it only changes some words of the Taego temple law of Choseon Buddhist Chogye order, lacking in transferring the competence of the order. Through the Buddhist cleanup movement, the constitution for Choseon Buddhism amended into the constitution of the Buddhist Chogye order. While the head at that time was a representative of the Chogye order, and named the head of the general affairs section with the decision of the council, the minister of the general affairs section was a representative of the general affairs section, helping the head and managing the works of the order. the Buddhist cleanup movement was finished by constructing the combined order April 11 in 1962. In the combined order, the decision was reached on that bhikus would take the head, and married bhikus take the minister of the general affairs section, making the head-centered system more strong.
The head-centerered system was shifted into the ministercentered system according to the amendment of the 50th regular meeting in 1977. Due to the “Sinheungsa case" in 1983, the extraordinary system of the order was started, and temporarily returned to the head-centerered system which made the representative of the order the head, and made the minister only represent the general affairs section. However, with Seo, Euhyun minister's assuming the office in 1986, it returned to the minister-centered system. In addition, Seo, Euhyun minister who resumed the 26th minister in 1990 gave the strength on the right of appointing abbots in the head temples of the parish, resulting in stronger minister-centered system.
In 1994, Seo, Euhyun minister's system was closed by the reform order, and decentralization of power was introduced the main points were regarding the right of appointing abbots and opening the parish meeting. While the minister had appointed the abbots in the past, it made the decision that the parish meeting could recommend abbots, and it was accepted unless the recommended had any disqualification by the law of the order. The parish meeting was to open in order for the parish to manage in its own out of the control of the center. In modern society, the power which have been focused on the center tend to be decentralized with the democracy and the growth of the civil consciousness it is hard to realize the entirely autonomous parish due to the situation of the Chogye order, but it is needed to follow the direction of the history.
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