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한국 예이츠 저널 [The Yeats Journal of Korea]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
    학술지
  • 발행기관
    한국예이츠학회 [The Yeats Society of Korea]
  • ISSN
    1226-4946
  • 간기
    연3회
  • 수록기간
    1991~2018
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 821.9
제29권 (11건)
No
1

예이츠의 문화적 기획: 귀족주의 비전

김선재

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제29권 2008.06 pp.5-32

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It is noticeable that the critics of William Butler Yeats has recently tried to elucidate the poet's aristocratic disposition in relation with his political identity. Some critics have disparaged Yeats' works of art in the light of his seeming conservative political position as an advocate of aristocracy. Other critics who disagreed with this excessive blame have insisted that Yeats' aristocratic disposition only shows his self-deceptive idealism. As the poet's inclination toward aristocracy seems to suggest his conservatism or elitism, it has hindered the critics from understanding and appreciating his poetry wholeheartedly. In this paper I intend to examine the established points of the critics concerning Yeats' political identity and demonstrate that his inclination towards aristocracy could be understood as an attempt to cultivate united national identity among the Irish. Inflamed as the working condition of the artists in Dublin deteriorated and the social position of the Anglo-Irish Protestant fell in Irish society, the aristocratic disposition of Yeats ultimately contributed to contrive a poetic vision for national integration. From the point of time when Yeats decided to pursue his own poetic principle, "Unity of Being," his vision of aristocracy assumed the mental and moral characteristic and became an ideal plan for achieving cultural nationalism among the Irish. Yeats' vision of aristocracy includes the ceremony of tradition and spiritual attitudes such as magnanimity and liberty which can be cultivated in the aristocratic society. According to the poet's vision, the ideal society consists of three major groups: the aristocrats who would lead an affluent life and support the artists, the artists and scholars who would concentrate on creating great works, and the populace who would appreciate their arts without any prejudice. All member of these groups will form a horizontal solidarity based on shared culture, which will give each member of them joyful peace and affirmative ability to embrace life.

6,700원

2

W. B 예이츠의 “분노의 마스크”와 소극적 자아 : 「1913년 9월」, 「1916년 부활절」, 「미친 제인 주교와 이야기하다」

김혜연

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제29권 2008.06 pp.33-58

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W. B. Yeats in his whole life suffers from his introvert or passive self that hesitates to take action. In his agony, he creates his anti-self that boldly expresses his instinctive rage, and the anti-self is concretely established as a “fiery mask” in his poems. However, not oppressing the introvert and passive self completely, the fiery mask frequently conflicts and clashes with the passive self. Therefore, this paper explores how the fiery mask conflicts with the passive self in his “September 1913” and “Easter 1916,” and how in “Crazy Jane Talks with the Bishop,” the fiery mask overcomes such a discord represented in the two previous poems. In the first poem, the poet is indignant at political Irish nationalists who are unable to appreciate the true valuable arts. Attacking the political nationalists through the fiery mask, however the poet reveals his hidden self that hangs back from taking action. In the second poem, such hidden self under the fiery mask becomes undisguised, and the conflict between the fiery mask and the passive self is exacerbated and maximized. Such conflict is dissolved through a female mask, crazy Jane in the third poem. Usually, mad woman’s angry voice makes a strong impact on society even though she does not take a proper act from asocial responsibility of her rage such as revenge. Therefore, the fiery mask of crazy Jane makes the poet escape from his duty to take action resulting in the solution of the conflict between the fiery mask and the passive self. Ironically, Yeats’s ideal anti-self is completed in the mad female mask, crazy Jane, not in the courageous male mask.

6,400원

3

우파니샤드와 선불교의 관점에서 본 예이츠의 반자아*1

서혜숙

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제29권 2008.06 pp.59-86

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In the paper, "The Anti-self in Yeats's Per Amica Silentia Lunae" published on Dec. 2004, I studied the theory of Yeats's anti-self in the occultic meditation. In "Ego Dominus Tuss," Ille finally found his anti-self. In "Anima Hominis," Yeats said that the saint like Christ and Buddha, and the poets like Dante and Keats attained the anti-self. The anti-self is the opposite of daily self and the egoless self. After leaving the Golden Dawn in 1917 Yeats explored a wide range of meditative traditions such as Zen Buddhism, Upanishads, Tibetan Mysticism and Chinese Taoism. Throughout his poetic career, Yeats defined poetry, and indeed all art, as a form of meditation, as an experience which can reveal the unified "Self," defined by the Upanishads, and unlock its creative energy stored in the "deep of the mind." In "Discoveries," Yeats said that the more he tried to make his art deliberately beautiful, the more he follow the opposite of himself. In this paper I argue that Yeats's anti-self is similar to the "Self" of Upanishads and the Buddhahood of Zen Buddhism. In "The Double Vision of Michael Robartes" the girl dancing between a Sphinx and a Buddha in the fifteenth night is the anti-self of Yeats. In a moment the girl, the Sphinx, the Buddha and the poet himself had overthrown time in contemplation. They remain motionless in the contemplation of their real nature, Buddhahood. Full moon is the light of Samadhi and Turiya which is the forth state corresponding to the whole sacred word "AUM," pure personality, the "Self" of Upanishads. Only when Yeats becomes the anti-self he can be a totally subjective mind, overcome the illusion of duality, and find a "revelation of realty." It is a deliverance that leads simply to seeing things the way they really are, in their most naked reality. The process of spiritual realization is cognitive, for knowledge unites the knower and the known together, reverting to the language of "A Dialogue of Soul and Self," intellect no longer knows/ Is from Ought, or Knower from the Known. "The Self is Brahman": the individual soul is seen to be the universal spirit. When each man realize that his original nature is the eternal spirit, no matter how ordinary he is, he will enter Buddhahood. Like Bodhisattvas who, on the verge of their own enlightenment, vow to hold themselves from that final bliss until all sentient beings are released from the phenomenal world Yeats would like to be an Avalokitesvara in this rag-and-bone shop.

6,700원

4

예이츠의 노년과 지혜 그리고 가이어

신원철

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제29권 2008.06 pp.87-107

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As Yeats received the Nobel Prize in 1923, he was in the extremity of honor but he was feeling his weakening physical power. He gave up Maud Gonne and married George Hyde Ridge, a wise woman, to find a comfort at his home. His later poems are a record of his meditation and wisdom of life, and in those poems the image of Gyre is very important. He thought the progress of one civilization lasted for only 2,000 years and that is expressed through the image of the Gyre. The period of the early 20th century was a time of a kind of anarchy and a situation of desperation. He thought it was a turning point to a new terrible civilization. His poem "The Second Coming" is very meaningful in that view point and so is "Leda and Swan". Then his self consciousness of his old age and wisdom is well expressed in his "Tower" and Byzantium poems. But his self consciousness is not ended to a desperation but overcome to an immortal wisdom and art. In "Sailing to Byzantium" he sang the immortal art with a exquisite artisan spirit. And he particularly sang the world of soul and art in this poem. This is succeeded in "Byzantium". It is almost a song of spirit. As he grew old, Yeats concentrated his energy on the problem of spirit. As T. S. Eliot escaped to Hinduist meditation to overcome the limit of his early poems, Yeats made his particular view of history and civilization to enhance his poetry. If he had not opened his new poetic world in his later life, he could not have become that great poet we love so much.

5,700원

5

『비전』(A Vision) 에 나타난 주요 상징 —두 “나선체”와 “큰 바퀴”를 중심으로—

신현호

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제29권 2008.06 pp.109-143

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Poets use symbols because they have realized that our common language is inaccurate in describing the inner reality. In A Vision, Yeats presents an elaborate symbolic pattern which he applies not only to history, but also to individual lives. One of his basic symbols is a pair of interpenetrating whirling cones or "gyres" signifying the world of change that move within a sphere emblematic eternity. The gyres, with their points at the bases of each other, represent the oppositions and reciprocity of human existence; one expands as the other diminishes. The two gyres stand for two contrasting forces―the primary or objective and the antithetical or subjective. There is a state of perpetual conflict between the gyres The “sphere” is the symbol of perfection, "Unity of Being". These symbols of sphere and gyres are equivalent to another set of symbols, in which a circle or "The Great Wheel" is marked off into "phase" that correspond to the waxing and waning of the moon. There are twenty eight such phases, with varying degrees of moonlight and darkness. They can be applied to human personality and to the incarnations of the soul. Each quarter of "The Great Wheel" represents a completely different character. The first quarter is identified with the body, the second with the heart, the third with the mind, and the fourth with the soul. The result of the mixture of these principles at any one phase must be measured in terms of "Four Faculties," which usually are at odds with one another. As "Four Faculties" with living here, "Four Principles" apply to the life after death. The Principles find their Unity in the Celestial Body, man's archetype in Heaven.

7,800원

6

Anima Mundi in “Anima Mundi”

Kim, Jooseong

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제29권 2008.06 pp.145-164

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The concept of Anima Mundi (or World Soul) pervading all of nature is so old that its origins are very obscure. Yeats has kept developing his own philosophy (or system) regarding this Anima Mundi for his art and belief all his life. In this article, I try to treat Yeats's theoretical statements on the Anima Mundi which can be easily found in his essay "Anima Mundi" in Per Amica Silentia Lunae (1918), one of the greatest watershed document in his theory of the Anima Mundi, the poet's ultimate expression of his belief. Like many of ancient western and eastern mysterious religions, Yeats no longer distinguishes between the great memory of Anima Mundi and the minds and memories of its occupants. Also he reaffirms the four elements as integral to the World Soul concept. He assigns elemental attributes to the images glimpsed in visions, creating a fourfold model of perception. This short but important essay constitutes the outstanding feature of Yeats's newly evolved concept, the Anima Mundi is not merely a place, a shadowy subliminal Hades. It is a congeries of souls, of discarnate intelligences whose multifarious activities range from regulating nature's cycles to potential anamnesis.

5,500원

7

Yeats’s Disenchantment with Nationalism and His Pursuit of Universal Mind

Yoo,Baekyun

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제29권 2008.06 pp.165-193

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The purpose of this paper is to chart Yeats's evolving attitudes towards nationalism and mysticism and his eventual turn to universal mind by reading his poems and proses written in the nineties and early twentieth century. Although he converted to nationalism in 1886 by writing poems combining his nationalist agenda and mystical ideas, he slowly showed skepticism about his nationalist agenda and about the realization of a mystical vision. My argument is that this change stems basically from his understanding of the limitations of nationalism: independence as isolation by analyzing some poems in The Rose (1893) and The Wind Among the Reeds (1899). In addition, Yeats revealed on many occasions his weariness at political skirmishes into which he was constantly dragged because of his double allegiance to art and politics and to England and Ireland. Although he turns to the Irish Literary Theater, announcing a need to separate art from politics, his place in Irish modern history makes it difficult to keep himself from engaging in political battles which gradually instill bitterness and hatred into his poetry. It is also important to notice that Yeats talked about universal mind during this period when he expressed his skepticism about the possibility of achieving the state of oneness and his frustration about needless political fights. Certainly, Yeats’s dealing with universal consciousness and his disappointment in nationalist politics due to its provincial nature and its tendency to fight with each other leads us to see where Yeats is eventually moving to in the future: the pursuit of unity by reconciling East and West. Yeats’s gradual movement towards universalist agenda is necessary and inevitable to deal not only with the narrowness of nationalism and nationalist politics, but also with his ambivalence towards England and Ireland and his bitterness caused by his involvement in vicious political fights. Our understanding of Yeats’s gradual transition from nationalist to universalist is crucial in following his evolving attitude towards the spiritual traditions which he resumes to study in 1912 and his use of them for his later political objectives: a realization of a unified world. Unfortunately, however, Yeats’s pursuit of universal qualities is clouded by his hatred of the urban Catholic middle class.

6,900원

8

Iseult Gonne, Symbol of Eternal Beauty

Rhee, Young Suck

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제29권 2008.06 pp.195-207

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The paper searches and analyzes the image of Iseult Gonne in some of Yeats's poems. It is not difficult to locate Iseut's images in most of the poems that contain her image, except the poem, "Long-legged Fly." In this poem the young girl at puberty practicing a tinker shuffle picked up on a street is said to be Maud Gonne, as definitely noted by Jeffares. But this paper claims that she is Iseult Gonne on the basis of Yeats's recording what he has witnessed, the young girl barefoot dancing and singing, thinking that nobody is looking at the edge of the water and sand at Normandy. And one of the important poems that immortalizes Iseult is "To a Child Dancing in the Wind," singing what's permanent in the present Iseult, against the passing of life and time. This concern deeply permeates most of Yeats's Iseult poems, as one of them being "Two Years Later" and another is a poem, "Why Should Not Old Men Be Mad?" (written in 1936, three years before he died in 1939) in which the poet calls Iseult's husband a dunce, because Yeats loves and pities Iseult so much. To Yeats and in his poems, Iseult Gonne symbolizes eternal beauty or something that should remain for good. Not only that, but also the most beautiful and strongest of Iseult Gonne poems is "Owen Aherne and his Dancers" written immediately after Yeats's marriage to Georgie, with two sections, once the first being called "The Lover Speaks" and the second "The Heart Replies." As the image of dance indicates, it is about Iseult Gonne, with Yeats in disguise. It signals a new beginning for Yeats in relation to his poetry and to his life-long love Iseult.

4,500원

9

Modernism and Post-Modernism Aesthetics in Seeing Things

Hong, Sung Sook

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제29권 2008.06 pp.209-224

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Modernism and post-modernism are two aspects of aesthetic modernity reflecting some of the spiritual crises of the western civilization as resistance against the scientific modernity. These two are similar or the same to each other in seeing the modern world as fragments and discontinuities with pessimistic tone, the reality as relativity, and the language as lack. By contrast, many differences between the two can be seen as well. For example, modernism reflects Elite's taste of high culture while postmodernism is impatient with Elite's taste of ideas. And also, modernism hands down humanism and enlightenment while postmodernism rejects the so-called humanism and enlightenment. More likely than not, however, the foremost difference will be that modernism has the spirit of betterment by a kind of stoic attitude through self-criticism hoping for the birth of the hero who searches for the spiritual father, while postmodernism reflects a kind of Epicurism emphasizing 'seize the day' by accepting the commercial, technological and scientific values. It follows that modernism tries to expand freedom of more people through digging inner reality while postmodernism tries to expand equality of more people through de-constructing the concept of hierarchy of the western civilization. I think that Seamus Heaney's Seeing Things is characterized by the combination of modernism and post-modernism: his poetry contains the characteristics of modernism in respect that it continuously reflects the pursuit of tradition. At the same time, it includes post-modern aesthetics in respect that Squarings of Seeing Things transforms the concrete into the abstract by de-constructing some of the fixed meanings, from which readers can enjoy the entire freedom. My last conclusion is that Seamus Heaney's Seeing Things reflects not only his pursuit for the past tradition but also his desire to de-construct it. In brief, his poetry reflects some ambivalence: the search for the father and killing him, waiting for Godot and searching for light, freedom, equality and song.

4,900원

11

한국예이츠학회 최근 학술활동 현황

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제29권 2008.06 pp.229-256

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6,700원

 
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