한국 예이츠 저널 [The Yeats Journal of Korea]

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  • 자료유형
  • 발행기관
    한국예이츠학회 [The Yeats Society of Korea]
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  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
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    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 821.9
제34권 (14건)

『비전』의 ‘4가지 기능’과 상징적 접근(I)


한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제34권 2010.12 pp.5-25

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This paper is an attempt to discuss Yeats's Four Faculties and symbolic approach in A Vision. He tried to search for how to make many symbols and images drawn in his poetry into one principle and theory and put it together in A Vision. He used Four Principles to explain the cycle of reincarnation while he made use of Four Faculties to show the stream of consciousness. He insists that we have many spiritual conflicts and pains. However we can solve this conflict and confrontation through the course of Four Faculties. He elaborately explains that this kind of stream of consciousness divides in Four Faculties and this travels on the phases of the moon in A Vision. These Four Faculties are Will, Mask, Creative Mind, and Body of Fate. Will is understood that what's the feeling has not become desire because there is no object to desire. Mask is understood the image of what we wish to become. Creative Mind meant intellect. And Body of fate is understood the physical and mental environment, the changing human body, and the stream of phenomena as this affects a particular individual, all that is forced upon us from without. Four Faculties movement means that the change of relative force in each pair of psychical function unites with the principle symbol of the 28 phases of moon. In a sense though this symbol is actually his own volition, this also has a beauty and mighty force. Transformation of the 28 phases of moon relates to cross over from the Primary to the Antithetical. Phase 15 and phase 1 emblematized the unity of Will and Creative Mind not moving and fixing. In phase 15, the feeling of introversion easily changes into the thought of introversion through material that is subjective image, or archetypical image. However in phase 1, the intuition of extroversion changes into the sensation of extroversion through the focus from without. These two phases make reconciliation rather than conflict. In conclusion, through the unity of subjective image, Unity with God, Unity with Nature, we experience the moment of tranquility in which reincarnation presents itself outside of cycle of phases. The synthesis from without opposed to the unity of image in the center of the Antithetical. Therefore Yeats shows the method of Unity with Nature, Unity with God, and Unity of Being in A Vision. However he insists the ideas of Unity of Being in his poems.



켈트 신화와 한국 신화의 비교 연구: 영웅 쿠훌린과 주몽을 중심으로


한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제34권 2010.12 pp.27-52

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This essay is a comparison between Celtic myth and Korean myth with emphasis on hero Cuchulain and Jumong. Cuchulain is a Celtic Irish mythological hero who appears in the stories of the Ulster Cycle. In this study the main text of Cuchulain is Lady Gregory's Cuchulain of Muirthemne. Jumong, whose birth name was Dongmyeongseongwang(東明聖王), was the founding monarch of Goguryeo. The best known version of the founding myths of Goguryeo is the Dongmyeongwangpyeon of the Dongguk I Sanggukgip(Collected Works of Minister Yi of Korea) by Yi, Gyu Bo. According to Jeseph Campbell's idea of monomyth the standard path of the mythological adventure of the hero is a magnification of the formula represented in the rites of passage: separation−initiation−return. A hero ventures forth from the world of common day into a region of supernatural wonder, fabulous forces are there encountered and a decisive victory is won, and the hero comes back from this mysterious adventure with the power to bestow boons on his fellow man. Cuchulain and Jumong's hero-journey show the nuclear unit of the monomyth. Their stories exhibit with extraordinary clarity all the essential elements of the classic accomplishment of the impossible task. Cuchulain is the son of the sun god Lugh and Deichtire(a daughter of Maga, the child of the love god of Angus). Jumong is the son of Hae Mosu(解慕漱: the son of heaven) and Yuhwa(柳花:daughter of the river god Habaek(河伯). Cuchulain and Jumong are the child divine yet born of human mather. They are sons of sun and abandoned by their divine father. The characteristic adventure of Cuchulain is winning of the bride, Emma. The adventure of Jumong is going to succeed to his father-the father is the invisible founder of Buyeo. Cuchulain's adventure had given him the capacity to annihilate all opposition. At the age of seventeen Cuchulain single-handedly defends Ulster from the army of Connacht in the Tain Bo Cuailnge. Jumong's adventure had given him the capacity to rule his subjects. At the age of twenty-two, in 37 BC, Jumong established Goguryeo, and became its first "Supreme King." Goguryeo considered itself a successor to Buyeo. Cuchulain, the Irish Achilles, is the symbol of all those who fought for independence of Ireland. Jumong, the korean Achilles, is the symbol of the pride of Korean. The aim of this essay is that my comparative analysis contribute to the sense of universal understanding of the human condition.



예이츠의 『갈대밭의 바람』에 실린 시의 순서에 대한 소고


한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제34권 2010.12 pp.53-77

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The order of poems plays a very important role in Yeats's book of poems without understanding which his poetry cannot be fully appreciated. Hence, understanding Yeats's poems requires looking into not only a relationship between the poems placed side by side in his Book of poems but also the principle of arranging the entire poems. The purpose of this paper is to find out a principle with which Yeats placed his 37 poems for The Wind Among the Reeds. The principle, if there is any, brings us closer to why Yeats moved "The Fiddler of Dooney" from the 11th place in the 1899 edition to the 37th in the 1909 edition. My argument is that Yeats's arrangement of poems selected in The Wind Among the Reeds reflects his poetics which he formed in between 1890's and 1910's. Reading Yeats's essays, “Nationality and Literature" (1893), “The Theater" (1899), "The Symbolism of Poetry" (1900), and “What is Popular Poetry?” (1901), we see that the poet talks about different subjects matters but reveals his idea of how the literature develops. Yeats believes that literature goes through three developmental stages: the epic period; dramatic period and the period of lyric poetry. The epic phase is marked by great racial or national movements and events; the dramatic phase mainly deals with characters who lived in them; and the lyric phase focuses on pure emotion or mood, the seed of which again grows into a tree of epic literature by stimulating human sensibilities. This cyclical pattern of literature, which Yeats compares with the growth of a tree, is a model after which the poems of The Wind Among the Reeds are arranged. That is, the opening poem, "The Hosting of the Sidhe" reflects the epic concern by dealing with great Irish people and soil; the second poem, “The Everlasting Voices," in which great racial or national movements disappear, talks about old human hearts; and the third poem, “The Moods,” shows the lyric phase concentrating on the birth of mood and its immortality. The following 34 poems are arranged in such a way as to mirror the epic-dramatic-lyric pattern; dramatic poems outnumber the epic and lyric poems. This pattern shows Yeats's message: literature goes through this three developmental stage and the parts do not exist in isolation from the whole. Yeats also announces that he is the poet of Irish people, drama, and lyrics.



예이츠의 시에 나타난 색채 이미지: 흰색을 중심으로


한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제34권 2010.12 pp.79-98

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Colors in the poems are non-verbal communication. Colors in the poetry have symbolism and color meanings that go beyond ink. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how Yeats chooses colors for his poems and how those colors are related to his poetic imagination. Yeats uses many colors in his poems in order to strengthen his poetic themes. The color that he uses quite frequently in The Collected Poems of W. B. Yeats is white. The color white is often related to the fairyland, his ideal land, or the beauty of woman in his several poems. In Yeats's poems, he also equates the love of country with the love of woman. He connects the physical world to the spiritual world by using the color white in his poems. For example, in "The White Birds" Yeats hopes to flee from the material world of sorrow with his beloved in the form of white birds. Yeats describes Maud Gonne's beauty as a white woman because she is the loveliest woman that he has ever met. In his Autobiographies, he says that her complexion was luminous like that of apple-blossom when he met her for the first time. The color of apple-blossom is white. The color white is used in many places in his poems to express the beauty of woman or the love of Ireland. In short, understanding the meaning of white used in his poetry will help us grasp his poems properly.



갈등의 주제로 예이츠 초기 희곡 읽기


한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제34권 2010.12 pp.99-122

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Yeats has expended so much energy on theatre for the simple reason that his imagination was essentially dramatic. Just as in his lyrical poetry he was to find a way of embodying his conviction that conflict is at the root of life, so in his drama he was to develop techniques that enabled him to shape his vision into actable form. Despite great differences in subject matter and technique, Yeats's plays consistently dramatize the conflict between the opposing values: passion, intuition, heroism and self-assertion, on the one hand, reason, prudence, convention, community and self-submission, on the other hand. This paper studies the conflicts in Yeats's three early plays: the conflict between the poet Aleel's world of dreams and beauty and Cathleen's decision to sacrifice herself for the community in The Countess Cathleen, the conflict between the life-denying forces of moral orthodoxy and social conformism and gaiety and aesthetic vitality in The Land of Heart's Desire, and the conflict between the poet Forgael's transcendental journey and his companions' absorption in wine, women, and loot in The Shadowy Waters. Thus, conflict is a powerful instrument to dramatize Yeats's dramatic vision and these early plays, in spite of many failings, show the embryo of the recurrent theme of conflict in his more successful later plays.



W. B. 예이츠와 중심의 부재


한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제34권 2010.12 pp.123-143

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Faced with an unknown and uncertain reality in the early 20th century, W. B. Yeats is poignantly aware of the impossibility of objective truth as well as of ineffectiveness of all traditional modes of acquiring knowledge. He well recognizes that there is no center or a focal point of reference in a reality, which is sought over and over again. “The Second Coming” well expresses the absence of a fixed center or origin of experience in Yeats’s historical system. It shows that there is a non-locus at the center of all history, of all thinking, speech, writing, and action. “The Three Beggars” also gives a vivid illustration of how empty meaning swirls around a missing center and the lack of foundation, which is well represented by the three beggars’ collapse. Another poem “Among School Children” suggests that despite one’s efforts, one cannot arrive at “Presences,” which, like the answers to Yeats’s final rhetorical questions, are endlessly deferred. Despite such the limits and deferral of meaning, Yeats never gives up to assign meaning to the fragmentary reality by declaring and creating a symbol. In “A Dialogue of Self and Soul” the Self asserts the emblematic status of Sato’s sword and its covering. In “Blood and the Moon” Yeats again assigns meaning overtly by declaring the tower his symbol, though the poet in its last stanza, recognizing that ultimate wisdom is deferred beyond life, self-reflexively uses a metaphor of the blood stain to encode the limits of human understanding. In “1916 Easter” Yeats demonstrates what he can do as his part of a poet with the fragmentary reality. He calls each victim of the Easter Rebellion by name and writes it in verse, which denotes a bricolargic strategy of using the only language at hand to impose meaning on the painfully unresolved ambiguities of the Rebellion, even if he not only well recognizes that he can attribute no ‘truth-value’ to this transmutation, but also no longer expects to arrive at the final meaning of the political event in his poem.



‘크레이지 제인 시편’에 재현된 저항성과 탈식민성


한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제34권 2010.12 pp.145-174

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This paper aims at exploring the postcolonial aspects of William Butler Yeats’s poetry, especially the ‘Crazy Jane Poems’ written approximately from 1929 to 193l. The term ‘postcolonial’ means ‘anti-colonial.’ In Ireland, during the colonial state and the partially postcolonial state, Yeats’s involvement with Irish politics had never been static, straightforward, or comfortable. Whereas most critics see these poems from the feminist perspective, I regard them as the attempts to decolonialize Ireland from the British colonialists as well as the bitter critical insight on the rigid ethics of Irish Catholicism. 'Crazy Jane' resembles the Cailleach Bhearra, the goddess who serves not only as historian of the land and teacher of the farmers but also as bearer of sovereignty. Therefore her challenge to the colonial legacy is identified with the newly formed Irish state. What are the most abject of British stereotypes of Ireland - recklessness, vagrancy, violence and so on - ironically transform themselves through 'Crazy Jane' into the antithetical values of passion, earthiness, and exuberance. Overthrowing the preconditions of British and Church authorities, she criticizes both the Irish Catholic Church and the British authority which has appropriated Ireland. In addition, by using the ballad form, Yeats consolidates the nationalist intent of these poems. Therefore, 'Crazy Jane' may be identified with Yeats' alter ego, the personality that represents Yeats' various ideological positions. Subverting the British colonialists on the same stereotypes that British colonialists used to exploit the Irish people, she denounces both the stiff ethics of Irish Catholicism and the prevailing Irish patriarchy. Therefore, we can conclude that 'Crazy Jane' resembles a cubist icon that superimposes the double aspects of the Irish postcolonial state.



“완곡하게” 말하기: 폴 멀둔의 초기 시


한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제34권 2010.12 pp.175-200

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Any Irish writer can hardly liberate his mind sufficiently from the questions of public duty to form and influence the opinion in Irish politics. And for the same reason almost all the contemporary Northern Ireland poets are under the pressure to lead his readers through the psychic hinterland to emerge from the Northern Ireland crisis. But the demands made on Paul Muldoon result to his persistent belief that poetic language is an abstraction of everyday discourse. Muldoon claims and testifies that poet's word can be used to the particular function of expressing the poet's intention: the poet's task is to control the meaning of the words in relation to the other words in the poetic text. Thus his poetry is to some extent full of fantastic and disconnected languages which, he seems to argue, comprise the actual experiences in the contemporary Northern Ireland. In this perspective his poetic languages tend to be the fragments of the continuous narrative and have different tones and styles. And his early poems seem to the readers to shift between different levels of meaning which keeps the poet's attitude toward the material and the context of the work. In this process his poetry is to create his own poetic world as a paradise free from the violent and corrupted real world as well as to draw links between poetry and politics. That means that his early works repeatedly figure out the relation between social and poetic significances of poetry and at the same time investigate the nature of poet's word as a way to form his own world. This seesawing attitude to the responsibilities toward the contemporary Northern Ireland makes his poetry tend to be oblique by detaching the poet himself from the society.



궁중 풍 사랑의 한 예: 예이츠와 모드 곤의 사랑


한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제34권 2010.12 pp.201-216

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The relationship between Yeats and Gonne seems to show an example of the traditional courtly love. Courtly love was a medieval Europe conception of nobly and chivalrously expressing love and admiration. Under this relationship, although a male expresses the devotional love to a female, a woman shows no love and pity for a man and a woman is an object who uplifts a man's spirit. This relationship may be said to show the man's fear of castration. The relationship between Yeats and Gonne starts by his admiration for her beauty and sternness as a nationalist for the Irish Independence. Also, he glorifies her as a secret being. Moreover, Yeats's love for her shows the doubleness: erotic and spiritual, humane and transcendental, and humiliating and proud. However, Gonne's coldness leads Yeats to desperation. And the last step shows Yeats's fear of castration for the politically-minded Maud Gonne. In Rose, there is Yeats's admiration for the secret woman, Maud Gonne. Yeats's unrequited love leads finally to desperation and sorrow for love, facing Gonne‘s unwavering coldness as a nationalist, which leads Yeats to give her up, showing a kind of fear of castration.



Transnationalism in William Butler Yeats and Louise Bennet

Kim, Youngmin

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제34권 2010.12 pp.217-232

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The postmodernizing of Yeats had been a risky and tricky enterprise. As Naomi Schor in "Introduction" in Flaubert and Postmodernism (1984) points out, postmodernism in all its multiple manifestations is a moment "in" and "of" modernism. Daniel O'Hara, Paul A Bove, Geoffrey Hartman, Paul de Man, and J. Hillis Miller attempt such projects. Nevertheless, with very few exceptions, Yeats has been used by theorists mainly in examples within a longer theoretical argument, and very few works of book-length criticism have been studied. After that, I have been working since 1991 on postmodernizing Yeats from the perspective of Nietzschean postmodernism of genealogy which ranges from Nietzsche, Heidegger, Derrida, Foucault, and Lyotard, and from this critical standpoint I have been relating modernism with postmodernism in an intriguing doubleness so that rhetoric would be the anchor from which doubling strategies of postmodernism have been revealing and disrevealing. Yeats's poetry and poetics reveal such aspects of both modernism and postmodernism, just like his symbol or emblem of gyres, although the nature of postmodernism turns out to be extensive post-isms. However, my contention in the paper is that the Yeatsian transnational poetics in terms of the "transdiscursive position" of the Other will provide the lenses for rereading the modern and contemporary poetic texts as well as the topographical fluid intermappings of the poetic globe. By taking William Butler Yeats's poetics and poetry as an initiating analysis, the untranslability across the East/West divide will be left open by the space of the Other which "is something strange to me, although it is at the heart of me." The center of the subject is outside, therefore, ex-centric in the discourse of the Other. I would argue that the locus for this untranslability to be crossed over in terms of the “in-between” or “intersticies” is represented by cross-cultural/transcultural or transnational poetries in English. When translating from one language to another linguistically or culturally, there are often multiple meanings for a particular word, sentences, a poem, or a series of poems, the meanings which have been blocked in the contact zone or border zone of transnationalism to be transgressed, transmigrated, transported, and translated. Louise Bennet's poetry is one example of this transnational poetry.



Druidism and Symbolism as Dramatic Principles in Yeats's Plays

Shin, Won-Kyung

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제34권 2010.12 pp.233-255

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Mysticism was Yeats's lifelong concern and became the center of his work. He believed that mysticism can explain the truth of death, rebirth, the cycle of the universe. By founding his playwriting principles on mysticism, he revived Druidic belief, which had been formed mostly from Irish legends, lore, Celtic mysteries, his reading on Druidism ever since early childhood in Sligo. Yeats thought that a poet must be a mystic and that symbolism is the mystic's aptitude. To treat mystical themes, he needed to make things remote from reality by using symbols, but because of symbolic and mystical content some critics insist he founded his drama based on Noh plays. Even though he thought Noh is an ideal form of drama, it does not mean his drama is an extension of Noh plays. Symbols and the supernatural content were his solid principles long before he saw Noh plays. Furthermore, the similar themes in both Noh plays and Yeats's are something he had already learned from Celtic mysticism. The Shadowy Waters is an extremely mysterious story showing visionary experiences of Druidic otherworldliness. In this play, Forgael is following certain birds which are the souls of the dead in search of love. The ghost lovers in The Dreaming of the Bones have been dreaming of fulfilling their love since they died seven hundred years ago, but they can not achieve their dream because of the sin committed during life. This connotes something about Yeats's belief in purgation. He believed the dead have to live anew until the purgation is finished. He shows the same belief in Purgatory, where the dead can not free themselves from purgation due to the consequences of transgressions. In all of the three plays Yeats demonstrates Druidic doctrine that the dead exist and dream in the eternal cycle of birth.



A Discourse on The Waste Land and "The Second Coming" from the Perspective on the Coming Days

Shin, HyunHo

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제34권 2010.12 pp.257-274

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The purpose of this paper is to survey the perspective of the coming days of those two poets, Yeats and Eliot, comparing "The Second Coming" and The Waste Land. Both Yeats's "Second Coming" and Eliot's The Waste Land present a renewal process, but each one focuses on different goals and subjects; Eliot on a particular person's transformation, whereas Yeats predicts a switch of the entire world as a result of an escalation of chaos. And while Yeats attempts to present a definite picture of what he believes will happen at the time of this renovation, as a human being, lack of foresight leaves him to conclude with nothing more than an unanswerable question. Eliot, on the other hand, uses ambiguity to support and develop his theme: death is the way to rebirth. But for Eliot this rebirth, which must be necessarily obscure and extremely perplexing to the newly-born. In contrast, Yeats maintains a pessimistic tone created by his futility on the bleak situation. Though the two poets see the present similarly, their religious differences cause them to view the future differently, consequently Eliot's The Waste Land has a much more hopeful theme than Yeats's "The Second Coming."



The Supernatural Elements as Metaphors of Life in W. B. Yeats's Purgatory and Haruki Murakami's Kafka on the Shore

Rhee, Young Suck

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제34권 2010.12 pp.275-293

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Yeats and Murakami are writers who believe in spirits. They both treat them as if they are real. Yeats's Purgotory is a story of Father and Son, Father killing his own son to disrupt the cycle of Life that is tainted, whereas Kafka on the Shore is a story of Mother and Son, Mother causing all the tragedies in Kafka's father, sister, and himself. Kafka's mother is a person of Memory that stays constant, which is the origin of all the tragedies, and refuses to flow with time; and Son intervenes in her Fate, changing her and himself. The leitmotif of the novel is the Oedipus complex. In the meantime, Purgatory is a practice of Yeats's religious system of Life and humanity. In the play, the two kinds of people are illustrated by Father and Son; Father can see the invisible, ghosts, but Son cannot. The play is based on the conception of souls being born again and again in endless cycles. To disrupt it Father kills his own Son, as he had killed his own Father. It is beyond the moral of the world, killing his own son, following his own belief. Both works could be read as a metaphor of life. One relies on psychology, and the other relies on mythology. Murakami may have read Yeats, and Yeats might be interested in Murakami if he lived and read him. Murakami is in a position to deal with this kind of subtle subject in a subtle way, because he is a writer of the East well versed in the West. In the same way, Yeats was in a unique position, who was familiar with things eastern. Hence, their works manifest strong inclinations toward mysterious milieu, most prominently what is supernatural.


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