Earticle

Home

한국 예이츠 저널 [The Yeats Journal of Korea]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
    학술지
  • 발행기관
    한국예이츠학회 [The Yeats Society of Korea]
  • ISSN
    1226-4946
  • 간기
    연3회
  • 수록기간
    1991~2018
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 821.9
제31권 (12건)
No
1

다이아스포라적 글쓰기와 신화 오독하기

강민건

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제31권 2009.06 pp.5-24

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

Motivated with thinking of a new literary theory so called diaspora, the purpose of this paper is to explore Heaney’s postcolonial writing as he misreads the myth in decolonized Ireland. The relationship between the decolonial discourse and diasporic theory is riding on a current issue in writings. I assume that a growing interest among readers reflects this prevailing term for his work. His writing method and idea owe more to diasporic attitude in the respect that he subverts the established Irish myth. Heaney have been witnessed historical moments of Irish reality so he broke the fabricating historical myth. Heaney explored the traditional literature in Ireland, characterized by the effects of the experience of colonization and a sense of intellectual and spiritual deprivation. By way of this historical experience of authentic decolonization of his mother land, Heaney's writing became, more and more, politicized against the crisis which the repressive force of imperialism caused to occur. Under this traumatic disasters of Ireland, Heaney’s poetic quest makes him the practical struggle against the colonial power in a poetic way. And he creates a new decolonial place. It could be said that the poet attitude like that is diasporic writing as a new writing one.

5,500원

2

예이츠 시의 번역에 대하여

김상무

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제31권 2009.06 pp.25-56

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

The purpose of this paper is to assess the current state of W. B. Yeats’s poems in Korean translation. My examination includes nearly all of the Korean translations of the quoted verse lines of Yeats’s poems appearing in The Yeats Journal of Korea between 2006 and 2008, and parts of translations of Yeats’s works published as separate volumes by the Yeats Society of Korea since 2003. Although so far three generations of scholars have actively engaged in Yeats studies and translation of his works since 1945 when academic research on the poet began in Korea, the translation endeavours by the second and third generation scholars have not yielded satisfactory results and that the senior group of scholars cannot shirk its responsibility.The problem areas in the translations include choice of words and phrases, tense adjustment, versification and punctuation as well as scene description and poetic imagining. Following a detailed discussion of inappropriate and awkward translations, I offer my own translation for comparison if need be.

7,300원

3

예이츠의 연옥(Purgatory): 고딕 재현과 반(反)영웅주의

박미정

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제31권 2009.06 pp.55-77

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

Purgatory includes as its main themes Yeats’s feeling of crisis and anxiety as an Anglo-Irish who was alienated from the Irish society, his skeptical view of the modern Ireland which was seeking after materialism and his predilection for eugenic thought. In Purgatory, Yeats reveals those representative themes of his later writing using the conventions of Gothic: for instance, the supernatural modes such as the transgression of the ancestors, whose tragic result affects the present, the ruined house, wild landscape, and the ghosts, the theme of ‘life in death’ and ‘the death in life’, the opposition of nature and culture and the Freudian psychological characteristics such as ‘the return of the repressed’ and ‘the uncanny.’ This paper aims to analyse how Yeats borrows and modifies those traditional Gothic conventions to convey his themes in a more effective and impressive way and to finally argue that Yeats came to be skeptical about the heroic theme and its representation. Yeats places the old man as a narrator who speaks for his thoughts, but at the same time he puts him as an unreliable narrator and shows us his limitation. Here arises irony, through which Yeats reconsiders his heroic theme that he has insisted throughout his lifetime. Through the old man’s failure to save his mother from her repeated pain of purgatory and his consequent helplessness, Yeats reveals the anti-heroic theme.

6,000원

4

예이츠의 후기시에 나타난 언어의 외연적 한계성과 내포적 무한성

박수정

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제31권 2009.06 pp.79-97

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

Symbolism is central in Yeats’s work. His symbols can be thought of as many sided crystals, which “grow from solutions of traditions, from the dissolved thoughts of many minds”(Henn 146). They are the context of meaning, allowing for multiple interpretations and variations within themselves. Yeats believes the perceived difference between the language of poetry and that of ordinary speech to be arbitrary, arguing, “we should write out our thoughts in as nearly as possible the language we thought them in.” After 1900 Yeats’s style changed radically as he worked toward simplicity, reducing the use of adjectives, and aiming for a harmony of metaphor, symbol, and diction more natural, vigorous, and sincere. The most complex facet of Yeats’s poetry is perhaps its linguistic subtlety and nondiscursiveness. He does not tell the reader what to think, but aims to evoke emotion or feelings through particularly resonant imagery. This article aims to argue that symbols in Yeats are not fixed at an unique point, but ubiquitous at any point, and therefore are infinite. The first part of the article examines, in the process of proving infinity in symbol, picturesque images in later poems, which are analyzed from the point of view of Benjamin’s language theory. The second part addresses the argument that Yeats intends to reveal, through picturesque images, not material objects but emotion and feelings, or the mental life via images. The last part argues that symbols in Yeats’s poetry are infinite, as reflects the infinitude of language as his medium.

5,400원

5

예이츠와 히니의 향토성

신원철

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제31권 2009.06 pp.99-120

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

At the year Yeats died(1939) Heaney was born. It seems to say a meaningful relationship of the two poets who had achieved a great poetic success at the early and later 20th century. Yeats’ poems are full of folk tales and heroes of old Ireland to inspire their rational pride. Heaney also tried to take poetic themes from Irish local nature. The lake of Yeats and the bog of Heaney are good examples of their localism. In Yeats’ poems, the lake is a symbol of his love for the native and a kind of spiritual home where young Yeats fell in deep imagination of fairy stories. But Yeats did not try to express his homeland in realistic style. For Heaney, the bog is a good symbol which tells the tragic Irish history and people. Its hardening crusts on the surface look like those of bruises of tragic history of Ireland. The deep sinking bog is also telling the poor Irish lives. In his “The death of a Naturalist” and “Private Helicon” we can feel his typical localism. In “Digging” and “Follower” we can read the love for his family. Comparing these two poets we can conclude that Yeats is rather dreamy and Heaney realistic.

5,800원

6

정치적인 작가로서의 레이디 그레고리

안임수

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제31권 2009.06 pp.121-149

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

Lady Gregory is best known as a central figure of the Irish Literary Movement and the founder of the Abbey Theatre along with W. B. Yeats, John Millington Synge, George Moore, and Sean O’Casey. Her secondary contribution to the Irish Literature must be that she had discovered Yeat’s genius when nobody paid serious attention and supported him with every possible environments so that Yeats could cultivate and exert his genius without wasting his genius in other tribial matters. It is a wonder that Lady Gregory herself was a playwright and she had produced 35 plays in her lifetime. As is generally known to the public, her genius was overshadowed by a far greater poet and playwrights Yeats. Of course, she had no idea and desire to be a playwright, but her writing was initiated by collaborating with Yeats. In “The Rising of the Moon”, ‘Man’ persuades the sergeant who were originally to seize the Man to be helping his escape through reminding the days when all the Irish people were under Granuille’s leadership. At last the sergeant even betrays fellow policeman X and B and become co-criminal by strongly ordering them to go away from him. The “Man” who might be a wandering poet consistently reminds the sergeant of the good old days when all Irish people were single-minded holding the same ideal-to be perfectly free from British rule. In “The Shadow of the Glen”, Nora leaves home following a stranger, Tramp. Literally, she was expelled by her husband, Dan but, frankly speaking, she actively leaves home for a new and better life. Here Dan represents an old and stubborn British rule while “to search for a new life following Tramp represents a new Ireland, a free and hopeful Ireland.” Nora has the same name with Nora in Henrick Ibsen’s “Doll’s House”. Like Nora of “Doll’s House”, Nora in “In the Shadow of Glen”, ventures her life for the sake of an independent, free, and hopeful life. In “Cathleen Ni Hoolihan”, Michael is rushes out of the house to join the French to fight against the British army following the voice calling outside. Peter, Bridget, Patrick & Delia could not hear the old woman’s voice while Michael clearly hears her & bolts out as if led by ghost not hearing Delia's appeal to wait for their marriage. In Michael’s eye, the old woman looked like a queen and Michael followed her as if the Queen’s people follow the queen quite naturally. Lady Gregory has been often referred to as ‘a queen’ in that she had a strong leadership like a queen and she had a special power to make people succumb to her will.In Gregory’s plays it is often represented that she consciously stirs patriotism in people’s mind. And especially in three of her plays, “The Rising of the Moon”, “In the Shadow of the Glen”, and “Cathleen Ni Hoolihan”, it is so transparent that Lady Gregory intentionally drives the reader to wake their patriotism up and continue to fight against British rule by helping the man to escape, by giving Nora courage to follow Tramp, and by making Michael to join the French following the voice of an old woman leaving his bride-to-be Delia. In most cases, It seems to be nothing but patriotism that drives Gregory to write plays. In this sense, Gregory could be labelled as an political or an activist writer.

6,900원

7

워즈워스와 초기 예이츠: 자아와 나르시시즘의 역설

윤일환

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제31권 2009.06 pp.151-169

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

Analysis of how texts’ rhetorical strategies endanger or sustain the narcissistic structure of the self is an important approach in recent deconstruction criticism. This criticism carries out a challenge to the analogy between the mind and nature that is to establish a coherent image of the mind and the self. By taking Wordsworth’s the Prelude and a few poems in the earliest Yeats, this essay focuses more centrally on threats to the self and the possibility of self-representation posed by the process of representation itself. In Book IV of The Prelude, the dynamic of passion and memory operates through the image of self-knowledge as a ‘reflection.’ The motion from past to present is a totalization of the self by means of metonymical substitution: the mere eye that looks into the water receives a whole image. But as the word hang, deeps, and gleam suggest, the motion is not necessary to lead to a totality of the self. Passion and prop of affection is always already involved in the self-reflection, preventing it from closing upon itself. The complex dynamic of passion and memory thus is inimical to self-representation. The Blessed Babe passage in Book II is also governed by the figure of passage, present here in the word passion as a sort of originary movement. The self-recognition of the poet is structured as crossing between past and present relations. Here substitution occurs as a transformation of the negation of the mother into a positive gain of nature. But the phrase ‘unknown cause’ and the reference to a ‘trouble’ imply the disruption of the passage from the maternal props to natural properties. The dominant mood of Yeats's earliest poetry is one of narcissistic self-contemplation. The poet in the mood does not contemplate a thing in nature but the working of his own mind. The outside world is used as a pretext and a mirror for self-representation. In “The Song of the Happy Shepherd,” the shell is not sheer nature, impressing itself upon a passively receptive consciousness, but the subjective dream of a human imagination. In spite of the apparent replacement of all the substance of the object by its reflection, however, the image of the shell remains altogether conditioned by the existence of this object. The reflection can be left to exist as a mere phantom of the self without substantial existence of nature. The failure is made explicit in “The Sad Shepherd” where the same shell shatters his song into confusion. Yeats is well aware of this paradox. In order to escape from this narcissistic predicament, for example, he uses the image of a parrot in “The Indian to His Love” who rages “at his own image in the enamelled sea.”

5,400원

8

W. B. 예이츠 시에 나타난 동물의 상징성 연구

조미나

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제31권 2009.06 pp.171-207

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

As a symbolist, Yeats used many symbols in his collected poetry. Therefore, if you do not know what the symbols in Yeats's poetry are, you cannot understand the hidden meanings in Yeats’s mystic and prophetic poetry. One of the significant symbols of Yeats’s early Rose poetry is the Immortal Rose as the Divine Feminine, Daughter Sophia in Christian Gnosticism. Yeats not only emphasized the feminine principle as a symbol of the Immortal Rose but emphasized the role of the masculine principle with various symbols. Especially, in Stories of the Red Hanrahan, Red Hanrahan symbolized as the role of the masculine principle, searching for the Immortal Rose, Echtge through his lifetime. Therefore, Red Hanrahan is identified with Yeats's self-portrait as well as a symbol of the Arthurian Knight, searching for the Holy Grail as the Divine Feminine. After the symbol of the Immortal Rose in his early poetry, Yeats continued to display the symbol of the feminine principle with various animal symbols such as a hare, cat, colt, and lion.Yeats alluded that the Immortal Rose was suffering on the rood of time during the last 2000 years period of the androcentric age. The meeting of the hare and the hunters represents the balance of the masculine and the feminine principles as the New Age comes. The hare is identified with a dying lady in “Upon a Dying Lady” as a hidden savior, suffering in the world. However, the death does not represent a real death but symbolized as the recovery of Sophia's glory and power. As Red Harahan’s anti-self, the fool dreamed the meeting with the hare and the hunters and hounds. The meeting is a paradoxical symbol for Yeats to hide his mystic poetry from the world until the right time comes. Yeats believed that at last his beloved, the Immortal Rose would awaken from a deep sleep and open his prophetic poetry in the last generation of the masculine Trinity age. A cat also represents the wisdom and dignity of the Daughter Sophia in the world. It is contrast with the symbol of the hare, symbolized as a sacrifice and sufferings of Daughter Sophia. Therefore, the symbols of the cat and the hare are related to two aspects of the feminine principle: proud and sad Rose. Yeats asked all sages in the last generation as a symbol of hunters and hounds to search for the hare, the Immortal Rose in the world. Yeats also prophesied that the last reincarnation of the Immortal Rose, would come from the East as the cat crawls into the Buddha represented Asian religion. Therefore, Yeats emphasized all sages to turn to the East, representing “Meru” and “Buddha” to find the last reincarnation of the Immortal Rose. The cat image also developed the symbol of the lion. The Daughter Sophia symbolized as a cat would awaken and recover her glory and power as showed the Sphinx in “The Second Coming.” As the 2000 years period of the androcentric gyre is gone, the Immortal Rose will have her characters such as Jane and the fierce young woman, who severely criticizes the bishop and she was angry at the persecutors during the androcentric age. Yeats showed the symbols of the Divine Feminine such as Sphinx, Buddha and a girl but they are One. It is related to the three aspects of the Immortal Rose such as red, proud, and sad Rose. She is in the world as showed "a plummet-measured face." Mathematics is a symbol of material not supernatural. Yeats prophesied the hunters, the chosen men to search for the Immortal Rose, the hare when the right time comes. The Sphinx’s “Empty eye ball” may be related to the “cold eye” symbolized as disdain and breaking the imperfect world as the great Judge in the Last Great Judgment Day. The colt symbolizes as the sufferings of the Immortal Rose like a hare. However, Yeats prophesied that the colt also would be released by the suppress from the masculine Trinity age. At the end of the androcentric age, the masculine principle would be united with the feminine principle as the symbol of the dead hare meets hunters and hounds in “Hound Voice.” The meeting of the hare and the hounds represents the Immortal Rose meet with the sages to prepare for the New Age. Therefore, the various animals and hunting in Yeats's poetry are paradoxical symbols to show the achievement of “Unity of Being” and the New Age.

8,100원

9

역사적 변화와 폭력: 예이츠의 「레다와 백조」(“Leda and the Swan”)에 대한 이해

허현숙

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제31권 2009.06 pp.209-225

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

Yeats began his career as a poet elaborating the Celtic legends and stories about the life and politics of the Irish people: Irishness was a source of his poetic inspiration. Later he moved to formulations that complicated his own attitudes toward his contemporary politics in Ireland and caused misunderstanding of his works among his readers. Because he emphasized violence embodied in the struggles of political conflicts and historical events. For Yeats, history steps to another stage with violence. In other words, he focused on the violent moment in historical events. In describing the process or movement of memorable event in history he distances himself and keeps his views or judgments on it with ambivalent words. He does not support for or oppose to the only one side in the political event, to show his interest in the significances of the moments. Thus he is far from the passionate politics in his contemporary Ireland. Rather he sees the violence as a power to change in history, as his poem "Leda and the Swan" shows. In the myth of Leda and Zeus he reads the destructive act of rape on Leda by Zeus within the frame of destruction of the nation-state. And Yeats focuses on Leda's tragic experience with powerful and violent Zeus as an event toward the violent and tragic history afterwards. In short, he shows the violence as one committed to change in the history of a state.

5,100원

10

Yeats and Renoir, and Impressionism

Rhee, Young Suck

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제31권 2009.06 pp.227-246

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

The paper compares Yeats and Renoir. In his Autobiography, Yeats mentions Manet and Monet in passing, but by the time he received his Nobel Prize for literature, he has formed a clear idea of French impressionism and knows painters, such as Monet. Though Yeats has never touched on Renoir, he is very much like him, sharing the same poetics of art: the heavenly vision of the world, and puts it into practice in his works, such as “The Lake Isle of Innisfree.” which is the main focus of my study in this paper. Then I try to establish a link with Renoir. Like Yeats, he regards art as an expression of heavenly vision, turning his landscapes into Heaven on earth; his nudes into a unionizing of nature and man. It is the poetics of Unity of Being in Yeats's term. Renoir in his later life suffers from severe physical pain, being wheelchair-bound because of his rheumatism. Despite his personal hardship, Renoir never wavers and aims to transform the worldly into the heavenly. His painting is, thus, a manifestation of his beautiful vision of the landscapes of the other world he will live in.

5,500원

11

Digging Memory of the Dead in Field Work, The Haw Lantern & Seeing Things

Hong, Sung Sook

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제31권 2009.06 pp.249-266

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

Seamus Heaney is one of the representative writers who wrote many poems in memory of the dead people and memory is Heaney’s principle muse. Through rereading the selected poems for the dead, I could find out that Seamus Heaney used the different genres as memory art for the dead: some pastoral elegies of Field Work, a series of sonnets of The Haw Lantern and some free verses of Seeing Things containing the method of pastiche and incantation. Pastoral elegy is a funeral song or a lament for the dead with some convention: Although, Seamus Heaney following this convention, “The Strand at Lough Beg” and “Casualty” show some digression. And sonnet means “little songs” of fourteen lines that follow a strict rhyme scheme and specific structure with the theme of love. However, Heaney’s sonnets also show some transformation in line and rhyme. And the word pastiche means either a “hodge-podge” or imitation of several original works. Heaney’s some memory poems of Seeing Things apply some method of incantation which transforms keepsakes into the spiritual ones with the method of pastiche. What I came to the end from this study is that when Heaney commemorated victims of Ulster Trouble, he used somewhat artificial genre of pastoral elegy. However, for the memory of his dead mother, he used the sonnet genre of lyric mode which can contain praise and love of the dead. To our interest, he used free verse with pastiche and incantation to express love for his dead father and the late Philip Larkin. In short, he can be evaluated as a craftsman, memory digger and occulter.

5,200원

12

한국예이츠학회 최근 학술활동 현황 외

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제31권 2009.06 pp.267-292

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

6,400원

 
페이지 저장