한국 예이츠 저널 [The Yeats Journal of Korea]

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  • 자료유형
  • 발행기관
    한국예이츠학회 [The Yeats Society of Korea]
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  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
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    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 821.9
제25권 (10건)

탈식민적 사유를 위한 생태주의적 글읽기: 세이머스 히니의「비의 선물」(“Gifts of Rain”) 분석


한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제25권 2006.06 pp.5-22

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The essay attempts to rethink the widely acknowledged notion that the ecologial writing is a minium writing weapon to tackle the European writing and limit of modernity. Most of the intellectuals paying attention to decolonial theory have arrived in limited ideas about the recent decolonialism. As a result, the recent debates on decolonialism have been deployed under the assumptions that the so-called "troika of decolonial theory" advocated by Frentz Fanon, Edward Said, and Homi Bhabha. From the point of view, the essay thus purports to demonstrates that the unfamiliar theory ecology and ecological writing is widely helping to overcome the limit of established decolonial wiriting and interpretation of text. To do this, from a ecological viewpoint, the essay attempts to re-read the irish text and Irish decolonial poet Seamus Heaney's poem "Gifts of Rain," who was awarded a Nobel Prize for Literature in 1996.Heaney concentrates primarily on the origin and mother land of the conflict in "Gifts of Rain" through elegiac poems celebrating the identity, history, territory and tongue of his irish people. But his imagination and attitude of writing is based on not just a decolonial method and idea but a ecological preoccupation on his "Mother Land." He looks forward to finding out integrated moments in his land beyond the political, religious, and topological separations. From the viewpoint of the ecological attitude, he finally enters into the deterritorial region against its dichotomous and counter-discursive tendency in decolonialism. Roughly speaking, some say that this new writing and epistemological method is just a utopian thought, but his ecological writing suggests that this is the most effective and creative means of making a new writing code and poetics moving from silent spectator to speaking actor/actress in the world.



예이츠 초기 명상시의 배경과 특성


한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제25권 2006.06 pp.23-37

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This paper discusses the meditative backgrounds and their characteristics in the early poems of W. B. Yeats Chapter II discusses the characteristics of the Theosophical Society which seeks Anima Mundi, Golden Dawn which makes the experiment to evoke the daimon, and the style of the early poems which shows the course of investigation of the self. Chapter III discusses the mysterious vitality of place in Sligo which mixes up the various culture and evokes nostalgia. Throughout his career Yeats uses meditation to apply the core of his poetic material and a profound technique in composition. His meditation combines poetry into an individual's sense, emotion, and the ability of knowledge to purify the soul. He achieves meditation which reaches immediate unity through the delicate ritual of meditation during ecstasy. Yeats didn't come to the maturity of meditative poetry which completes the meditative style as we compare his early poems with his later work. But he creates a place as the basic structure of meditation, perceives it through meditation, establishes it as the principle of meditation which integrates the Universe and the Natural. And he smoothly explores the movement of thought. He also integrates the perception of human spirit into the perception of the natural world. In conclusion the meditation which Yeats had searched for in his poetry creates a self, perceives the supernatural being, and integrates the supernatural and the natural into his inner life. So he completes perfect meditative poems.



「다시 찾은 시립 미술관」과 예이츠의 에피태프(Epitaph)


한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제25권 2006.06 pp.39-59

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Recalling images from the past is one of Yeats's favorite poetic activities, especially in his old age. Many of his later poems are created on the basis of this technique, providing considerable information on his contemporary characters, events and other factors. In a sense, this kind of versification appears to mythify prominent historic figures in turbulent modern Irish history. In the poem "Municipal Gallery Revisited", Yeats sees his poetic personae as 'permanent or impermanent images', but ironically, they will be remembered permanently because of this work. They will also illuminate individual and national history dealt with in the poetic stanzas. Yeats's creative strategy is to enumerate a series of intense scenes that are worth remembering. To grasp a specific image in a particular moment is intended to reveal an absolute feature of a given character or a historical as well as cultural event. Through their own images, these people depicted in the poem are turned into symbolic characters. Greatness is impressed with a single scene and genuine perpetuity is uncovered with an instant reflection. In other words, a briefly described image is not just a section randomly isolated from a particular person's life. Rather, the image implicitly sums up and typically project an individual's complex personality in the poem, and in turn, on the reader's mind. The poet-narrator walks through the gallery, appreciating the portraits and other paintings on display and opens up his own creative world. Political characters in the beginning, then Hugh Lane and other Gregory people as a cultural stepping stone and finally the portraits of John Synge and Lady Gregory appear in sequence through the poetic work. Such a climactic approach stresses what the poet has in his own mind. Artistic ideals and literary colleagues who shared them with the poet are remembered and in the end, he himself go beyond the grave and sees his own self as an image already dead in an elegiac imagination. What he wants to record in a literary epitaph is gradually expressed along the long gallery of the museum. Eventually, the scenes composing this verse create a visionary gallery to light up the poet's real self.



Anima Mundi and Young Yeats’s Friends

Kim, Joo seong

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제25권 2006.06 pp.61-88

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Soul of the World (or Anima Mundi) is the key to our grasp of Yeats as a writer in the Hermetic tradition and that it underlies his whole sense of artistic tradition, I affirm that the right to primacy in any consideration of Yeats's major concept belongs to Anima Mundi. Through his vital, lifelong rapport with this Great Mind and Memory, Yeats communed with universal tradition. His desire to make the rapport a group effort, dependent upon collaborators, reinforced the notions of community and unity in multiplicity. Yeats believed that reality is discovered in the soul. For him, the Great Soul was a wellspring of imaginative art, a means by which Nature herself became intelligible. In this study, Yeats's theory of the World Soul, addressing occult, metaphysical, and literary antecedents of his belief, especially the way of his building of concept of "Anima Mundi" in his early life and experiences are surveyed. Yeats has a very keen interest in mysterious strange things in his early life, and he meets many influential friends who could help him build his theory of the World Soul in Dublin and London.



예이츠의 『아일랜드 요정담과 민담』에 나타난 아일랜드 요정의 세계


한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제25권 2006.06 pp.89-118

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This study is on Irish Fairies in Fairy and Folk Tales in Ireland with a foreword by Kathleen Raine edited by Yeats for Korean readers. Nowadays many Korean editions about celtic culture were published after 2000. Fairy and Folk Tales in Ireland is the first American edition by Colin Smythe Limited in 1973. This volume contains Fairy and Folk Tales of Irish Peasantry, first published in 1888, and Irish Fairy Tales, first published in 1892. In this volume Yeats divided Irish Fairies into two great classes: the sociable and solitary and described the characteristics of each fairies, and then collected 8 fairy poems and 16 stories. Every poem and story in this volume is very interesting to me. Yeats is the best selector. The sociable fairies who go about in troops, and quarrel, and make love, much as men and women do, are divided into land fairies and water faires or Merrows(mermaid, merman). The solitary fairies who are nearly all gloomy and terrible in some way. However there are some among them who have light hearts and brave attire. There are the Lepracaun, the Cluricaun, the Far Darrig, the Pooka, the Dullahan, the Banshee. In Irish folk-lore Yeats had come across these fairies many others undiscovered.He had thanks to Patrick Kennedy, Miss Maclintock, Lady Wilde, Mr. Douglas Hyde. Mr. Allingham, Fergusson, and Miss O'Leary. He quoted from their works. His role is a vital linker in a chain of truly apostolic transmission of traditional lore. Evans-Wentz dedicated his first remarkable anthropological work, The Fairy Faith in Celtic Countries(1911) to Yeats and G. Russell(A.E). According to Kathleen Raine, Yeats's own interest in the "Matter of Faerie" was two fold. In part, certainly, it was a literary admiration for the highly formalized art of story-telling, and perhaps for the Irish use of the English language, those idiomatic turns of phase which arise from translation, by Gaelic-speakers, from one language to the other. Yeats who believed in Fairy-Faith to perpetuated in popular form mysterious taught by the Druids see, like A. E and Evans-Wentz, in Tir-na-N'Og, the land of the Sidhe, Ploto's and Plotinus' "yonder" when our souls descend and where they return. They also thought the Fairy-Faith belong to a doctrine of souls. In the Irish fairy poems and stories there are great beliefs in fairies. But Irish people remember the word, 'Be careful, and do not seek too much about fairies.'



희생 제의와 내밀한 질서로의 비전 -W. B. 예이츠와 죠르주 바타이유


한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제25권 2006.06 pp.119-141

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William Butler Yeats in his poetry consistently and repeatedly alludes to an ancient sacrificial ritual and the imitations of ritual techniques through words and rhythms. For him, the ritual enacts an inner vision of permanent beauty and harmony and enables us to participate in the transcendental experience of a rite. It is a kind of fundamental glue in the society for the maintenance of social structure; through the sacrifice of the victims are social bonds created and individuals joined. We may get a new meaning of the ritual sacrifice if read in Georges Bataille's perspective. While classical economic thought emphasized the need for an efficient utilization of resources to fight the ravages of the scarcity of economic resources, Bataille analyzes economic history in terms of the expenditure of excess energy and production. It is within this general economic context that Bataille begins an explication of the expenditure which first of all fundamentally is related to the sacrificial ritual. Symbolically, the victim, the one who offers the sacrifice, and its participants are all seen as removed from the demands of utility and consequently as possibly a sovereign subject. An immense symbolic tie was created between the victim of the sacrifice and those for whom the victim was a substitute. They enter the realm of the sacred, of the free subject who is not subordinated to the demands of useful production. Sacrifice is the means of dissolution, of ceasing to be separate individuals caused by the demands of utility. Like Bataille, Yeats often clearly sees and evokes the effects of sacrifice to ensure symbolize the transcendental vision of whole beyond ordinary experience or expression. He inclines to consider the sacrificial ritual as the ultimate act of transcendence over the anarchy of world, civil, and personal conflict. In "Two Songs From a Play," it is revealed that the ritual is fed by the "resinous heart" of man, who enacts his awareness of death and his yearning for rebirth in his identification with the risen god. In the second section of "Vacillation," Yeats also presents a ritual ceremony in which "Attis' image" is hung between the two parts, uniting death with eternal life, assuring immortality. He who performs this rite "May know not what he knows but knows not grief." In "Parnell's Funeral," where he associates the dead Parnell with an ancient god, Yeats evokes the rite to exalt the hero only to exposes the extremity of the need for godlike qualities and the impossibility of fulfilling this need in a barbaric time. It does not allow for the kind of expression of personal power and subjecthood found in the sacrifice.



예이츠의 심미적 변화


한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제25권 2006.06 pp.143-159

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Yeats uses aesthetic beauty as a way of presenting his major theme from “The Song of the Happy Shepherd” to “Under Ben Bulben.” However, he changes his point of views from 3rd person’s objective view to 1st person's subjective one to strengthen spiritual mystery of beautiful aestheticism. After all, poetic aestheticism is spiritual and personal beyond materialistic and superficial description. Although most his aesthetic vision comes from nature, nature is beyond human codes. Yeats’s “The Wild Swans at Coole” deals with his spiritual aestheticism through interaction of nature and human spirituality in that the poem integrates two opposing and antithetical elements into “mysterious, beautiful” being. Yeats’s spiritual aestheticism revitalizes the significance of his poetic vision which unites divinity and humanity through integration of human beauty and divine beauty in “Leda and the Swan.” Yeats also integrates history and vision together to recreate poetic aestheticism in that both serve to activate dynamic fusion through aesthetical interaction.In his early poems, Yeats utilizes unusual integration of nature and human life. Then, he moves into hierarchical antithesis of natural and spiritual beings. Sometimes, he uses reality and imagination to strengthen his spiritual aestheticism. Also, Yeats explores possibility of the fusion with aesthetic art and sensual life, humanity and divinity. Therefore, in his early poems Yeats frequently uses aesthetic description as a destination of human life by using definite nouns, but in his later poems he rather uses adjective more to strengthen human life as a process of journey. In conclusion, Yeats deliberately reinforces the significance of his spiritual aestheticism through dynamic and organic interaction of multidimensional views, nature, myths, faiths, and human codes.



Irish Catholicism in poetries of Yeats and Heaney

Hong, Sungsook

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제25권 2006.06 pp.161-178

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Republic of Ireland is called a 'saint's country' since more than 90% of population believe in Catholicism. The Irish Catholicism had a great influence on the Irish society and culture by offering the hierarchical order to Irish people's way of life. And also, Catholicism had been a symbol of nationalism and played the role to confirm a sense of national identity. It is also true that since Free State Ireland, Catholicism with the word 'Gaelic' has contributed to making the national identity or 'racy Irish atmosphere'. However, the Irish Church of the 20th century was dedicated neither to spirituality nor the intellectual enhancement of the faith, but to material and social advantage. At the first stage of his writing, Yeats tries to consider Irish Catholicism as holy, combining it with mysticism of theosophy. And also he uses it to strengthen nationalism. However, Catholicism of that time, unlike what Yeats thought, sticks to the practical line, which makes Yeats criticize its materialistic ends. Meanwhile, talking about Heaney, although he accepts its values of contributing to the communal union and he himself is a serious devotee to pilgrimage going to Lough Derg or Station Ireland. Heaney feels at ease because of Catholic's fanaticism and oppression imposed on individuals. The final conclusion of this paper is that although these two poets, Yeats and Heaney, accept that Irish Catholicism has contributed to inspiration of the national patriotism and promoted the modernization of independent Ireland, they criticizes that Irish Catholicism is lacking its artistic spirituality and that it is a trap from which artists are to escape.



예이츠의 「젊었을 때와 늙었을 때의 한 남성」에서의 갈등


한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제25권 2006.06 pp.179-195

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This article explores Yeats's “A Man Young and Old”. This series poems described conflict between a man and a woman. According to Yeats's theory of the art, people are in a perpetual conflict of opposites. Opposition determines the cycle pattern of life and ensures recursive waves of love and hate as men and women struggle toward personal collective Unity of Being. Such conflict evokes differences between person and daimon, and also between men and women. These parallel conditions suggest an analogy: man relates to his daimon as to a woman. Later, Yeats conceives the daimon not only as a woman bur as a gendered being in her own right. Gender provides a crucial key to Yeats's art, because gender is imprinted upon all temporal and spiritual reality. It is employed not only as a subject in his poetry, but as the means of fleshing out his philosophy and clothing his personal experience in a universal and comprehensible metaphor. Gender determines the way Yeats's views reality. In “A Man Young and Old”, Yeats describes a type of personality that is consummately objective-primary-solar-masculine according to his vision of archetypal phases. Although that personality is consistent throughout the sequence, there are stages of experience and insight that shift from youth through maturity to old age, as the title signifies. This personality attempts to make sense of his life through the gendered relationships that are at once the source of his lost innocence and the anchors of experience from which he gleans hard-earned insight. If there is one word that characterizes the man's perspective, it is adversarial.



한국예이츠학회 최근 학술활동 현황 외

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제25권 2006.06 pp.197-217

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