한국 예이츠 저널 [The Yeats Journal of Korea]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
  • 발행기관
    한국예이츠학회 [The Yeats Society of Korea]
  • ISSN
  • 간기
  • 수록기간
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 821.9
제7권 (14건)



In Light of The "Wave" Poetics : Yeats, Shelley, Milton, and e e cummings

Young Suck Rhee

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제7권 1997.12 pp.5-16

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Daniel Albright는 현대 과학의 이론에 근거하여 새로운 시학을 제안한다. 현대 물리학의 particle 과 wave의 이론에서 두 가지의 시론을 정립한다. 하나를 the poetics of particle model이라 하여, Pound, 등의 image을 시의 구성 원리로 삼는 시를 여기에 분류한다. 다른 하나는 the poetics of wave model이라 부르고, 여기에는 Yeats, Eliot, 등이 속하는 것으로 보았다. Albright의 wave poetics는 시의 전체를 보려는 시도이며, 반면에 particle poetics는 시의 부분을 이해함으로 시의 의미를 알 수 있다는 차이를 부여하고 있다. 비록 Yeats는 wave poetics에 속하는 것으로 보이나, Albright 자신도 인정하듯이, 평생을 두고 Yeats는 시의 각 부분 부분 (image, poetic form, diction, mood, mental construct, passion and feeling, etc)에 세심한 정성을 쏟았다. 그리고, 실제로, 그의 최상의 시들은 Albright의 이분법에서 벗어나고 있다. 그러나, Albright의 이론은 짜임새나 적용 성에 있어 뛰어난 면이 있다. 이 이론적 model에 비추어 좀더 많은 시인들의 시를 비교, 분석해 볼 가치가 있는 것으로 판단된다. 본 논문은, Albright가 High Modernist의 시만을 대상으로 그의 wave 시학을 설명하고 있으나, 동일한 이론으로 Renaissance (Milton)와 Romanticism (Shelley)의 시도 설명될 수 있으며, 더나가, 우리 시대의 시 (e e cummings)도 잘 읽혀질 수 있음을 보여준다.



Nietzsche and Yeats : Deconstructing A Vision

Youngmin Kim

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제7권 1997.12 pp.17-33

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비평가들은 예이츠의 󰡔비젼󰡕 제4권, “고대인의 위대한 해”에 예이츠 자신이 니체의 수사학을 이용하여 자신의 중요한 담론으로 구성하고 있다는 점을 간과하고 있다. 해롤드 블룸도 이 책을 횡설수설이라고 일축하고 있다. 블룸은 니체가 “영원회기설”에 필요한 영웅주의를 주장하고 있고 또한 예이츠가 영원회기로부터의 구원이 불가능하다는 니체의 원칙을 수용하고 있다는 점을 정확히 잘 지적하고 있지만, 구체적으로 분석하여 설명하지는 못하고 있다. 따라서 예이츠가 니체적인 구조해체적인 수사학을 수용하고 있는 그 이면의 의도를 블품은 파악하지 못하고 있는것이다. 헬렌 벤들러는 제 4권의 두가지 중요한 관심사를 “위대한 해(영원회기)”와 “그리스도 대 시저”(반)라고 보고 있으며, 니체적인 수사학적 문맥을 간과하고 있다. 본 논문은 니체의 “영원회기설”을 설명하고 예이츠가 니체의 아이러니를 전용한 의도성을 파악하여 예이츠와 니체의 연결에 필요한 시도를 해본다.



Yeats 초기시에 대한 재평가의 문제 : 여성적 화자의 의미와 평가


한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제7권 1997.12 pp.35-49

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In order to appreciate Yeatsian poetics it is important to consider the fact that Yeats poses his own self with masks, which are represented as his poetic persona in his poetry. It is also necessary to consider that the majority of traditional Yeatsian critics have different opinions about the differences between Yeats's early and later poetry. To a larger extent, Yeatsian criticism has argued that Yeats's early poetry diffuses some index of femininity -- ornament, detail, dreaming atmosphere, and so on and lacks reality, intellect, 'masculine,' and 'salt.' And many of the critics frequently condemn it as bad poetry on the basis of the argument that it is full of feminine profusion that obscures the reality. From the traditional viewpoints, however, his poetic persona give some insights into a certain way of appreciating his early poetry. First of all, Yeats's female persona in his early poetry belongs in the literary current at the end of the 19th century. In this perspective the persona and the characters in his works of this period have some common features in pursuit of an imaginary world, such as an uncivilized, primitive or mythic world. The pursuit of the imaginary world of male characters in Yeats's early poetry parallels the real and active female persona. Most of the female persona in Yeats's early poetry have consistent and real perspectives on their reality, and are firmly founded on their world. Nashina in The Island of Statues and Niamh in The Wandering of Oisin are very active and have firm purposes. By contrast, the male characters, such as Colin, Thernot, Almintor, and Oisin, hesitate for their love and are ‘enwound' inactively by their counter-characters. The other point to consider in order to appreciate Yeats's early poetry is his treatment of female beauty. Traditional love poems deal with female beauty as a thing that passes away like any other thing in this world, and in a threatening tone argue that it should be used at its prime times. In Yeats's love poems, however, female beauty is presented as a power to fascinate and urge men to act. The attitude of these female persona and characters in his early poetry develops and makes ‘Crazy Jane' character possible in his later poetry.





“A Prayer for My Daughter”에 나타난 이상적인 여인상


한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제7권 1997.12 pp.65-79

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It might seem quite strange to look for the image of an ideal woman in “A Prayer for my Daughter”. But Yeats would have wanted his daughter to lead such an ideal life, regardless of the circumstances in which she was placed, for Europe at that time was on the verge of war. And so we can easily surmise her future image would be that of an ideal woman. Though we are likely to misunderstand that Maud Gonne was the ideal beautiful woman, the image which appears in the poem is not certainly that of Maud Gonne. She appears to be a woman whose life was ruined as a result of her outward appearance. Therefore, the poet prays for his daughter to be beautiful, but not too beautiful to distraught stranger’s eye or too beautiful to become proud of her beauty in appearance itself. Yeats emphasizes a good and kind heart. He found an example of that in Olivia Shakespear. She seldom appears in Yeats’s poetry or prose, but in some letters we can find she played an important role in Yeats’s life. After her death, Yeats wrote to Dorothy Wellesley that she had been the centre of his life in London for more than forty years. During those many years they enjoyed a close friendship. Yeats’s wife, George Hyde Lees, was a good wife and it is very hard to think of Yeats’s later poetry without her. After his marriage, he felt that he was satisfied and at peace, for his wife was considerate and self-sacrificing. The good and kind heart of both his wife and Olivia Shakespear has become an indispensable factor for his depiction of this image of an ideal woman. Yeats believed Lady Gregory was like his mother, friend, sister and brother. She became to Yeats an ideal aristocratic image. The poet explains her state in terms of a linnet, the Horn of Plenty and a hidden laurel tree, which mean kindness, wealth and custom respectively. Even though his daughter has an aristocratic attitude, she will lead a comfortable life, for she has a generous spirit which originated from ceremony and custom. In conclusion, we can say that Yeats developed this image of an ideal woman from the persons he knew well. He desires that his daughter has somewhat less beauty than Maud Gonne, such sincere and good heart as his wife and Olivia Shakespear, and the wealthy and generous spirit of Lady Gregory. He has certainly produced a “Unity of Being” in this poem.



Yeats와 Shelley


한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제7권 1997.12 pp.81-105

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The aim of this study is to analyze Yeats’s first essay on Shelley, “The Philosophy of Shelley’s Poetry” and Shelley’s impact on Yeats. The essay was divided into two sections, “His Ruling Ideas” and “His Ruling Symbols.” In “His Ruling Ideas,” Yeats pays his attention to Shelley’s Intellectual Beauty which is the perception of beauty in thought and things. He began to write three early works on the search for love - The Seeker, The Island of Statues, and Mosada. In the nineties, particularly in The Rose poems, his study of Shelley impelled him toward an Intellectual vision of life in which he rejected the flawed world for an ideal vision of Intellectual Beauty. Later Yeats was to regret finding only Intellectual Beauty . He then reversed Shelley’s quest, and searched not to find the ideal, but to rediscover the actual. But when Yeats wrote the essay, he could not realize Shelley’s full gifts as a poet. In “His Ruling Symbols,” Yeats writes about the symbols of Shelley’s cave, river, tower, the Morning and Evening star, and Sun and Moon. The symbols of Shelley occur together and represent the ideal world which Yeats also wanted to achieve in the present world. In “The Gyres,” “Under Ben Bulben,” “The Phases of the Moon,” “The Tower,” “Blood and the Moon,” and “A Dialogue of Self and Soul” have verbal echoes of, or allusions to the Shelleyan passages that Yeats quotes. The relation between Shelley and Yeats deepens our appreciation of Yeats’ work. “Shelley,” he wrote, “shaped my life.”



Byron의 작품 연구 - “Don Juan”을 중심으로 ; Byron과 Yeats의 비교 -


한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제7권 1997.12 pp.107-130

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This paper aims to survey in brief Byron and his characteristic features by scrutinizing “Don Juan,” his masterpiece which causes him to be more generally esteemed for the satirical realism. It is true that his name has become a symbol for the deepest romantic melancholy on the one hand and for the aspirations of political liberalism on the other. Byron himself lived a life of freedom, violence, dissipation as a great demonstrator of his own thoughts, while trying to show the European discontents and hopes of that time. In “Don Juan” especially he was concerned with the same disparity between the real and the ideal, but in the main he shows it in its comic, or at least sardonic, aspects. Finally, this paper suggests the possibility of linking Byron, who stands in contrast to Shelley, to W.B. Yeats. It seems that there are many parallels between the two poets. Like Byron, the later Yeats strongly despises the hypocritical aspects of politics, religion, and moral. Throughout his life, Yeats was deeply involved with mysticism, or Oriental philosophy. And also, though Byron and Yeats are different in composing poems - Byron rarely corrects what he has written down while Yeats hardly leaves what he wrote uncorrected, as Yeats was a kind of perfectionist poet - the poems, as final products, by both poets do not seem very different. Both of their poetry flow like water.



예이츠의 후기시에 나타난 Universalism


한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제7권 1997.12 pp.131-156

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This article touches upon Yeats’s relationship to the spiritual traditions of the world in the 1930's. During this period when he was immersed in Eastern, especially Indian philosophies, Yeats affirmed his desire to pursue the marriage of East and West for political and psychological reasons. An analysis of the poems from A Full Moon in March (1935) reveals that Yeats believes that the idea of the East-West marriage works as an antidote to the persistent political problems of Ireland -- the battle between Catholics and Protestants -- which again haunted Ireland after de Valera became the president of Ireland in 1932. Yeats’s Supernatural Songs is a testimony to his ideal of wholeness which he expresses through his pernona-hermit Ribh. Yeats’s attempt to reconcile the conflicting forces of East and West (evolved from Catholics and Protestants) reflects the poet’s Romantic ideals so that the East and the West (the colonized and the colonizer) co-exist harmoniously by discarding one’s own weaknesses and accepting the other’s merits. His life-long efforts to pursue the political unity of his country and the world also show his practical character in that he is always thinking about the possibility of maximizing the potential of each component of a group. We, however, also see that Yeats is not completely free from his Protestant prejudice even when he strongly urges the unity between two opposing political parties by making a subtle connection between a religious hermit and Parnell. It is no wonder that Supernatural Songs also has poems which express Yeats’s skepticism about the possibility of conveying the idea of oneness to the everyday world, as well as his resistance to the mystical concept of oneness.



“The Wanderings of Oisin”에서의 Pre-Raphaelitism의 역할


한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제7권 1997.12 pp.157-167

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Yeats wrote “The Wanderings of Oisin” with devotion. He spent a lot of time on the poem. It is about the Irish literary revival and is with a lot of Irish elements. In here he wanted to deal with fundamental human conditions, connecting Irish myths with the present. For he believed that human nature remains the same, unaffected by the passage of time. “The Wanderings of Oisin” is deeply involved with symbolic and Pre-Raphaelite elements. Particularly, the early Pre-Raphaelite Yeats applied the various aspects of Pre-Raphaelitism to this work, in which human emotions are fitly imbued with the mood of Pre-Raphaelite paintings. The allusion of light and darkness represented in Pre- Raphaelite paintings has the poetic implication. Eventually, Yeats strove to connect the mood of “The Wanderings of Oisin” with Pre-Raphaelite characters. Such an attempt of his seems to be very successful, making a new, vital poem.



‘His Dark Past to the Sun’: Myth and Masks in Yeats’s Early Poetry

Lee, Yoo Hyeok

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제7권 1997.12 pp.169-197

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본 논문에서 필자는 예이츠의 초기시에 나타난 신화를 가면으로 보고, 그가 왜 초기시에서 신화의 인물들을 자신의 가면으로 사용하는지를 라깡의 ‘구술치료’를 원용하여 밝혀 보고자 하였다. 본 논문에서는 특히 아일랜드 신화가 투영된 시들을 분석하였다. 예이츠의 신화 사용에서 주목할 점은 그가 신화를 변용하였다는 것이다. 이것은 곧 시인이 신화를 변용함으로써 자신의 어떤 의도를 거기에 투영하였다는 것이다. 초기시에 나오는 신화의 인물들은 세 부류로 나뉘어진다: Fergus and King Goll, Aengus and Oisin, and Cuchulain. 퍼거스와 골왕의 신화는 젊은 시인의 시적 추구의 한 모습을 나타내며, 앵거스와 어신의 신화는 모드 곤과의 사랑의 드라마를 투영한 것이며, 쿠훌린은 시인이 바라는 이상적인 영웅상을 그린 것이다. 예이츠는 이러한 신화의 이야기를 통해 현실에서 바라지만 쉽게 이룰 수 없는 욕망들을 투영하고자 한 것이다. ‘Unity of being’은 예이츠가 평생동안 추구한 화두이다. 초기시에 나타난 신화의 인물들도 모두 이 주제로 통합될 수 있다. 시인은 이상적인 자아와 실제의 자아 사이에서 끊임없이 갈등하였다. 식민지 조국에 대한 갈등, 이루어지지 않는 사랑에 대한 갈등을 겪어야 했다. 현실에서의 좌절을 극복하고 결핍을 채우기 위해 시인이 택한 것은 가면이었다. 이를 통해 시인은 자신의 바라는 바를 충족할 수 있었을 것이다. 그러나 시인이 바라는 가면을 쓴다고 할지라도, 실제의 자아와 이상적인 자아와의 틈은 영원히 채워질 수 없다. 끊임없이 다다르려고 할 뿐 쉽게 이를 수 없는 예이츠의 장미와 같다. 그러나 이러한 욕망과 결핍의 드라마 또는 비극성이 시인에게는 오히려 창조의 힘이 된다. 그렇기에 시인이 택하는 가면은 완전한 해결책은 아니었을지라도, 최선의 해결책인 것이다. 그런 의미에서 예이츠의 초기시에 등장하는 가면들은 보다 나은 reality 또는 unity of being에 이르고자 하는 시인의 시적 추구의 도구인 것이다.



Yeats 와 Shelley : Rose 와 Intellectual Beauty


한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제7권 1997.12 pp.199-217

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A new movement, a desire for a new world, emerged all over Europe when the French Revolution broke out in 1789. In England which had suffered from structural contradictions, such as suppression of social system, political conservatism, and excessively rationalism, the intellectuals regarded this movement as the wave of freedom and hope, and expected impetuously a new world to come soon. With a response to this new spirit many writers had expressed their freedom and ideal in poems. Also, Shelley(1792-1822) participated actively in the wave of freedom. Especially, in “Hymn to Intellectual Beauty” (1816) he describes very much a free and ideal world. In the poem, he describes his freedom and ideal as “intellectual beauty.” In the late 19th century, Ireland which had wanted ardently independence from England fell into political disorder. Yeats (1865-1939) wanted his country to become an ideal society, and so began to lead the Ireland’s Renaissance. He was influenced by Romanticism and Pre-Raphaelitism, and seemed to tend to describe an ideal land with such motifs as Irish myths, legends and symbols like rose, which represents his ideal land. Both Shelley and Yeats tried to describe their ideal world in their poems. In “Hymn to Intellectual Beauty” Shelley describes his ideal world as the world filled with illusory lights of intellectual beauty, whereas Yeats describes his world as a world of “eternal beauty” in “To the Rose upon the Rood of Time”. Thus, in this paper, I intend to compare Shelley’s intellectual beauty with Yeats’s eternal beauty and the relationship of a poet to actuality and to God in their poems.





Book Review


한국예이츠학회 회칙 외

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제7권 1997.12 pp.233-242

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